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TABLE OF CONTENTS. ^ 

( See Addresses, Biographical Notes, Letters and Poems at Page vi to viii hereof.) 



PAGE 

INTEODUCTION, ........ xi 

JOURNALS OF OFFICERS, - 1-3 12 

Barton, William, Lieut., Gen. Maxwell's N. J. Brigade, 3 

Beatty, Erkuries, Lieutenant, 4th Pennsylvania Reg't, 15 

(i). Expedition to Onondaga, April, 1779, - 16 

(2). General Sullivan's Expedition, - jg ' 

I 

Blake, Thomas, Lieutenant, ist New Hampshire Reg't, 38 

Burrowes, John, Major, Spencer's sth N. J. Regiment, 42 

Campfield, Dr. Jabez, Surgeon, Spencer's 5th N. J. Reg't, 52" 

Dearborn, Henry, Lt. Col., commanding 3rd N. H. Rtg't, 62 

Elmer, Dr. Ebenezer, Surgeon, 2nd N. J. Regiment, . 80 : 

Fellows, Moses, Sergeant, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment, 86 

Fogg, Jeremiah, Major, 2nd New Hampshire Regiment, 92 

-f 1 

GooKiN, Daniel, Ensign, 2nd New Hampshire Regiment, 102 

Grant, George, Sergeant Major, 3rd N. J. Regiment, 107 

Grant, Thomas, of Surveyor's party, - - 137 

Hardenbergh, John L., Lieut., 2nd N. Y. Regiment, 

With Notes and Maps of Battle-Fields, by General John S. Clark, uc 

HuBLEY, Adam, Lieut. Col., commanding nth Pa. Reg't, 145 

Jenkins, John, Pa., Lieutenant and Guide, - • 168 

LivERMORE, Daniel, Captain, 3rd N. H. Regiment, 178 
Machin, Thos., Capt., Col. Lamb's 2d N. Y. Art'ly Reg't, 

(i). Col. Van Schaick's Expedition against the Onondagas, iq2 

(2). Table of Distances of March of General Sullivan's Army, igj. 

Roster of Officers of ist N. Y. Regiment, - - 195 

McKendry, Wm., Lt. and Qr. Master, 6th Mass. Reg't, 198 

Nukerck, Chas.,.Capt. Lieutenant, 2nd N. Y. Regiment, 213 



ii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

JOURNALS OP OFFICERS.— Continued. 

NoRRis, James, Major, 3rd N. H. Regiment, 223 

Roberts, Thomas, Sergeant, 5th New Jersey Regiment, 240 

Rogers, Rev. William, D. D.,. Chaplain, Hand's Brigade, 246 

Rogers, William, Qr. Master's Serg't, 2nd N. Y. Reg't, 266 

Shute, Samuel, Lieutenant, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 267 

Van Hovenburgh, Rudolphus, Lieut., 4th N. Y. Reg't, 275 

Webb, Nathaniel, Serg't Major, 2nd N. Y. Regiment, 285 

MAP AND LETTER OF CAPTAIN WILLIAM GRAY, 
Survey of Colonel William Butler's line of march, Oct. 2 to 

Nov. 16, 1778, 288 

MAPS IN THE DE WITT COLLECTION, 

List of MSS. Surveys by Captain Gray, 1778, and Lieu- 
tenant Benjamin Lodge, of the Sullivan Expedition, 
made 1779, by order of Robert Erskine, Geographer 
"^^.^^^^ to the American Army, now in the Library of the New 

York Historical Society entitled DeWitt Maps, 291 

J-etterli of General John S. Clark, describing the same 
jfrith an account of fac similes made by him for. this 
publication, 29^ 

Simeon DeWitt, appointment as Geographer to the army, 

in place of Robert Erskine, deceased, 294 

MAJOR GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN'S Final Official 

Report of Expedition, 296 

COLONEL DANIEL BRODHEAD'S Official Report, 

Allegany Expedition, - - .,06 

LIST OF JOURNALS, no copies of whicli are now to be found. 3 1 o 

Letter of Major Adam Hoops, (3rd A. D. C. to Gen- 
eral Sullivan), Sept. 18, 1841, ,10 

LIST OF NARRATIVES, written since the Sullivan Expe- 
dition, 



ROSTER OF OFFICERS, inMaj. Gen. Sullivan's Expedition, 
by Hon. Charles P. Greenough, Boston, Mass. 



312 



31, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS. 



HTSTORICAL ADDRESS, by Rev David Cbaft, 331-388 

Comprising a full history of the Expedition against the 
Indians in 1779, to which is prefixed a Biographical 
Sketch of Major General John Sullivan, ^^^ 

APPENDIX TO ADDRESS, 

Containing an account of the loss of men, towns destroyed, 
also General Washington's instructions to General Sul- 
livan, and Biographical Sketches, - - 380 



Clinton, James, Brigadier General, Biographical Sketch, 387 



ELMIRA. 



CELEBRATION AT NEWTOWN, 389-477 

NEWTOWN MONUMENT ASSOCIATION, 391 

Centennial Committees and Officers, 301 

The Monument — Inscription on Tablet, 303 

Dedication of Monument — Masonic Ceremonies, 304 

Masonic Ode by Hon. A S. Thursto.v, ■ - ^gQ 

Masonic Historical Address by C. N. Shipman. Esq., ^g-i 

PUBLIC CELEBRATION. 

Opening Address by Judge Hiram Gray, 400 

Verses of Welcome by Ausburn Towner, Esq., 400 

Poem by Hon. Guv H. McMaster, - 402 

Address by Hon. Erastus Brooks, 410 

Letter from Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour, 423 
Address by Hon. Ellis H. Roberts, 

" " General William T. Sherman, 

" General H. W. Slocum, 

" " Hon. George W. Clinton, 443 

" Hon. E. L. Dana, Wilkesbarre, Pa.,- 445 

" " Governor H. M. Hoyt, of Pennsylvania, 449 

" " Governor Nat. Head, New Hampshire, 450 

" " Hon. Steuben Jenkins, 451 

" " Major Douglass Campbell, 4C7 



425 
439> 44° 
442 



iv TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PUBLIC CELEBEATION.— Continued. 

Biographical Sketch of Gen. John Sullivan by Hon, Sylvester 

Dana, N. H., 471 

General Sullivan's Official Report of Battle of Newtown, 473 

Names of Persons Responding to Invitations, 477 



Biographical Sketch of Col. Peter Gansevoort, 479 



SENECA COUNTY. 

CELEBRATION AT WATERLOO. 481-53S 

History of, - 483 

Committees and Officers, 485 

The Log Cabin, 487 

Patrons of Husbandry — Veteran Soldiers, - - 488 

Exploring Expedition, - 489 

Decorations on Centennial Day, 490 

The Outpouring of the Masses, - 493 

Procession and Order of March, - 495 

EXERCISES AT THE FAIR GROUND, 

Address of Welcome by Jno. Reamer, Pres't of the Village, 498 

" " General Josiah T. Miller, Pres't of the Day, 499 

" " Ex-Lieac. Gov. William Dorsheimer, - 501 

Poem " Rev. Dwight Williams, - - 506 

Letters from invited Guests : 

Jeptha R. Simms, - . - ... 571 

W. C. Watson, - - - 512 

M. M. Jones, - - . - 5^3 

Names of others responding to invitations, - - - 514 

THE COLLATION. 

Responses to Sentiments and Toasts, - - - 515 

Remarks by D. B. Lum, . . 518 

" " Rev. D. Willers, D. D. - - - 519 

SKOI-YASIl MONUMENT. 

History, Description and Dedication of, - - 489, 520 

Address by Hon. A. L. Childs, - .... 522 

" Judge B. F. Hall, 523 



TABLE OF CONTENTS v 

SKOI-YASE MONUMENT. 

Fire- Works and Illuminations, - - - - 5^4 

Reception in the Evening, - - - - 525 

Veterans and Pioneer Settlers, - - - - 

Young Ladies in .the Procession, — Grangers Represented, 525 

Military at Celebration, - - 527 

Historical Paper by S. R. Welles, M. D., 528 



Biographical Sketch of Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt. 537 



LIVINGSTON COUNTY. 

CELEBRATION AT GBNESEO, - S39-563 

History of Preliminary Arrangements, - 541 

Committees and Officers, - 543 

Decorations and Processions, - 544 

EXERCISES AT FAIR GROUNDS, - 548 

Introductory Address by Norman Seymour, 548 

Poem by Hon. A. L. Childs, - - 549 

Address by Hon. Wm. H. BoGART, - - - 552 

" General A. S. Diven, ... 553 

" " G. W. Patterson, .... ^gg 



Removal of the Remains of Boyd and Parker, 

By Geo. H. Harris, .... 5^5 



CAYUGA COUNTY. 

CELEBRATION AT AURORA, ■ 565-579 

Decorations of the Village, - - 567 

The Procession, 568 

EXERCISES AT THE " OLD FOUNDATION,' - 568 

Remarks by Col. E. B. Morgan, - * - 568 

" " Rev. W. S. Franklin, - - 569 

EXERCISES AT ACADEMY HALL, - 569 

Letter from Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour, - 570 

Letters from D. M. Osborne and others, - 571 

Address by Rev. Charles Hawley. D. D., 571 

" " Hon. Wm. H. Bogart, - - 578 

The Illumination — Notes, - - 579 



i TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

ADDRESSES, BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, LETTERS 

AND POEMS. 



ADDRESSES AT CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS. 

BoGART, Hon. Wm. H. - 552, 570 

Brooks, Hon. Erastus 410 

Campbell, Maj. Douglass - - 457 

Childs, Hon. Albert L. - 522 

Clinton, Hon. Geo. W. - 443 

Craft, Rev. David - - 336 

Dana, Hon. E. L. - 445 

Dana, Hon. Sylvester - 471 

DivEN, Gen. Alex S. . . ■ . 552 

Dorsheimer, Hon. Wm. - - 501 

Franklin, Rev. VV. S. - - - 569 

Gray, Hon. Hiram - - 400 

Hall, Hon. Benj. F. 523 

Hawley, Rev. Dr. Charles ... . . 571 

Head, Hon. N 450 

HoYT, Hon. Henry M. 449 

Jenkins, Hon. Steuben 451 

LuM, David B. 518 

Miller, Hon. Josiah T 499 

Morgan, Col. E. B 568 

Patterson, Hon. Geo. W. ..;... 555 

Reamer, John ... 498 

Roberts, Hon. Ellis H. . .... 425 

Seward, Hon. Wm. H. 563 

Seymour, Norman 548 

Sherman, Gen. Wm. T. ...... 439, 440 

Shipman, Chauncey N . . 307 

Slocum, Gen. Henry W. . . .... 442 

Van Campen, Maj. Moses . . . . 561 

Welles, Hon. Samuel R. . . . . 528 

Willers, Rev. Dr. Diedrich . . . rig 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



vi: 



BIOGRA.PHI0AL SKETCHES AND NOTES, 



Beatty, Lieutenant Erkuries 

Blake, Lieutenant Thomas 

Boyd, Lieutenant Thomas 

Brodhead, Colonel Daniel 

Burrowes, Major John 

Butler, Colonel William 

Cilley, Colonel Joseph 

Clinton, Brigadier General James 

CuMMiNGs, Captain John N. 

Dayton, Colonel Elias 

Dearborn, Lieutenant Colonel Henry 

Dubois^ Colonel Lewis ... 

Evans, Rev. Israel - - - - 

Fish, Major Nicholas 

Fogg, Major Jeremiah 

Franklin, Captain John 

Gang, Rev. John . . . 

Gansevoort, Colonel Peter 

GooKiN, Ensign Daniel 

Hand, Brigadier General Edward 

Hardenbergh, Lieutenant John L. 

Harper, Colonel John 

Hartley, Colonel Thomas 

Hubley, Lieutenant Colonel Adam 

Hunter, Rev. Andrew 

Jenkins, Lieutenant John 

Kirkland, Rev. Samuel - . » 

Livermore, Captain Daniel 

Machin, Captain Thomas 

McKendry, Lieutenant William 

Maxwell, Brigadier General William 

Montour, Catherine 

Nukerck, Captain Charles 

Poor, Brigadier General Enoch 

Proctor, Colonel Thomas 

Queen Esther 



IS 
38 

369 

306 

42 

373 
348 
387 
350 
363 
62 

384 

346 

383 

92 

35° 
3^5 
479 
102 

342 

IIS 

386 

339 
145 
346 
168 

38s 
178 
194 
198 
341 

363 
213 

341 
342 
35° 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

BIOGEAPHICAL SKETCHES AND NOTES.— Continued. 

Reid, Colonel George - 360 

Rogers, Rev. William D. D., ... - 246 

Scott, Major William - - - 373 

Shreve, Colonel Israel - - 378 

Shute, Lieutenant Samuel - - - 267 

Simpson, Captain Michael - - - - 37 1 

Spalding, Captain Simon - - - 377 

Sullivan, Major General John - 333, 446, 471 

VanCortlandt, Colonel Philip - - - 537 

Van Schaick, Colonel Goose - 196 

Van Hovenburgh, Lieutenant Rudolphus - 275 

Weissenfels, Lieutenant Colonel Frederick - - 384 

Willers, Rev. Diedrich, D. D., .... ^jq 

Willett, Lieutenant Colonel Marinus - - - J96 



LETTERS. . 

Brodhead, Col. Daniel . . . . . 306 

Clark, Gen. J. S 293 

Gansevoort, Col. Peter 372 

Hoops, Maj. Adam , .,,,.. 310 

Jones, Maj. Morven M 513 

Osborne, Hon. D. M. . . , ... 571 

Schuyler, Gen. Philip 372 

Seymour, Hon. Horatio 423, 570 

SiMMS, Jeptha R. 511 

Sullivan, Gen. John 296, 473 

Washington, Gen. Geo. . . . j . . 341, 382 
Watson, Hon. Winslow C 512 

POEMS AT CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS. 

Childs, Hon. Albert L. 549 

McMaster, Hon. Guy H. 402 

Thurston, Hon. Ariel S . . . . . . 396 

Towner, Ausburn , , . . ... 400 

Williams, Rev. Dwight .... . 509 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



STEEL PLATE BNGEAVINGS. 

Maj. Gen. John Sullivan, from a portrait by Otis, Frontispiece 
Brigadier General James Clinton, Page 387 

Colonel Peter Gansevoort, from a portrait by G. Stuart, " 479 
Colonel Philip Yan Cortlandt, from a minature, " 537 

MAPS AND PLANS. 

(IN POCKET OF COVER) 

Route of the Western Army under General Sullivan in 1779. 
^. 1. From Easton over the mountains to Wyoming, 

2. From Sunbury to Nanticoke Creek, 

3. From Nanticoke Creek to Chemung, 

- 4. From Chemung to Kanadesaga including Seneca and Cay- 
uga Lakes and Col. Butler's route along, the eaet shore of 
Cayuga Lake, 
0. From Kanadesaga to the Genesee Castle. 

(BOUND OH FEINTED IN BOOK.) 

Draft of a part of Schoharie and the west bank of the Delaware, 

with CoL Wm. Butler's line of march, Oct, and Nov., 

1778. Page 288 

General Sullivan's Order of March, " 66 

" " " " Battle, - " 67 

Map of Battlefield of Newtown, - - " 127 

" " Groveland Ambuscade, ■ •' 131 

Map of Tioga, ( now Athens), Pa., - " 580 



INTRODUCTION, 



State of New York, ) 

Office of Secretary of State. )- 

Albany, March 10, 1887. ) 

The Legislature of this State, at its annual session in 1885, passed an 
act, (Chapter 361, Laws of 1885,) devolving, certain duties jipon the 
Secretary of State, to-wit : 

" Section i. All the journals extant kept by, the officers and soldiers, of General Sul- 
livan's army during the campaign of seveiiteen hundred and seventy-nine, against the Six 
Nations, shall be collected and published under the direction and supervision of the Sec- 
retary of State, embracing records of the battle of Newtown, as celebrated on the battle 
ground, on the twenty-ninth day of August, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine, including 
the address of General William T. Sherman, made at the dedication of a monument 
completed on the battle-field, to the memory of the heroic dead ; also the centen,nial cele- 
bration held at Waterloo, New York, September third ; at Geneseo, September sixteenth, 
and at Aurora, September twenty-fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine. 

§ 2. The Secretary of State shall cause to be prepared and published a full and cor- 
rect record of the proceedings of said centennial celebrations, including the official action 
of the authorities under whose direction the same were conducted, with a record of the 
military exercises and organizations of those who took part therein, and the historical 
sketches and addresses prepared and delivered at the centennial celebrations, herein 
named. 

§ 3. Five thousand copies of the papers prepared and published as' aforesaid, shall be 
printed, of which ten copies shall be furnished and distributed by the Secretary of State, 
to each Senator and Member of Assembly of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-five ; 
ten copies shall in like manner be furnished and distiributed to each Senator and Member 
of Assembly of the year eighteen hundred and eighty-six, who was not a Member of the 
Legislature of eighteen hundred and eighty-five, and ten copies shall also in like maimer, 
be furnished and distributed to each Member of Assembly for eighteen huiidred and 
eighty-seven who was not a Member of the Legislature of eighteen hundred and eighty- 
five or eighteen hundred and eighty-six^ and the remainder of said copies'shall be dis- 
tributed as follows : To the Secretary of State for distribution to the several incorpora'ed 
historical societies and incorporated libraries of the State, to the persbhs who made 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

addresses at such centennial celebrations aforesaid, or to persons ofEcially connected there- 
with, and to such other persons or institutions as he may deem proper, one thousand 
copies, and the residue of said copies to be delivered by the Secretary of State to the 
Regents of the University for exchanges, and for distribution to public libraries or socie- 
ties outside of this State. » * » * 
(As amended by Chapter 54, Laws of 1887.) 

The appropriation made in the fourth section of said act of 1885 hav- 
ing been found inoperative and defective, the Legislature at its annual 
session in 1886 made an appropriation to carry said act into efEect 
(Chapter 330, Laws of 1886, Page 527, Session Laws of 1886.) 

The labor of collecting and preparing for publication the several jour- 
nals and proceedings of the centennial celebrations required to be pub- 
lished by the act of 1885, was one of such magnitude, that the Secretary 
of State deemed it necessary to appoint a competent person to specially 
prepare the compilation for publication. 

Such a compiler was found in the person of George S. Conover, Esq., 
of Geneva, and its former chief magistrate, a gentleman who has devoted 
much study to the early history of this State, and particularly that of 
Central and Western New York and the Sullivan Campaign of 1779, 
and who is a well known authority in Indian Archaeology, as also of the 
history of the locality traversed by General Sullivan in his expedition 
in 1779. 

The plan and methods pursued in collecting and preparing the jour- 
nals and the records of the centennial celebrations for publication, are 
fully set forth in the following letter of Mr. Conover, submitting the 
compilation : 

Geneva, N. Y., December 6, i886. 
Dear Sir ; — 

The work of copying, compiling and preparing for publication "All the journals extant 
kept by the officers and soldiers of General Sullivan's army during the campaign of 1779," 
together with "The record of proceedings of the centennial celebrations thereof," has 
been one of much labor, but withal has been much lightened by the kind encouragement 
received from all quarters. General John S. Clark of Auburn, N. Y., and Rev. David 
Craft of Wyalusing, Pa., who had made copies of nearly all the journals of General Sul- 
livan's Campaign extant, up to the time of the centennial celebrations, kindly placed all 
their material at my disposal and freely gave such information as was of material assistance. 
Similar courtesies were received from the New York Historical Society, the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, the Buffalo Historical Society, the Waterloo Library and Histori. 
cal Society, Charles P. Greenough, Esq., and Thomas C. Amory, Esi^., Boston, Mass., 



INTRODUCnON. xiii 

Sidney S. Rider, Esq., Providence, R. I., William C. Bryant, Esq., Buffalo, N. Y., Hon. 
John B. Linn, Bellefonte, Pa., Geo. H. Harris, Esq., Rochester, N. Y., General 
William S. Stryker, Adjutant General of New Jersey, Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, New 
York city, Hon. Diedrich Willers, Jr., of Varick, N. Y., and others, due acknowledge- 
ments for which have been made in the proper places. 

Great pains have been taken to procure copies of all the journals of the officers and 
soldiers of General Sullivan's army that are extant, and some new ones have been procured 
that have not hitherto been published. In all cases, where possible, the text of the origi- 
nal journal has been literally followed (in orthography, punctuation and use of capitals) 
and much care has been taken to make the copies exact. The propriety of such a course 
may possibly be questioned by some ; but to the antiquarian and the diligent student 
of early history, any alteration of text, (written perhaps in some cases, by men of 
limited education) might involve a serious change of meaning on some point, however 
trifling it may appear at the time, and might be the means of changing the idea originally 
intended to be conveyed, and thus the object of perpetuating a fact or circumstance as 
narrated, would in a great measure be frustrated. While the promiscuous use of capital 
letters and the lack of proper attention to punctuation (one prominent journal not being 
punctuated at all) may tend in some instances to ambiguity or to mislead the casual reader, 
yet it is often the case that some obscure point of history can only be elucidated by a ref- 
erence to the original document, however imperfectly written or quaint it may have been. 
The reader will not overlook the fact, that the keeping of a daily journal while an army 
■ >s upon the march, must at best be surrounded with many difficulties. 

In some cases, the original journals having been destroyed, it has been necessary to 
follow the copy which has been published, and while in such cases the language may be 
found to be more grammatical, it has undoubtedly been made so by the editor. Some of 
the journals so published, are accompanied with foot notes by their editors, and as some 
of these are now known to be erroneous, and others quite likely to mislead, they have all 
been omitted. One exception, however, has been made. The journal of Lieutenant 
John L. Hardenbergh, with small portions of some other journals, published in 1879, 
by the Cayuga County Historical Society, has appended thereto copious foot notes by 
General John S. Clark, and as these were the result of a two years' patient investigation, 
and a personal and critical inspection and examination of all the points, by one thoroughly 
competent for the task, it has been thought best to retain the same in full. 

The addresses, poems, etc., delivered at the several centennials have, wherever practi- 
cable, been submitted to the several authors for revision and correction, and the historical 
addresses of Rev. David Craft have been by him thoroughly revised, consolidated, and 
amplified, and every part carefully verified by the statements made in the journals. 

The matter for the records of proceedings of centennial celebrations held in August 
and September, 1879, and required to be published with the journals, has in each case 
been furnished by responsible local committees, and the only regret is, that in the work of 
compilation, much valuable information of a local character had to be omitted, to bring 
the several accounts under a uniform plan, and to avoid detail which might not be inter- 
esting to the general reader. Yours truly, 

GEORGE S. CONOVER. 

The Secretarjf of State, Albany, N. Y. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

In the preparation of this compilation as will be seen from the fore- 
going letter and the "Table of Contents" — the general plan outlined 
in the act of 1885, has been observed — -and the journals of General 
Sullivan's Expedition to the number of twenty-six, have, with brief 
biographical notes by the compiler, been given the first place. To these 
have been added the official reports of General Sullivan and a complete 
Roster of the officers of the expedition. 

The journals, it will be seen, cover not only General Sullivan's Expe- 
dition but also some account of Col. Van Schaick's Onondaga Campaign 
in the spring of 1779, as also the official report of Col. D. ■ Brodhead's 
Allegany Campaign in the summer of 1779, both of which campaigns 
may be regarded as closely associated with General Sullivan's Expedition. 
The second place in the compilation has been given to the records of 
the centennial celebrations of 1879, at Newtown, (Elmira), "Waterloo, Gen- 
eseo and Aurora, to which has been prefixed an historical address with 
a very full narrative of the campaign by Eev. David Craft and with a 
biographical sketch of General Sullivan. 

The maps showing the entire line of march from Easton, Pa., to Liv- 
ingston County in this State and return, accurately copied by General 
John S. Clark from the- original maps made by the surveyor of the 
expedition, and now remaining ou file with the New York Historical 
Society, together with certain other maps and plans prepared with great 
care by General Clark, and produced upon a reduced scale, will, it is 
believed, add greatly to the interest of the reader of the journals of 
the expedition, and serve as an explanation thereof. 

The illustrations, include steel engravings of Major General John 
Sullivan, the commander of the expedition. Brigadier General James 
Clinton, the only brigade commander selected from the State of New 
York, and Colonel Philip "Van Cortlandt and Colonel Peter Gansevoort, 
the only regimental commanders of New York regiments in the expedi- 
tion of whom portraits could be found, and acknowledgments are due 
to the relatives of all the persons named, for requisite assistance in carry- 
ing out this feature of the work. 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

The Secretary of State, desires to unite also with the compiler, in 
returning thanks to the persons named in his letter and elsewhere in the 
compilation, for kindly co-operation and assistance in the procurement of 
material, and for assistance rendered in the preparation thereof for the 
compilation. 

In conclasion, the Secretary of State takes pleasure, in bearing testi- 
mony to the care, industry and energy displayed by the compiler, Mr. 
Geo. S. Conover, in the preparation of this work. 

FEBDERICK COOK, 

Secretary of State. 



lotttnals 0f Mlxtm. 



Expedition of Major General John Sullivan 
against the Western Indians (N. Y.) 1779. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 



William Babton, Lieutenant in General Maxwell's New Jersey 
Brigade. Journal published in the Proceedings of the New Jersey His- 
torical Society, Vol II, 1846-7. 

The editor states that the journal commences on the 11th May, 1779, 
"but as Lieut Barton passed the greater part of the succeeding three 
weeks on furlough at his own home, there is little recorded in it during 
that period of general interest, and that portion is consequently omitted. 
What follows embraces the remainder part of the manuscript, except 
some unimportant or uninteresting details." From June 8 to October 
9, 1779. 

JOURNAL. 

Tuesday, June 8th, 1779. — Took leave of my friends and set out to join the regiment 
then at Wyoming : arrived at Easton the same evening where I found the second and 
third Jersey Regiments and one company of our Regiment which was left behind to take 
care of the baggage belonging to it, and was the next day to proceed with it on horses to 
Wyoming. 

Wednesday, gth, i p. m. — All set out : went but five miles and staid the night. 

Thursday, loth. — Went to Brinker's Mills where we were detained until late in the 
afternoon on account of drawing provisions, then proceeded within three miles of Lar- 
nards, where myself and L'>octor Harris staid the night. The company with baggage 
before mentioned, went on to Larnards the same night. 

Friday, nth. — Set out very early in prosecution of my journey, thinking to come up 
with those before mentioned at the place they lodged, as it was the last house in Wyoming, 
and thought dangerous travelling without an escort. On our arrival there found they 
were all gone sometime ; we then got breakfast and went on for Wyoming. Overtook the 
Company at Locust Hill, so called on account of being entirely timbered with it for 23 
miles where they had stopped to refresh. We all proceeded on our journey again until 
within six miles of Wyoming where we fell in with a detachment composed of severa, 
regts. which had been cutting a road through from Larnards to Wyoming, as there wasl 
was never any before, only an old Indian path, 

Saturday, 12th. — Went on again for our destined place, and arrived 11 o'clock A. m. : 
found the regiment lying in bush huts on the bank of the river Susquehannah. On our 
way from Larnards to this place, passed through the great swamp which is twenty miles 
in length and fourteen in breadth, the land as far as the swamp cold, and great part 
entirely barren, but the bottom land much the best : it is impossible to cultivate that of 
the swamp before mentioned from the great quantity of stone. Its timber is white pine 
hemlock, and spruce, of amazing size and height. 



4 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

« 

From Easton to Pokono, inhabitants few, buildings mean and mostly of logs. 

Wyoming is situated on the east side of the river Susquehannah, once a considerable 
town but destroyed in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight by the sav- 
ages massacring three hundred men. The town is said to have consisted of 300 houses, 
n)iny of which were frame, but mostly of logs. The inhabitants were from the State of 
Co.inecticut claiming then a right, by a grant from the King of Great Britain to the pro- 
prietor of the same State. The Pennslyvanians also claimed it under Penn ; but the New 
Engl.inders being more numerous than the others have retained it — now said to be referred 
to Cortgress for determination. The land level, but not so good where on the town 
stood, as in many other places adjacent. It is on the eastern branch of the river, sixty-six 
miles above Sunsbury and Shamoken, and one hundred below Tioga, an Indian settlement. 
This branch is an exceeding fine, pretty river, and opposite the town in midsummer five 
or six fathom of water, as clear as it can be ; some places, below and above shoal enough 
to be forded, about one hundred and fifty yards wide ; and in times of great freshets said 
to rise fifteen feet, overflowing great part of the low lands. It springs from the lake, 
Otsago, nine miles long and five wide ; three hundred and sixty miles N. E. from this, 
running about N. W. falling in with the western branch at Sunsbury — The mornings 
and evenings at this place very cool, and notwithstanding heavy fogs till 8 and g o'clock 
in the morning, yet the place is said to be very healthy. 

23d. May — Major General Sullivan arrived with all the troops from Easton in six days. 

24th. — The regiment began a march for Fort Jenkins, thirty-five miles down the river, ■ 
marched to Shawnee Flats four miles, halted and took some little refreshment. Shawnee 
was once an Indian town, since settled by New.Englanders, consisting of one hundred 
houses, but all destroyed in June '78, by the savages, except a few log huts. — The flatts 
are very large, supposed to contain above a thousand acres already clear, which is exceed- 
ing rich and fertile, and the most level body of land I have ever seen. Proceeded that 
night as far as Stewart's house, six miles from Shawnee, where we took lodging for that 
night, it then being sunset. 

25th. — Marched at day break. * * * * ^^ sunset arrived at the fort, 
where we lay that night near the river. * * * * Fort Jenkins is a stock- 
ade, containing about half quarter of an acre, one very good dwelling house, the best 
I have seen since left Easton. The garrison commanded by Capt. Claypole, of Lieut. 
Col. Hubley's Regt., consisting of about one hundred men ; artillery none, excepting 
one cdhorn. The fort situated on a height very pleasant and advantageous. 

26th, 8 A. M. — The boats we were to convoy got under way ; about sixty in number. 
We soon began our march on return to Wyoming ; marched to Naskepack Falls, five 
miles, where we were detained that day and part of the next in getting the boats up the 
falls. 

27th, ID o'clock, A. M. — The boats being all got up with much difficulty, and under 
way, (as the water falls about ten or twelve feet gradually,) we again resumed our 
march ; but on account of some shoals in the river which retarded the boats, we marched 
but a short distance until the afternoon, when we proceeded to a place called Orchard 
Farm, on account of there being a considerable number of fruit trees, and don't recol- 
lect to have seen any since our first day's march from Easton till here — distance nine miles. 

?.^'h. — Marched early in the morning. At Nantecoke Falls, was detained two hours 
in j,etting up the falls, which are very rapid, though small. Marched immediately on, 
the boats getting up to Shawnee, (three miles), where we stayed the night. From 
Wji /ming to Fort Jenkins, a considerable of very good bottom land on the river, but 
'.\e rp-land appears to be barren. After leaving Shawnee, there is not one single 
nhi'bitant to be seen to Fort Jenkins, being killed and driven off by the Indians. 

29th, — morning. — Marched to Wyoming — arrived about 10 A. M. 

30th. — Men were employed in cleaning themselves and arms. 

Jui.Y 1st. — The army attended the execution of Michael Rousburge and Lawrence 
Miller, from Phillipsburg, near Easton, condemned for attempting to convey some sol- 
diers to the enemy. The former was hanged at 4 o'clock P. M., the latter reprieved. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 5 

24th. — The boats arrived from Sunbury with stores, in number about one hundred and 
seventeen. 

25th. — Five prisoners of the German Regiment were to have been executed, and a 
number of others to run the gauntlet through the wliole line but were reprieved. 

2gth. — The masons re-interring two brothers, Capt. Davis and D. Jones, killed by the 
Indians in April last ; the afternoon very rainy, otherwise the appearance would have 
been tolerably grand, as they all marched in order with the band of music playing. This 
day orders issued for marching on the thirty-first. 

31st. — The army marched at 12 o'clock, after signals being given by :i discharge of 
cannon from the fort, which were immediately answered from the boats, which carried 
all the artillery and stores, excepting some kegs of flour, which were carried on horses — 
Gen. Hand having previously advanced about one mile being appointed to the light corps 
on this expedition. The whole proceeded, only our Regiment, which composed the rear 
guard — having in charge stragglers, cattle, etc., which occasioned us to march very slow. 
After a tedious march, came to some cleared fields one mile distant from I.ackawannah, 
then II 1'. M. * * * * 

Auci'ST 1st. — We marched at 8 A. M. one mile. Joined the army at I.ackawannah, 
once a small town settled by New Englauders ; a very rich, flat land, divided by a very 
beautiful creek which empties into the Susquehannah. It is very shoal, but of consider- 
able breadth. The flat is said to contain seven hundred acres, having formerly a small 
stockade fort, which .surrendered to Butler in '78. Most of the captives were preserved 
in consequence of capitulation, but the buildings and fort, according to custom, were all 
destroyed. At 2 v. M. the usual signal was given to march — Proceeded and arrived at 
Quialtimmack about 10 o'clock at night, the path continuing bad, country mountainous — 
distant eight miles. Baggage arrived about I .v. M., when we encamped. 

2d. — We did not march on account of parties being sent out to collect and bring on 
flour, &c., which had fallen from the horses the night before, and broke many of the 
kegs. The land is rich, fertile, and flat as any I have seen ; surrounded by mountains, 
the inhabitants driven off and buildings destroyed. 

3d. — Proceeded to Phillips's farm (9 miles) and halted one hour. Marched again for 
Tunkhannack, fording a creek, one and a half miles before we arrived there, which was 
at four P. M. This place, as usual, is situated on the river ; the few former huts destroy- 
ed ; land as usual, bottom. This place very remarkable for deer, bears, turkeys, several 
of which were taken by the troops without firing a single gun, there being positive orders 
to the contrary ; otherwise might have killed many more during our halt. 

4th. — Arrived at Vanderlip's farm, or Walnut Bottom, about 5 i'. M. Crossed Mashaw 
creek about two miles before we came to the farm above mentioned. The flat very rich, 
timber chiefly black walnut, of uncommon size ; the country round continues mountainous. 

5th. — I being that day ordered on the rear flank, did not march until ten. Was 
obliged to march on the top of the mountains, which rendered the dav's march very fatiguing 
and disagreeable. At 5 o'clock p. .m., came into the path the whole army had marched. 
Soon crossed a very high mountain on the side of the river ; prospect the most beautiful I 
have seen. At 6 p. M., arrived at Wyalucing, formerly settled b\' the Moravians, who 
were obliged to leave it on account of the Indians, (but some say they have joined them) 
who destroyed it in '78. It is the best part of the country I have seen since 1 left Wyom- 
ing. The houses were built regularly, numbering about eight)', with a church, priest, ivc. 
Timber chiefly black walnut, with some button wood trees, which are eight and ten 
feet through. 

6th and 7th. — Continued at Wyalucing to refresh. 

8th. — After marching two miles, forded a considerable creek. Continued our march 
until 3 P. M., when we arrived at Standing Stone Bottom, which is large and level, and 
newly cleared, where we pitched for the night. 

9th. — Arrived at four in the afternoon at a large flat called (^ueen Esther's Flats, once 
an Indian town, but now covered with wild grass of amazing length. This is within four 
miles of Tioga. Out of provision, and very faint for want of it ; the boats which carry 



6 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

it did not arrive until nine or ten o'clock the next morning'; having marched fourteen 
miles with very little to eat. The woods for some distance before we came to this place, 
are chiefly white oak, and very open, grown up with wild pea vines, &c. In this day's 
march we had several cattle killed by falling from a precipice, having about half a mile 
to pass along one of two hundred feet, and the path very bad. At the bottom, luckily, 
was the river ; the boats on coming up had them dressed. 

loth. — The Regiment with two others marched at 12 o'clock as an escort to the Gener- 
als, &c., opposite Tioga. Our Regiment being the right flank, was obliged to raise a 
very high mountain (being very hot, rendered it truly fatiguing) to scour the woods. We 
returned in a short time to our camp, where we remained the night. 

nth. — Marched at 7 A. M., for Tioga. The army at nine began to ford the Susque- 
hannah, having first fired a few cannon in the wood on the other side fearing there might 
be some of the enemy to oppose us crossing the river ; a little more than waist deep, very 
rapid, which made it difficult crossing, the force of the current carrying several down ; 
happily none were drowned. Proceeded after landing about one and a half miles, when 
we came to *Kihuga creek, which we forded, and encamped in the forks formed by the 
Susquehannah and Kihuga, on the ground where the town of Tioga formerly stood. 
Soils very rich, etc. 

I2th. — On fatigue, cutting timber to build block houses. About 6 P. M., was ordered 
to join the Regiment. At night in the evening the army was in motion and began their 
march to surprise fShamong, an Indian town on the river Kihuga. Marched very slowly 
on the whole night, sometimes setting down for a few minutes, and up again eight or ten 
yards until daylight began to appear, when we took a start and were obliged to run a 
great part of the way, on account of its being farther than was apprehended, and our 
Regiment in the rear. Arrived about half past six o'clock A. M. at Shamong and found to 
our mortification the town entirely evacuated. About one hour after our arrival * 
***■**'* Gen. Hand, commanding the light troops was 
fired upon from a scout of theirs who lay concealed in the bushes. They killed six or 
seven and wounded nine ; among the latter were two officers of Hubley's Regiment. Our 
troops immediately returned the fire and charged upon them, but as they lay on a hill, 
they had time to get off their killed ; supposed to be one or two from the blood where 
they were posted. The country from Tioga to .Shamong the most level land I have seen 
marching. On the bottom bordering on the creek, large medows several miles in length, 
rich, fertile, and easy to be cultivated. Its timbers on the low lands, nut and oak ; on 
the highlands chiefly pine ; soil very indifferent. 

Shamong an Indian town lying on the north of the creek, consisting of about thirty 
huts covered with bark. The Indians who inhabit it raise large fields of corn, beans, 
squashes, potatoes and pumpkins in abundamce, which they subsist on in the winter 
season, with what deer and bears they kill, with other beasts of the wood. Our troops 
after destroying their huts and fields of corn (which we suppose to contain about a thou- 
sand bushels) returned unmolested to Tioga. 

14th, — The troops lay by to refresh themselves. 

15th. — The Indians skulking round our camp. Killed and scalped one man, who was 
driving up some horses, and wounded another. 

i6th. — An escort of nine hundred troops commanded by Gen. Poor, marched to join 
Gen'I. Clinton, who is on his way from Otsego to join us, he having a large quantity of 
provision. 

17th. — One man killed and scalped, and one other wounded. 

i8th. — A funeral sermon preached by Dr. Rogers,:); prepared for the occasion, was to 
have been delivered at the re-interring of Capt. Davis, &c., but was postponed, on account 
of a rain coming on, until now, when the masons all gave their attendance. 

20th. — This morning arrived an officer and nine men from Gen'I. Clinton who reported 
him, together with Gen'I. Poor, about twenty miles distant. 

* Cayuga. - ^ ' ' 

t Chemung. 

$ Rev. John Rodgers, D. D., of New York City.' 



LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 7 

22d. — At 10 A. M. arrived Gen'l. Clinton with his boats, stores, &c., when there was a 
discharge of thirteen pieces of cannon ; boats in number, 210. At retreat beat this evening, 
two soldiers of ist Regiment run the gauntlet through the whole brigade, who were pro- 
videdwith each a good whip for that purpose — the line abou.t half a mile. 

23d. — This day orders issued for marching the 25th. About 12 o'clock, an accident 
happened to a Captain of Gen'l. Poor's Brigade. He was shot dead from a soldier's at- 
tempting to snap a gun, not knowing it was loaded. It webt off and killed him on the 
spot. 

25th. — The fore part the day employed in getting in readiness, expecting to march in 
the afternoon. We leave here a great part of our baggage with the garrison. It consists 
of 250 men with two six pounders, commanded by Col. Shrieve. In the afternoon it 
rained hard which prevented our marching. 

26th. — At half past I2 r. M. began our march with several pieces of cannon, which 
caused us to move very slowly, as we had formed a hollow square, in which the pack horses 
and cattle were all driven, together with the cannon. This day received information that 
Col. Broadhead, with six hundred troops, was within forty miles'of the *Senakee castle, and 
had destroyed almost one whole tribe of Indians by stratagem ; he painted his men like In- 
dians, with cutting their hair, &c. We this day likewise received intelligence of Count De 
Estaing's victory over the British fleet, and.having taken the island of St. Vincents. This 
day marched about four miles and encamped at 5 P. M. near a large flat, on the north-east 
side of Cahuga creek. This day's march through a level land, but very poor, excepting 
the flats, which are ^ood, grown up with grass of great height. 

Friday, 27th. — At half past eight began marching, and proceeded two miles in the 
order of the day before. Halted in consequence of there being a defile, which our artil- 
lery, horses, &c., could not pass until repaired, from II o'clock A. m. till 4 in the after- 
noon. We passed the defile, and after marching a quarter of a mile our regiment was 
orderded back to assist the horses in passing, till 11 o'clock i'. m. the whole having got up, 
though not without considerable destruction of the bags with flour and other stores. Then 
proceeded about three miles and halted with the army, about one o'clock in the morning, 
about three miles from Shamong, on an old Indian settlement near some large fields of 
corn, said to have been planted at the expense of the King of Britain, an! many smaller 
ones said to belong to the Indians ; with beans, squashes, potatoes, &c. , on which our 
soldiers feasted sumptuously, it being a good substitute for bread, which \v is a scarce arti- 
cle with us. Distance about six miles. Course of march through this day, N. N. W. 
The country as level as any I have marched through, except the defile ; chiefly woods 
but indifferent. 

Sati;rday, 28th. — Continued marching until 3 p. M. ; some ammunition wagons being- 
broke and left behind for the purpose of gathering the corn and destroying what we did 
not make use of. Proceeded one mile and forded the Cahuga creek" at crotch deep— very 
rapid. Marched half a mile farther and recrossed the creek again, where it was some- 
thing deeper than at the other place, and extremely rapid, so as to carry down some of our 
men, and many of our pack horses, with the loss of three of the latter drowned-, and a 
very considerable loss of flour, baggage, &c. At sunset arrived at Shamong ; at nine our 
baggage came up. Here we encamped for the night ; distance three miles. On the 
march between the places of fording, some Indians were seen and fired on by our flanks, 
when they run off. This day the army was allowed no flour on account of the great 
quantity of corn, be.ins, &c. Course northwest. 

Sunday, 2gth. — Proceeded very slowly two miles, occasioned by the roughness of the 
way, which we had to clear for the artillery, baggage, &c., to pass. Here we halte ford 
one hour and a half, until the artillery, &c., should raise a difficult height, at which time 
an advanced party of our riflemen discovered the enemy throwing up some works on the 
other side of a morass, and a difficult place through which we had to pass. It appears 
this was intended for an ambuscade, it being on a small height, where some logs, &c., 
were laid up, covered with green bushes ; which extended half a mile. On the right was 
* Seneca. 



8 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

a small towh which they had destroyed themselves, making- use ot the timber, &c., in the 
above works. Af;er the groimil was well reconnoitered, the artillery was advanced on 
their left. At the same time Gen'l. Poor with his brigade was endeavoring to gain their 
rear around their left ; Gen'l. Hand's brigade was following in rear of Poor. Our brig- 
ade was kept as a reserve, as also Gen'l. Clinton's until their rear should be gained ; but they 
having a party posted on a very considerable height, over which our right flank had to 
pass, we were discovered by them. I'revious to this, some shells and round shot were 
thrown among them in their works, which caused them to give several yells, and doubtless 
intimidated them much. But at this discovery they gave a most hideous yell and quit their 
works, endeavoring to prevent Gen'l Poor's ascending the height, bj'a loose scattering fire ; 
but our troops pressing forward with much vigor, made them give way, leaving their dead 
behind, (amounting to eleven or twelve) which were scalped immediately. We likewise 
took one white man, who appeared to be dead, and was stripped, when an officer came up 
and e.'<amined him, said he was not wounded, gave him a stroke and bade him get up ; he 
immediately rose up and implored mercy, and was kept a prisoner sometime. In the even- 
ing a negro was taken. Their number wounded not known. Two or three of ours killed, 
and thirty-four or five wounded. Among the latter Major Titcomb. Capt. Cloise, and Lt. 
AUis. At half after three the firino; ceased, and the army proceeded one mile and a half 
to a considerable town consisting of about twenty huts. The number of the enemy uncer- 
tain, but from the best intelligence from the prisoners, the whites were about two hundred, 
the Indians five.* They were commanded by Butler and Brant, who had been waiting 
some days for our approach. It appears their expectations were great, from their numbers, 
situation, etc. The prisoners likewise inform us they had been kept on an allowance of 
seven ears of corn per day each although there is a very great abundance of corn, beans, 
potatoes, squashes, etc., for several miles on the creek, upon which our whole army has 
subsisted for days. We had nevertheless to destroy some hundred bushels. Here was 
found a deal of plunder of theirs, such as blankets, brass kettles, etc. 

* * * -:f 4i- # -X- * -:;■ * 

Monday, 30th. — At the request of Maj. Piatt, sent out a small party to look for some 
of the dead Indians — returned without finding them. Toward noon they found them and 
skinned two of them from their hips down for boot legs ; one pair for the Major the other 
for myself., C)n the other side this mountain was a town said to be of the best buildings 
we had passed. It was destroyed by Gen'l Poor the evening of the engagement. 

rcKsn.'W, 31st. — Proceeded about six miles and halted for one hour, destroying a small 
town of huts on a branch of Kihuga creek, which we forded. On our way thither burnt 
two houses, the best buildings I have seen since I left Wyoming. Here we left the 
Kihuga, and proceeded four miles through a level piece of pine land, thinly timbered, with 
many cranberry ponds, and large flats grown up with grass of considerable height. En- 
camped on one of these at sunset. 

WilDNESI;AY, Sf.i'TKMUer, 1st. — At eight in the morning, continued our march through 
a level pine land, as the afternoon before, for two or three miles, when we began to ascend 
a mountain, on which we marched, ascending and descending several different times ; then 
came into a ver\- thick swamp, chiefly white and spruce pines. After marching one mile 
in the swamp, .was under the necessity of halting for one hour, until a road was cleared for 
the artillery to pass ; then proceeded after halting, through difficulties of the way, for five 
miles, in which time we forded a creek, that ran through the swamp, fifteen different 
times. About sunset came to a clear flat, micultivated, rich, and well timbered. Near 
dark again entered a swamp ; very difficult and bad marching, our pack and other horses 
still increasing the mud so as to make it impassable, through darkness, etc. Some, how- 
ever, attempting it, were mired down with flour and baggage, where many lay all night ; 
in this manner the road was strewed for pbout four miles. ■' Had the savages availed them- 
, selves of this opportunity, it must have proved very fatal to us, for they might with ease 
have destroyed a great part of our provisions, with a party very inconsiderable.. Thus 
continued our march until 12 o'clock at night when we arrived at French Catharine, an 
* (ren. Sullivan computed the wh(jle force at (iftr'i^n hundred. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 9 

Indian town, deserted by them a few hours before our troops came in ; march as disagree- 
able as I have experienced ; sometimes up to our l<nees in mud and mire, and so darlc as 
not to be able to keep the path by any other means than being close to our front man. 
When we arrived, our situation still disagreeable, not having our baggage or any covering, 
and in expectation of being attacked every moment until morning, — men exceedingly 
fatigued, having marched fourteen miles with fifteen days' flour on their backs, exclusive 
of their other pack, 

Thursday, 2nd. — About sunrise, a squaw was discovered, to appearance upwards of 
one hundred years of age, who lay in the woods. She had been left by the Indians the 
day before, and was so decrepid as not to be able lo walk. She was, after examination, 
by order of the General, put on horseback, and told to follow her companions, with a letter, 
but could not ride. She informed us that they had only gone a little way into the woods, 
and as they expected us, not to tarry any time here might return again : in consequence 
of which I was ordered out with a party of two hundred, to search the woiids adjacent, 
at II o'clock A. M., as the army was to lay here this day for the refreshment of troops, 
and collecting the horses and baggage. After marching three miles and a half, came to a 
large flat, near the Senakee lake ; proceeded as. far as we could for the mire, then turned 
about, knowing we were in the wrong path, and sent out a couple of Indians for the pur- 
pose of finding the path which they did and returned. We then marched through a 
swamp for one and a half miles, and halted one hour ; when detached, Capt. Boman, with 
fifty men, to the lake, when we again marched and ascended a mountain, where we had a 
view of the lake, and then took a circuit march over mountains, etc. Returned to camp, 
after marching ten or eleven miles, without making any discovery, more than where they had 
driven off a number of horses and cattle, several of which were taken this day. 

Catharine is the most important Senakee town we have met with since entering their 
nation. It derived its name from French Catharine, who in her infancy was taken from 
Canada by the savages, and became accustomed to their manners, marrying an Indian 
chief, who was said to be half French himself, from which marriage she claimed this 
part of the country. Here she raised a great number of horses for sale. Its situation a 
rich flat on the side of a creek. The corn and beans raised here afforded us one day's 
subsistence. The great quantit\" of corn, &c. which is raised here more than usual, was 
occasioned by the British giving a premium to encourage them in raising it, so as to 
enable them to come down on our frontiers. 

This squaw likewise said they had a long debate whether they should stay and deliver 
themselves up to our army or not, but at length it was determined not, the warriors say- 
ing they would scalp them if they did. Here was made up a small hut for the old squaw 
on the side of the creek, having destroyed all the huts belonging to the place at our depart- 
ure, leaving her a plenty to subsist on. She appeared ver\- thankful when she found we 
did not kill or misuse her. 

F^RIDAY, 3d. — Marched at half-past eight A. M. ; for two miles something mountainous ; 
then throug a very large, level tract of land bordering on the Senakee lake ; its timber wal- 
nut, ash, hickory and oak, by far the largest tract of good land in one body I have yet 
seen. About five P. M. arrived at encamping ground, which was in the woods. A short 
time after, after our halt some men discovered a cornfield ; went to it and found the 
Indians had just then quit it, leaving corn roasting at the fires, which occasioned there 
being a scout sent out who disccfvered some of them b\' ;i fire near a small town, but the 
enemy making the discovery previous to this, retreated to the town as was supposed, and 
the scout returned. This evening orders were given for to march at half past eight in the 
morning, without the usual signals. Distance 12 miles, N. N W, course. 

Saturday,- 4th. — In the morning it rained, by which means we did not march until half 
past ten, when we proceeded to Apple town, which was on fire at our arrival. Passed it 
two or three hundred yards and halted on a mountain near a corn-field, which was soon 
stripped of its beans, &c. Here we had a prospect of the lake for upwards of twenty 
miles in length and about three in breadth the most beautiful I have ever seen. In a 
short time proceeded until sun-set through a good rich land, much the same as the day 
before, having only two difficult defiles. Distance about twelve miles ; course north. 

2 



10 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Sunday, 5th. — Proceeded marching through land much the same as the day before, 
passing two or three defiles, and arrived at an old settled'place called Kendae, at 3 P. M. 
It appeared to be the oldest town we have yet passed, here being a considerable orchard ; 
trees very old as are the buildings, .very pleasantly situated about quarter of a mile from 
the lake, on a high piece of grourtd ; some of the best buildings, in number about thirty, 
with several small fields of corn, which were ve;y insufficient for all our troops, having 
drawn but half allowance since wa left Shamong. A much larger quantity is said to be' 
on the other side of the lake, but we, having no boats or any convenience, it being about 
five miles across, could not get any of that. There was taken a white man who had by 
them been made prisoner at Wyoming in 1777. He informed us the enemy had left this twc> 
days before our arrival. He likewise said they had a reinforcement at this place of two- 
or three hundred, who were very anxious to fight us ; the others said they had fought 
enough and did not choose to do any more. In the evening the whole army discharged 
their firelocks by order. 

Monday, 6th. — I was sent out with a detachment under Maj. HoUinshead, for the 
purpose of collecting horses, cattle, &c., many of them having strayed the night before, 
on account of whichthe army was detained until 2 p. M., when we proceeded three miles, 
land continuing rich and fertil as before ; encamped in the woods near the lake. Here a 
great plenty of pea vines, which our horses and cattle feed on. This day have intelli- 
gence that the garrison at Powles Hook was surprised and taken. 

Tuesday, 7th — Proceeded about eight miles, halting near the outlet of the lake for 
one hour and a half, then crossed it near middle deep. The lake is said to be forty miles in 
length and from two to five in breadth, very beautiful, without a single island in it, itr 
course N. W. and S. E. After crossing as before, proceeded one mile and halted one hour s. 
having a long defile to pass, was expecting an attack. From thence proceeded two miles, 
through a very thick wood, and came on the back of a town a little after sundown, called 
Cunnusedago, still expecting they would defend their town, it being the capital of their 
nation, but they were all fled. The town consists of fifty or upwards very good huts, regular 
and compact much more than any we have seen before. Here was found a white male child 
about three years of age, supposed to have been taken from our frontiers. It can speak 
Indian very well and understand English, but not talk it. Vituals being given, it ap- 
peared to have been nearly starved, and would doubtless have injured itself had it not 
been restrained. An officer of ours has taken it with the intention to bring it up. This: 
lake runs into lake Kihuga, and from thence into St. Lawrence river. 

Wednesday, 8th. — Continued for the purpose of gathering corn, beans, &c. 

Thursday, gth. — Proceeded one mile through a very thick swamp, when we came to 
some upland, which appeared to have been cleared, and was grown up with Indian grass 
and some ash bushes, over which we travelled for two or three miles, when we again 
entered a swamp, which we travelled through for five miles and halted on a piece of high 
ground for the night. This morning a detachment was sent down to Tioga consisting- 
of fifty men, who were to escort all the sick, invalids, &.c. and likewise all the horses that 
were not able to carry packs. Thirty odd were nevertheless left at this place that could 
not be got farther. 

Friday, loth. — Came to a lake called by some Genessee, which is from one to three 
miles in width, and about ten in length, and very shallow. Proceeded and crossed the 
outlet at half leg deep, and twenty yards across. It lies nearly north and south. After 
crossing had a long defile to pass and came to a considerable town of about twenty huts, 
which were all on fire when we came in sight ; marched one mile past the town and 
encamped for the night, near some corn-fields, at 4 P. M. Distance of Ihis day's march 
about ten miles, ('ourse west. 

Saturday, nth. — Passed many defiles, the ground being rougher than any we have 

yet passed since we left Catharine, and the up-land more indifferant. Arrived at four 

o'clock at Onyauyah, where was a large quantity of corn. Insight of this town is a lake 

■ lying to the south ; here we encamped. Marched fourteen miles this day, course nearly 

west. Here was left a small garrison, with most of our baggage, horses, Cv:c. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 11 

Sunday, 12th. — Came to a small lake from a quarter to half a mile wide and three in 
length ; distance about five miles. Crossed the outlet at knee deep, (fifteen yards across) 
went five and a half miles farther an encamped for the night on a high ground newly- 
cleared. 

Monday, 13th. — At half past four, morning, proceeded one mile and a half ; came to 
a considerable town, Canesaah, consisting of from sixteen to twenty huts and halted for 
the troops to get some refreshment and to build a bridge across a creek ; meantime a 
party of twenty-six men, commanded by Lt. Boyd, was sent out to a town about six 
miles for discovery, at which place he arrived without molestation. Here an Indian was 
killed and scalped by his party. He then dispatched two men to inform us what had 
happened ; after they had gone two miles they saw five Indians. They immediatelj- ran 
back and told the Lieutenant what they had seen, who marched on to the place with all 
speed, when he discovered some few of them who retreated ; he pursued and killed one 
of them. The men then went to scalp him, which caused some dispute who should have 
it ; at the same instant the enemy rose up from their ambuscade, when the action com- 
menced, but they being much superior in numbers, caused him and one or two others to 
surrender, though not until the rest were all killed and got off. About the same time, 
Capt. Lodge, surveyor, of the road, with a small party was discovered about one mile 
beyond, virhere the party was building a bridge. They were fired on by the Indians and 
one of his men wounded. The rest ran off and were pursued so closely that one of them 
drew out his tomahawk and was close on the heels of one of our men, when a sentinel 
from the the party at the bridge fired at the Indian, which caused them all to run off. 
Major Poor immediately pushed on, hearing the firing, and found the knapsacks, &c. of 
the Indians, who had all run off on his approach. At two o'clock the bridge being corn- 
pleted, we marched on to a town, Casawavalatetah, where we arrived about dark, in 
expectation of an attack, and encamped. Land continuing very fertile ; at both of these 
places was a large quantity of corn, at the former we did not destroy all. 

Tuesday, 14th. — Early in the morning was ordered to destroy the corn, which we did 
by throwing the ears into the creek, which runs close to the town and is a branch of the 
* Canisee river, which empties into the Lake Ontario about fourteen miles hence. At 2 r. 
M, marched and crossed the creek, and forded the main branch of Canisee and proceeded 
four miles down to the Chenisee cas,tle, where we arrived about four P. M. At this place was 
Lieut. Boyd and one soldier found, with their heads cut off ; the Lieut'nts head lay 
hear his body ; his body appeared to have been whipped and pierced in many different 
places. The others head was not found. A great part of his body was skinned, leaving 
the ribs bare. 

Wednesday, 15th. — The whole army employed until 3 o'clock in gathering the corn, 
and burning it in their huts, which were in number about eighty or a hundred, and much 
the largest quantity of corn I have yet seen in any one place since I have been out. 
Here came in a white woman with a young child, who was almost starved, having made 
her escape two or three nights before from the enemy. She informs us they were in 
great confusion, the Indians some times agreeing to treat with us, but it was made void 
by Butler and Johnson, who promised to supply them with provisions. One of the Indi- 
ans at this cocked his gun and was about to shoot Johnson, but was prevented. This 
woman was taken from Wyoming in '77, where her husband was killed. At half past two 
P. M. we began our march for returning, and proceeded as far as the fording place of the 
creek, crossed onto, encamping near the town Casawavalatetah. This place very rich 
and good. Distance from here to Niagaree said to be about eighty miles, whither the 
Indians carry all their furs, &c. for sale. They go and return in canoes in five or six 
days. 

Thursday, i5th. — I was ordered out on the advance party, under the command of 

Major Cochran, consisting of one hundred men. Proceeded and crossed the second 

branch of the Canisee river, where we remained until the army had all crossed, which was 

10 A. M., part of the troops being employed in destroying some corn that we left when 

* Genesee. 



12 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

there before. We then proceeded to Canexah, and encamped about four v. M. The arm)' 
was again sent out destroying corn that was omitted before. In the evening we joined 
our respective Regiments for the night, and were to repair to the front of the army at the 
general beat in the morning. 

Friday, 17th. — Marched at sunrise. Arrived at Onyauyah at twelve o'clock. There 
was one large hut left standing, round which the garrison had laid up the kegs of flour, 
boxes of ammunition and bags of flour, so as to make it a very considerable fort. Round 
it were likewise batteries. This cautiousness was occasioned by prisoners having been 
taken, and it was apprehended they would extort from them our situation ; and they might 
probably attack that place in our absence, as the garrison left was very inconsiderable, a 
captain and fifty men, exclusive sick, lame and lazy, with one three pounder. This by 
us was called Fort Cumraings, Capt. Cummings having the command here. 

Saturday, i8th. — Proceeded to the Genessee lake and crossed the outlet, and encamped 
on the side of it for the night, passing through Kennendauque. On our march met three 
Onnida Indians, who came in five days from Fort Schuyler, and brought intelligence of 
New York being evacuated and burnt.. 

Si NDAY, igth. — Proceeded to Kennesdago. On our way thither, met three soldiers 
from Tioga, two days and a half from Newtown, where they informed us is a plentiful 
supply of stores for us, with a garrison from Tioga. F.ncamped for the night. 

Mo.NDAY, 20th. — Remained until 4 p. M. in consequence of a detachment being sent 
down the south of Senakee lake to destroy a town there, and another down the north side 
Kihuga to destroy a chain of towns, part of which is to proceed to Fort Schuyler, and con- 
duct the baggage of Gen. Clinton's brigade down to headquarters, by way of Albany, 
when we proceeded and crossed the outlet of the Genessee lake and encamped at Sunset, 
having marched 4 miles. At head of the Kihuga is a remarkable salt spring, where the 
Indians all get a supply of salt. 

Tuesday, 21st. — Marched at six a, m. and proceeded three miles from Kendoha, and 
encamped in a wood at the side of the lake at three o'clock afternoon. This morning was 
a detachment sent down the south side of Kihuga, for the purpose of destroying some 
towns there. It is said that twelve quarts of water will produce one of cleer salt. 

Wednksday, 22nd. — Proceeded about fourteen or fifteen miles and encamped at 5 
o'clock P. M. three-quarters of of a mile from the lake and seven from Appletown, at a 
defile. 

Thursday, 23rd. — Proceeded to Catharine town, at which place we arrived at twelve 
o'clock, finding the old squaw here which was left as we went up, with a paper that had 
many lines of Indian wrote underneath a protection that was given her by the General, 
the contents of which I did not hear. We likewise found the corpse of a squaw who 
appeared to have been shot three or four days, which lay in a mud hole ; supposed to have 
came there since our departure to take care of the old brute. Who killed her, I cannot 
ascertain, but it is generally believed to be three men of ours who were sent up from 
Tioga express a few days before. At our departure from here the General ordered there 
should be left a keg of pork and some biscuit, &c. for the old creature to subsist on, al- 
though it was so scare an article that no officer under the rank of a field officer had tasted 
any since leaving Tioga, and a very scant allowance of half a pound of poor beef and a 
like quantity of flour. Proceeded at two o'clock about three miles through a swamp of 
exceeding bad road for the pioneers to repair them and halted for the army's arrival, 
which at was five o'clock i'. M. ; on a small flat of cleared ground, and encamped. Distance 
of day's march from 16 to 18 miles. This evening we, the advance guard, had orders to 
march at reveille for the purpose of having the roads repaired through a most notorious 
swamp of five miles, and appearance of rain, which would render the swamp almost 
impassable. 

Friday, 24th — .\ccording to order marched at daylight and proceeded through the 
swamp, though not without several halts for the Pioneers, when we made a more gen- 
eral halt, for the army to come up, after having got through, of about one hour ; then re- 
ceived orders to proceed again to a bad defile, and there halt for the pioneers to build a 



LIEUT. WILLIAM BARTON. 13 

bridge, which was three miles from the place were our stores were, with a small garrisori. 
At three the army appeared in sight, when we again resumed our march, and on our 
approach the garrison fired thirteen cannon, which was immideately followed with a like 
number from our advance piece, and then gave three cheers and encamped, thinking our- 
selves happy to arrive where we could once more fully satisfy our appetites, after fourteen 
miles march, pretty much fatigued. 

Saturday, 25th. — Remained at F'ort Reed for those detachments before mentioned to 
have been sent out, to return. In the forenoon the army all discharged their muskets, with 
orders to parade at five in the afternoon, each man furnished with one blank cartridge. 
According to orders the whole paraded in a line to five a feu de joie, when thirteen round 
of cannon was fired. Then began a running fire of muskets from the right through the 
whole ; this not being performed to the General's liking, he ordered the whole to again 
charge ; after this was done he ordered the whole to be put in readiness and not a man to 
fire until he should come opposite him. All being in readiness, he put his horse off at full 
. speed and rode from right to left with whip and spur, men all firing according to orders, 
which made it very grand and caused the General to say it went like a hallelujah. After 
three cheers given for the Congress in consequence of thei" resolutions of the i8th August,* 
and then three for the United States, and thirdly for the King of Spain, our new ally, and 
thus the day ended with joy, the officers of each brigade being furnished with one of the 
best bullocks there was, extra. 

Sunday, 26th. — Still remained at Fort Reed. In the morning there was a detachment 
of three hundred men ordered to be sent up the river Kihuga for the purpos of destroying 
a town or two, but was defered by' reason of rain coming. At one in the afternoon the 
detachment under Col. Durbin, that came down the south of the Kihuga lake, arrived with 
two squaws, and inform us they burnt three or four towns. They likewise say the found 
one Indian and one other squaw, the latter so old as not to be able to be brought off ; the 
Indian man young but decrepid to such a degree that he could not walk. I have since 
heard it said, the Colonel left one house standing for them to stay in, and would not 
suffer them to be hurt, but some of the soldiers taking an opportunity when not observed 
set the house on fire, after securing and making the door fast. The troops having got in 
motion and marched some distance, the house was consumed together with the savages, 
in spite of all exertions. 

Monday, 27th. — The morning clear. The detachment yesterday detained by rain has 
gone out with an addition of two hundred men more, and divided into two parties, one 
under the command of Col. Courtland, and the other under Col. D' Hart ; one going up 
the north side, and the other the south of the Kihuga Creek. In the evening the detach- 
ments cam in, after destroying a considerable quantity of corn, &c. 

Tuesday, 28th. — The same detachment again sent out on account of a small party 
being sent farther up, who say there is a large quantity of corn yet standing on the creek. 
About ten o'clock a. m. the detachment under Col. Butler came in from the north of 
Kihuga lake, who say they have destroyed vast quantities of corn and several rery.,con- 
siderable of their towns. 

Wednesday, 2gth. — Marched at 7 o'clock ; the chief of our stores were sent in boats 
from Fort Read, it being i 1 -the forks of the Kihuga and Tioga creeks. This fort was 
built by a small detachment sent from Tioga with stores for us by order of Gen. Sullivan, 
the detachment under the command of Capt. Read, which occasioned its being called 
after him. We proceeded to Chemung, where we arrived at i o'clock, p. M. and halted 
for one and half hour for refreshment ; then marched and proceeded three miles to our 
old encamping ground as we went up, where we remained for the night, much fatigued, 
having marched over rough ground. 

Thursday, 30th. — Proceeded to a very difficult defile, there being no possibility of 

passing more than one man abreast, on the side of the river, and a very high mountain on 

the other, near three quarters of a mile from top to bottom over which I had to pass, 

which rendered the day very fatigueing. At 3 o'clock P. M. arrived at Fort Sullivan at 

* Increasing pay of officers, &c. 



14 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Tioga, when we were saluted from the garrison by thirteen rounds of cannon and three 
cheers, and immidiately was a return given from the advanced pieces of cannon. * 
* * The fort is a fine stockade, » * * * block-houses on 
the river Susquehannah, and one other on the Kihuga ; within three hundred yards of each 
was an old carrying place about half a mile from the forks of the two rivers. The army 
all passed the fort and encamped on our old ground. Soon after the officers were in- 
vited to the garrison, where was a dinner provided for them. Joy appearing in every face 
at our so happy return, having marched three hundred miles into the Indian country 
with so very inconsiderable loss, having completed all that was intended us at the first 
formation of the expedition, and much more than was expected when we set out, on ac- 
count of provisions being so very short, which must inevitably have been the case if we 
had not unanimously agreed to bring ourselves on half allowance, on which we continued 
until our arrival at Fort Read, 

Monday, 4th. — Was ordered on the advance guard, marched about half after eight and 
proceeded as far as Queen Esther's Plains, about four miles, when we halted by orders of 
the Commander-in-Chief until the army should come up, not being determined whether 
to march farther or not, the weather appearing suspicious and wets a little. On the arri- 
val of the army,, it- clears away a little, when the General orders us to march as far as 
Wigsaugking creek and there to encamp himself ; going in a boat we arrived at 5 P. M. 
The whole of the army did not arrive until after dark, when comes on very hard rain and 
continues the night, and I on guard. 

Tuesday, 5th. — The morning continues cloudy ; orders for the whole army to go down 
in boats and on horseback ; I came on a horse, as far as Wyalucing and staid the night ; 
this day killed a great number of horses. 

Wednesday, 6th. — Marched at nine A. m. and proceeded as far as Tunkhannoch, and 
encamped for the night. This' day orders came to leave all horses that could not be got 
on, and for none to be killed. 

Thursday, 7th.- I proceeded for Wyoming at daylight, having obtained leave over 
night, and arrived at Wyoming at 3 P. M. The boats having came in at 10 A. M. an en- 
tertainment was provided for the officers of the Jersey Brigade and those of Proctor's 
artillery. At half-past 3 a cannon was fired for the assembling of the officers, and one 
for every toast, thirteen of which were drank. 

Friday, 8th. — In the morning, at 10 a. m., came in the whole party of horses. 

Saturday, gth. — This day orders for marching in the morning at 6 o'clock for Easton. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY, 

OF THE 4TH PENN LINE. 



Lieut, afterward Major) Erkueies Beatty, was born October ,9, 
1759, son of Eev. Charles Beatty, who came to America from Ireland in 
1729. He was an apprentice in Elizabethtown, N. J., at the beginning 
of the revolution, and served with the Jersey troops ; was at long Island 
August 9, 1776, under General Sterling, and served as a Sergeant at 
White Plains, October 28. He was commissioned an Ensign in the 4th 
Pennsylvania Regiment, with rank from January 3, 1777 ; was promoted 
to Lieutenant May 2, and was engaged in the battle of Brandywine, 
September 11th, of the same year. He was badly wounded at German- 
town, but rejoined his regiment at Valley Forge in January, 1778. He 
was at Monmouth June 28 of that year, and shortly after accompanied 
his regiment to Schoharie, N. Y. He was with Colonel Van Schaick in 
his expedition against the Onondagas in June, 1779, and with his regi- 
ment accompanied General Clinton down the Susquehanna to participate 
in Sullivan's campaign. He was at the surrender of Cornwallis October 
19, was mustered out of service November 3, 1783 ; then acted as clerk 
in the war office for several years ; 1786-8, was Paymaster to the west- 
ern army ; 1789-90, commanded at Vincennes, on the Wabash ; Major 
under St Clair but sent back with a detachment before the defeat; 
resigned January 11, 1793 ; . he married the widow of Major AVilKam 
Ferguson', who was killed at St. Clair's defeat ; resided thereafter at 
Princeton, K J., where he died February 3, 1823. His son, Charles 
Clinton Beatty, LL.D., founder of Steuben ville Female Seminary, was 
still living in 1880. The original journals of these expeditions are now 
in the archives of the New York Historical Society, New York City, 
which society has kindly furnished the following literal copies for pub- 
lication in this volume. 



16 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

J O U R N A L— P ART FIRST. 

Expedition to Onondaga, April 6th, lyjg. 



SCHOHARY MIDDLE FORT. 

Journal of an Expedition to Onondaga, April 6th, 1779. 

Marched of from the Middle fort with a Comp'y. from the 4th P. Reg't. and a Comp'y- 
from the Rifle Corps about g o'clock proceeded on to Cobus Kill 12 Miles from Schohary 
arrived there at 4 o'clock when we was Joind by Capt Johnston Compy of Col. Dubois's 
Regt. from the lower fort Schohary when he took the Comd. staid here all Night. Next 
morning we proceeded on with the 3 Companies to Mohawk River to Conogoharie 25 
Miles where we staid all Night. Nothing material happend. on our March, the next 
day marchd on to fort plank 6 miles where we got waggons sufficient to Carry our m[ensj 
packs, then proceeded on within 4 Miles of Fort Herkimer where we staid all Night. Next 
morning started early arrived at Fort Herkimer where we Join'd Capt. Bleeker Compy. 
from Col. Gansevorts Regt. Capt. Fowlers Compy. from Col. Livingstons Regt. & Capt. 
Lane's Compy. from Col. Aldens Regt. staid here & got breakfast then Marched of 
of Capt. Bleeker taking the Command, marched on 13 Miles when we encamped all Night 
in the woods, the next morning got of early went on to old fort Stanwix 6 Miles where we 
breakfasted, then proceeded on to Fort Schuyler 16 Miles where we arrived about 5 o'clock 
and was saluted with three pieces of Cannon from the fort four Companies Encampd on 
the Glacis and the other two quartered in two houses that was there. The officers quar- 
tered in the Garrison which consisted of Col. Vanschaiks Regt. & a Compy. of Artillery. 

Fort Stanwix alias Fort Schuvler. 

April 14th, 1779. — Rested all this Day nothing material happening — 

15th. — This day about 63 Oneida Indians came into the fort with their baggage & 
squaws they all fired coming in cSt was saluted with 3 pieces of cannon from the fort after 
some Ceremony they went out and lay about J( of a Mile from the fort. 

i6th. — This Morning the Sachems apply to Col. Van Schaick to go on the Expedition 
with us but the Col. told them that we was not going on any Expedition which almost sat- 
isfied them, this afternoon about 20 More came in of the Tuskeroras & Oneidas. 

17th. — It snowed last Night and partly all this Day nothing material happening. 

i8th. — Snow'd by spells this day The Indians applyd to Col. for to go on an expedition 
by themselves which was granted them and they Drawed provision, then they petitioned 
for two officers to go with them but no Men, which was granted them Lt. IMcClellan of 
Col, Gansevorts Regt. and, Ensign Hardenburg of Col. Van Schaicks Regt. was ordered 
to go with each to take a Sergt. and 20 Days provision with them and they marched of 
about I o'clock about 60 of them leaving their Sachems & Squaws behind them, this Day 
arrived at the Fort 30 Batteaus with stores from Schenectady We Reed, orders to Draw 
3 Days provision and hold our selves in Readiness to march to morrow morning at Day 
Break. 

igth. — last night the Batteaus was carried into wood creek about ^/j, of a Mile from the 
fort and this morning flights of snow fell but we march'd of about sunrise with 3 Compa- 
nies from Col. Van Schaicks Regt. when Col. Van Schaick took the Comd. with his other 
field officers Lt. Col. Willet & Magor Cochran sent a proper Guard with the batteaus and 
we proceeded down wood creek by land till we arrived within about 2 Miles of Lake 
Oneida 22 Miles from the fort staid here 3 or 4 hours for the boats where they Arrived 
about 3 o'clock when we immediately embarked & proceeded into the Oneida lake the 
wind blowing very high all Night, about day break we stopt and Collected our boats then 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 17 

proceeded on till about i o'Clock when we stopt about 2 hours & Drawd provisions then 
proceeded on to the Onandaga landing at the farther end of the lake which is across 33 
Miles and in breadth 13 Miles where we arrived about 3 o'Clock. Immediately Disem- 
barked, Drawed Rum, turned out a sufficient Guard to leave with the boats then formed 
the line of March Viz The Men to March in two Columns about the Distance of 100 Yards 
each Capts. Graham, Gray, Hicks & Renshaw with their Companies to form the Right & 
Capts. Louie's, Johnston Fowler & Bleeker to form the left and the Rifle Compy. to divide 
upon each flank The Main body to march two deep and in case of intiruption to file of to 
Right and left and Join the line and the Rifle men to keep on the flanks, in this Manner we 
march'd of thro the woods with the greatest silence about 14 Miles when we stopt about 
dark and laid down without any fires and the strictes orders to keep silence, 

2ist. this morning set of about Day Break on the same line of march and went about 6 
Miles when we halted, Capt. Graham with his Compy. was sent forward as an advance 
party then proceeded on to the Onandaga lake about 8 Miles in length & 4 in Breath 
waded an arm of it about 4 foot deep and 200 yards wide and came to Onandaga creek, 
small but deep, had to cross it on a log. Capt. Grahams Co Just as he had crossed the 
creek caught an Indian who was shooting IHdgeons & made him prisoner, And we got 
some Information from him, then proceeded on till we come within about one Mile of the 
Town when we Reed, word from Capt. Graham that he had caught one Squaw and killed 
one and had taken two or three Children and one White man and one or two made their 
escape and alarmed the town The Col Immediately sent me forward to order him on as 
quick as possible and make as many, prisoners as he could & he would support him with 
the main body. I overtook him at the first town and delivered my orders and he Imme- 
diately pushed on about two miles to the Next town where he made a small halt and took 
a great many prisoners, soon after Magor Cochran with Capt. Grays Compy. came up 
and ordered me to stay with the prisoners and their two Compys. to push on to the next 
town about one mile forward which they did and made more prisoners and killed some 
particularly a Negro who was their Dr. they then plundered the houses of the most valua- 
ble things and set fire to them and Returned to the middle town where I was. Capt. 
Bleekers Compy. had come .up by this time and left the main body at their first town 
we then collected all our prisoners plundered this town and sett fire to it then marched of 
to the main body which lay at the first town, we stayd there about 8 hours and killect 
some five horses and a Number of Hogs & plunderd their houses and set fire to them and' 
Marched of about 4 o'Clock in the same line of march as we came only the front changed, 
and a Compy. to guard the prisrs. who was to march between they two Colums marched on 
about 2 Miles from the town down the Onand'ga creek when about 20 Indians who Lar 
concealed on the oppisite side of the Creek fird upon us, but the Rifle Men soon Dispersed 
them killing one of them, we then march'd on and crossd the Onandga Creek in two^ 
places for fear the enemy should attack us but we met with no interruption, crossed the- 
arm of the lake and encamped by the side of the lake about 8 Miles from the town — We 
killed about 15 took 34 Prisoners, Burned about 30 or 40 Houses, took 2 stand of Coulors„ 
and we had not one man killed or wounded — 

22nd. Marched of early this morng and arrived at the boats about 4 oClock stopt 
about one hour to Draw rum then embarked and went 7 Mile to a large Island in the lake 
where we encamped and Drew provision. 

23d. The next morng the wind blowing we did not sett of till about 9 oClock but the 
wind begin to Lull and we arrived into wood creek about 4 oCIock when we Disembarked, 
left 2 Compys. to guard the boats up the Creek & we proceeded on to Fish Creek about 7 
Miles where we Encamped. 

24th — Rained a little last Night set of early this morning small showers of Rain fell to 
day we arrived at fort Schuyler about 12 o'clock when we were saluted by 3 Pieces of Can- 
non from the fort and each Compy. took their old Quarters. 

25th. This Day we was busy in collecting the plunder and making an equal Distribu- 
tion of it to each Comy. and Reed, orders to hold ourselves to embark tomorrow morning: 
early to go down the mohawk River — 

3 



18 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

26th. This Morning Capt. Louies & Capt. Fowlers Compy. was ordered to march down 
to Fort Herkimer to guard some waggons and afterwards to join^heir Regt. the other 4 
Companies embarked with the prisoners about sunrise and proceeded down the River to 
fort Herkimer where we arrived about dark, part of the boats was ordered to go forward 
■6 Miles to the carrying place and wait there in the morning till the Rest came up. 

27th. set of early this morning and went to the carrying place, some showers of Rain 
falling, had our boats carried over as Quick as Possible and proceeded down the River as 
tar as Major Funda's within 24 Miles of Schenety where we stayed all night. 

28th. set of early this morning and arrived at Schenectady about 12 oClock when each 
'Compy. Reed, orders to Join their Regts. as soon as possible, put the men in the barracks 
.& staid all Night. 

29th. This morning about day break set of with Capt. Grays compy. and the Rifle 
•compy. leaving the prisoners with Capt. Bleeker to Guard to Albany, proceeded on till we 
arrived at middle Fort Schohary Just being out 3 Weeks. 

E. BEATTY. 



J O U R N A L— P ART SECOND. 
Sullivan's Expedition, June nth, to Oct. 22d, lyyg. 



Journal of an E-xpedition to the Indian Towns, June mh, 1779. 

Friday.- -Marched from Schohary with 4th P. Regt. & Rifle corps 8 o'Clock leaving 
15 Men from each Corp with proper officers for the safety of the Place the rest arrived at 
Schenectady at Sundown where we encamped — 

Saturday 12th. — Lay encamped all day. , 

Sunday 13th.' — Crossed over the River encamped oppisite Schenectady and was sup- 
plyed with 36 Batteaus to go up the Mohawk River with a quantity of provision, Small 
Showers of Rain fell today. 

Monday 14th. — Showers of rain almost all day embarked in our boats at 2 o'Clock, 
proceeded up they River very strong water, went 3 Mile up when we encamped on the 
shore. 

Tuesday 15th. — Rained all Last Night which made it very disagreeable in our tents 
embarked this Morning 8 o'Clock proceeded on 10 Mile midling strong water encamped on 
the shore. 

Wednesday i6th. — Embarked this morning at Sunrise went on 13 Miles to Major 
Fundas where we encamped. 

Thursday 17th. — Embarked this morning sunrise went up very good water all day 
atrived at Conojoharie at Sundown 17 Miles where we found Col Gansevorts Reg't. en- 
camped we immediately unloaded our Boats and encamped on the left of Col. Gansevorts 
Regt. 

Friday i8th. — lay in camp very Quiet all day Nothing Material happening. 

Saturday 19th. — Struck Tents very early Marched of for Springfield very bad road 
passed on the road a Number of Waggons with Batteaus & provision going on to the 
.l,ake likewise a New York Regt. which was encamped on the Road side 6 Miles from 
Conojohaira arrived at Springfield 4 o'clock p M 17 Miles which had formerly been a pretty 
little Settlement but the Indians at the distruction of Cherry Valley had Hkewise Dis- 
troyed it, it lies within 4 Miles of lake Osego and about 6 or 8 from Cherry Valley here we 
encamped in a very pleasant place — 

Sunday 20th. — lay in camp all day nothing material happening great Number of Wag- 
gons passing all day to the lake with provision & Batteau — Came here this evening & en- 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 19 

camped two Companies of Col. Aldens Regt. N. E. on their way to join their Regt. 
laying at the Lalce. 

Monday 21st. — This morning Major Parr with near 100 men properly officered went on 
■a 3 Days scout liiiewise to clear out the branch of the Susquehana which comes out of the 
Lal<e Otsego to make it passable for Boats, likewise the two Companies of Col. Aldens 
Regt. moved to their Regt. nothing else material happening a Number of Waggons pass- 
ing to the lake with Boats and provisions, we send out parties every day to keep the Roads 
in Repair. 

Tuesday 22d.— This Morning the Colonel and a Number of Officers besides myself 
went on a fishing party across Lake Otsego catched a few fish and Returned in the Even- 
ing but got very wet as there was showers of Rain fell in the afternoon — on the lower end 
■of the lake (which is about 8 Mile in lenth and 2 in Breadth) we found two Companies of 
Col. Aldens Reg't. who had made a Dam across the neck that runs out of the lake so as to 
Rais the water for to carry, the Boats down they creek. 

Wensday 23d. — This Day about 2 o'Clock Major Parr arrived with his party brought no 
news of any consequence but that they the branch of the Susquehana which he went down 
about 10 Miles from Lake Otsego was passable for Boats, lay in Camp all Day nothing 
of consequence happening sending out fatigue parties on the Roads as usual likewise great 
number of Waggons passing to the Lake. 

Thursday June 24th. — Lay in camp to Day Nothing of Consequence happening. 

Friday 25th — This Morning Capt. Simpson with 40 Rifle Men went on a scout like- 
wise Lt. Bevins with 20 Musquet Men went on a scout. Showers of Rain fell to day and 
-exceeding warm weather, not many waggons Pass'd to day. 

Saturday 26th. — Rained almost all last night but very warm all Day, about 9 o'Clock. 
Col. Dubois Regt. Arrived here with 2 Pieces of Artillery likewise a Quantity of Arau- 
nition for the expedition and some Cloathing, staid & eat Breakfast and Proceeded on to 
the lake then to take Part, this afternoon Capt. Simpson with his party and Lt. Bevins 
with his arrived at Camp but brought no news of Consequence, this evening a Number of 
Waggons arrived hereon their way to the Lake with amunition likewise'our P: Mr. 

Sunday 27th — This morning sent a escort with the amunition to the lake, to day about 

2 oClock one of the Rifle Officers sent his waiter about one Mile from Camp to get Sallad, 
but the waiter was unhapily made prisoner by a few Indians after having fired three Shot 
which we heard in Camp Imediately went out Scouts but could see Nothing 

Monday 28th — This Day the Col. and a Number of Oftrs. with myself went to see Col 
Dubois and his officers who were encamped at Lows Grove on the uper landing, found 
them all very well and they provided a very good dinner for us suitable to the place (& time, 
there was about fifty offrs. dined together, after Dinner we had a song or two from differ- 
ent Officers and Returned home a little before Sundown, we were all very sociable at din- 
ner and Spent our time with the Officers very agreeable — little flights of Rain fell to day 
in the morning nothing material happening— 

Tuesday 2gth. Lt. Boyd with a Scout went out to day and Lt. Cotin with another 
party, a Number of Col. Duboiss officers came to see us to day and dined with Col. This 
evening the flying Hospital arrived here with a Number of Hospital Stores and all thesur- 
,g;eons that is going on the expedition and here encamped. 

Wednesday 30th. This morning Capt. Henderson with a large escort went to convey 
the Hospital to the landing. 

Thursday July ist. This day fell some Rain about 2 oClock, Genl. Chnton arrived at 
our Camp with the Adjt. Genl. and a Number more officers and encamped, about Dark 
Col. Gansevorts Regt. Arrived, here and encamped in front of us, this evening we Reed, 
•orders to march tomorrow morning early. 

Friday 2d. Accordingly this morning we struck our tents early, the Regt. marched by 
Cherry Valley to the lower end of the lake. The baggage of the Detachment went to 
Springfield landing with a proper Guard' with the Col. & the Qr. Masters & myself, put the 
baggage on board Boats & Proceeded to the lower end of the lake where we arrived about 

3 oClock and found the Regt. there before us, we Immediateley lookout our Baggage and 



20 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

encamped on the Right of Crohans House a very pleasant place in the evening the Genl. 
arrived with Col. Gansevorts Regt. & the Hospital & a great deal of Provision, they en- 
camped on the left of us 

Saturday 3d. This morning Major Church with a Number of Boats went to bring^ 
Provision from Springfield landing, about 10 oClock Col. Du"bois Regt. came here with 
more Provision & encamped in the rear of Col. Gansevorts Regt. two Hours after Col. 
WisenfiUs Regt. arrived here with Provision and encamped in the rear of us, likewise the 
Artillery and stores came with Col. Dubois Regt. and encamped between our Regt. & 
Col. Gansevorts, made a Magazin of Crohans House. 

Jui.v 4th. Last night we were alarmed by the of our Gentries firing at Indians who 
was crieping up to them, we Remained under arms one Plour then went to our tents with 
orders not to pull of our Cloaths, there was several shots fired before morning, and at Day 
break we tracked a number of Indians Round about our pickets but never one of them re- 
turned our fire. Major Parr with his Rifle men went on Scout this morning. This Day 
three year being the Day that Independence was declared it was celebrated by firing a Feu 
De Joy all the troops was drew up on the Banks of the Lake in one line with the two 
Pieces of Artillery on the Right there was 13 Pieces of cannon fired and three Volleys of 
Musquetry one after another and three Cheers with every fire it was done extraordinary 
well and with great exactness, afterwards the troops was drew up in a Circle by Colums 
on a little hill when Parson Granoo* preached us a sermon suitable to the occasion from 
the 4 Chapter of Exodus and 12 Verse, afterwards the troops was Dismissed, Col. Rignier 
Adjt. Genl. gave an invitation to all the officers to come and drink Grog with him in the 
evening accordingly a number of officers (almost all) assembled at a large Bowry which he 
had prepared on the bank of the lake but however we sot on they ground in a large Circle 
and closed the Day with a Number of Toast suitable & a great Deal of Mirth for two or 
three hours and then Retimed to our tents, the whole Day was Conducted extremely well 
considering the place, a great deal of provision came over they Lake here to day — Weather 
very warm — This afternoon Lt. Evans Rifle Regt. Returned from a Scout being down the 
Susquehannah as far as Yaukams bu brought no news of consequence. 

July 5th. Monday To day Col. Aldens Regt. came over with the last of the Provision 
and Stores of all sorts and encamped in the center of the second line behind the Artillery 
likewise a few of the Oneida Indians come over with the Regt. and encamped on the 
Banks of the lake the all soon got Drunk & made a terrible noise. 

6th. Tuesday This forenoon the Adjt. Genl. Reviewed the front line very particularly, 
This afternoon was a high wind and some Rain, Prayers now every evening from Parson 
Gano. 

Wensday July 7th. This Day the Adjt. Genl. Reviewd'the second line, took a partv 
with some more of our Officers and went a fishing three or four mile from Camp catched 
a number of Trout in one of the branches of the Susquehanna — all the Off 'rs of the Line 
met this eving at the large Bower and took a Sociable Drink of firog given by Col Ganse- 
vorts Officers. 

July 8th. To day at one of the Pickets two of the out Gentries fired at two men they 
saw creeping up to them, they did not Return the fire but Immediately Ran away, T. D. 
D. W. The Gl. — Nothing of consequence happened to Day. 

July 9th Friday a little Rain fell last night, but to day was a warm day. 

loth. Saturday Lay quiet in Camp all Day. 

nth. Sunday, This Day being a very Rainy Day did not go out much, therefore heard 
no News " 

I2th. Monday Rained very hard most part of all last night but this morning cleared 
up ver/cold considing the time of years likewise a high whisting wind last Night, all still 
to day. 

13th. Tuesday Drew arms for the Men in the Regt. that was wanting and other nesse- 
cary things for the good of the Service which kept us buisy almost all Day — 

14th. Wensday — This Day did not do any thing. 
* Gano. 



]JEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 21 

15th. Thursday To day three men Deserted from our Regt. likewise some more from 
the other Regts. ' 

Friday i6th. Nothing material happened to day 

Saturday 17th. No News — 

Sunday i8th. To day some of our men found a very fine Chest of Carpenters tools, 
and some Books, Map cS: Number of Papers, the chest was concealed in a thicket of 
Bushes covered with bark, near one of our pickets, it is supposed it was they property of 
Crohan who formerly lived here But is now gone to the Enemy therefore they Chest is a 
lawful prise to the men thet found it. 

Monday 19th. This morning Capt. McGowan went to Schohary there to stay till he 
gets his side cured, likewise I felt very unwell this morning which caused me to take a Vomit 
which worked me severely, in they afternoon I got a good deal Belter but still continued a 
swelling in my face which was occasioned by the tooth Ach 

Tuesday 20th. This Day we heard that Spain had acceded to our Independance, and 
had Reinforcd Count De Estaing with seven or eight sail of Ships of the line, likewise 
that Spain had laid siege to Gibralter & that the French had taken the Islands of Gurnsey 
•S; Jersey, furthermore heard that the Enemys light Horse had made an Excursion into 
Connecticut from Rhode Islad. and had -burnt 6 or 7 houses in Newhaven but was Re- 
pulsed by our people with loss unknown — It rained all last N'ight very hard «^ steady, and 
this morning till 10 oClock and it cleared up Warm, felt myself pretty well Recovered to 
day — 

Wkxsday 2ist. This Afternoon was brought in two of our Men, who Deserted from 
this place, & one was Imediately tied iip and Received 500 Lashes ^ was again com- 
mited to the Guard house, the other was Ironed and closely confined there to remain to 
be tryed for his life at the Next General Court martial that Sets — 

Thursday 22d. To day came in one other Deserter of himself and had a very plaus- 
able Story to tell but was commited to the guard house for tryal 

Friday 23d. Nothing happened to day 

Sa turday 24th. To day we heard that 563 of the Enemy was taken at '\'er Planks 
point on the North River likewise one man was Released from the guard house 

Sunday 25th. To 'day a small Rain fell all day 

Monday 26th. Raind almost all last night and best part of this day 

TiKSDAY 27th. Some rain fell last night and a little to day by showers. To day we 
had the agreeable news confirmed of the prisoners taken on the North River — Genl. 
Wayn with iioo men Surprised the Garrison at Stony Point killed 100 and took upwards 
of 500 Prisoners he had 4 [21] killed and 21 Wounded there was not a Gun fired on either 
Side. Genl. W^ayn entered the Fort at 3 oClock in the morning the Garrison was com- 
manded by Col. Johnston, likewise we heard that the Indians had taken 36 Men at Fort 
Schuyler who was at making hay & afterwards was pushing down they Mohawk River in 
consequence of which there was a Detachment sent off comanded by Col. Gansevort to 
Conojoharie consisting of 265 Men and 5 Captains with 3 Days provision — rLikewise we 
heard that there was a Major 2 Captains one Sub. and 15 Men taken Prisoner by 7 Indians 
& one White man at Sabbath Day Point or near it, somewhere near Lake George, the 
officers and men went out to gather Huckelberries & was taken asleep — 

Wensday 28th. This morning (agreeable to the Sentence of a Genl. Court Martial) 
at Troop Beating they three men was brought out to be Shot one belonging to our Regt. 
one to the 6th Massuts. & the other to 3d. N. York all founikGuilty of Desertion, the 
troops was drawn up on the grand I'arade the man belonging lo the 3d. N. York Regt. 
was shot the other two was reprieved by the Genl. very warm to day 

29th. Thursday Raind a little last night but none to day, to day we had a News- 
paper which give a particular Account of Genl. Wayn taking they Fort at Stony Point they 
killed 60 of the enemy & took 400 Men besides 25 officers with Col. Johnston the Comdr. 
& one Capt. killed of the enemy Genl. Wayn got a slight wound in his Temple besides 5 
other of our Offrs. & 50 Men & 25 killd of our men likewise we took 14 Pieces of Ordo- 
nance 700 Stand of Arms, Tents, Rum, Cheese, wine, and a number of other Articles of 



22 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Stores. Our troops took out the ordinance & stores and Destroyed the Fort and Re- 
turned with the Prisoners near our Grand Army. The enemy had 60 killed & about the 
same number wounded — Likewise we heard in the papers of 5 of the Enemys Provision 
Ship being taken with 20,000 Barrells of Different Stores safe arrived in Eastern ports — 
We heard from Fort Schuyler that Lt. Scudder was taken, with them 36 Men — We had 
the good news in Genl. Order to day — 

Friday, 30th. Nothing of Consequence happend to Day 

Saturday, 31st. To day Small Showers of Rain fell this evening Col. Gansevort 
arrived with the comand had been as far as Fort Herkimer but brought no news of 
Importance 

Sunday, August ist, 1779. Raind almost all last Night, to day at 11 oClock the 
Officers of the brigade met agreeable to Genl. Orders (as has been this few days past) to 
learn the Salute with the Sword, the Genls. Curiosity led him out to' see how they saluted 
after the was dismissed, they formed a Circle round the Genl. and requested of him to 
give them a Keg of Rum to drink, a demand, at the same time we little expected to have 
the favour granted us, but we happened to take the General in one of his generous thouts 
which he is but seldom posses'd of, and instead of one he gave us six, when we gratefully 
acknowledged the favour by thanks and Imediately repaired to the cool .Spring where we 
drank two of our Kegs with a great deal of mirth and harmony toasting the Genl. fre- 
quently — and then Returnd to our Dinners, in the afternoon Parson Gano Give us a 
Sermon 

Monday, 2d, 1779. To day at 11 oClock the Officers again assembled at the Spring 
to finish the remainder of our Kegs which we did with they Sociability we had done the 
day before. 

Tuesday, 3d. (I had like to forget to mention that there was a Comand of 150 men 
under the command of Major Parr on .Sunday morning went to Oaks Creek about 3 Miles 
from here with the cattle to pasture — I am informed there is a house there and about 50 
Acres of clear land on which is excellent grass) Nothing of consequence as I know of to- 
day the Rifle men went down by the side of the lake to try their Rifles which they did by 
Shooting at marks 

Wenesday, 4th. This morning 150 Men coraanded by Major Church went to Oaks 
Creek to 

[One leaf of Journal missing] 

Monday, Aucust 9th. Agreeable to yesterday's order the Genl. beat at 6 oClock, the 
troops marched about 8, excepting 3 Men which was to remain in each boat to take them 
down the River The Infantry march in front which I now belong to, and the Remainder 
of the Battillions next marched on 16 Miles within 5 Miles of Yorkams* where we encamped 
on a Small improvement called Burrows farm,! where there was a great many Rattlesnakes 
& very large, there was one killed with 15 Rattles on 

Tuesday, 10 Raind a little last night and this day till i oClock Marched of the 
ground at 3 oClock and went 5 Miles to Yorkams where we encamped the men in the 
Boats encamped on the farm which lies on the East side of the River and the Remainder 
on the other side Opposite, went on Guard to night 

Wendsday, nth. Marched of this Morning Sunrise and proceeded on 14 Miles down 
the River where we encamped on a Small farm, passed Several small farms to day with 
very poor houses on them & some None, the Rifle Men in front saw fresh Indian tracks 
to day on the Path & found a Knife at one of their fires. To day we crossed a large 
creek called Otego, and passed several old Indian encampments where they had encamped 
when the was going to Destroy Cherry Valley or returning, likewise we passed one of 
their encampments yesterday — we encamped to night at Ogdens farm & very bad encamp- 
ing ground. 

I^^Tiiese notes and those that follow iu-m hy On'l John S. Clark, Auburn, N. Y , and are taken 
from the Collections of the- Cayuga County lIisti)rioal Society, No. 1. 
♦Joachim Van Valkendebo, afterwards killed in battle near Lake Ut-sayunthe in 1781 . 
tVan Hovenburgti's Journal says Burris f'"arms. 



IJEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 23 

. Thursday, 12th. March'd of this morning 7 oClock, had the advanced Guard to day 
proceeded down the West side of the river as usual, 12 Miles came to a Small Scotch Set- 
tlement called Albout* on the other side of the River 5 Miles from Unindilla, which we 
burnt but the people had gone to the Enemy this last Spring went on to Unindilla Crossed 
the River to the East side and encamped, the River was about middle deep when we waded 
it — This settlement was destroyed by our detachment last fall excepting one house which 
belonged to one Glasford who went to the enemy this spring, his house was Imediately 
burnt, when we came on the ground to day, we passed several old Indian encatnpts. where 
the encamped when the destroy'd Cherry Valley the Road raidhng hilly. 

Friday 13th. This morning very foggy and a great deal of dew — Marched of 6 oCAocic 
went 2 Miles waded the River about 3 foot deep proceeded on to Conihunto ■(• a small 
Indian town that was, but was Destroyed by our detachment last fall its 14 Miles fronii 
Unindilla |. A little below this town there is 3 or four Islands in the River where the 
Indians Raised their Corn on one of those Islands our troops encamped with the boats cS; 
Cattle the light Infantry went 2 Miles from Conihunto where they encamped a little after 
3 oClock in the woods Middle good Road to day. 

Saturday 14th. Marched this morning at 8 oClock very hilly road for the Right flank 
arrived at the fording 2 Miles from Onoquaga g about 2 oClock which is 8 Miles from, 
where we started, the ford being too deep to wade crossed in our Boats to the East side 
went over a high hill and got Onoquaga at 3 oClock where we encamped on verv pretty 
ground. This town was one of the Neatest of the Indian towns on the Susquehana. it 
was built on each side of the River with good Log houses with Stone Chimneys and glass 
windows it likewise had a Church & burying ground and a great number of apple trees 
and we likewise saw the Ruins of an Old Fort which formerlv was here many years ago. 
The Indians abandoned this town last fall when they heard of our Detachment coming to. 
Destroy it, they had but just left it when we came in it but we did not catch any of them 
bat burnt their town to ashes and the Detachment Returned. This evening we fired an 
evening gun 

Sunday 15th. Very heavy dew this morning went on Guard the Army Remain at Ono- 
quago to day quiet no news Stirring as I hear of particular. 

Monday' i5th. This morning a very heavy Dew & fog which is very customary in this 
country, was relieved of my Guard and the day proved Exceeding warm to day, a hea\ y 
shower of rain this afternoon at 12 oClock Major Church with the 4th. P. Regt. went out 
5 or 6 Miles to meet 4 or 500 Militia^ who we expected to join us here but he returned ii\ 
the evening and saw nothing of them. 

Tuesday lyth. Marched of from Onoquago this morning 8 ot^lock proceeded down the 
river 3 Miles to one of the Tuskorora towns which was burnt by our Detachment last fall, 
here waded the river about 4 feet deep to the west side went on one Mile when we came 
to another of they Tuskurora towns call Shawhianghto || consisting of 10 or 12 Houses 

* Albout.— A Scotch, tory settlement on the east side of the Susquehannah river, five miles above 
Unadilla, was burned Aug. 13, 1779, by Clinton's detachment. Most of the Scotch Settlers went to 
Canada at the beginning of the difficulties ; those who remained were more in sympathy with the 
British than with the Americans. See Capt. Gray's map where the name appears as Ai.eoct. 

t Conihunto, called Gunnagunter by Van Hovenburgh, an Indian town 14 mile.*? below Unadilla. 
destroyed by Col. William Butler in 177H. It appears to have been on the west side of the river. 

X Unadilla, an Indian town at the junction of the Unadilla with the Susquehanna, destroyed by 
Col. "William Butler in 177H. ■' Returning to Unadilla, that settlement, on both sides of the river 
was burned, as also a grist-mill and saw-mill, the only ones in the Susquehanna Valley." — Letter of 
Col. William Butler. 

% Onoquaga, an Indian town on both sides of the Susquehanna river, eight miles below Coni- 
hunto near present Onaquaga, in the town of Colesville, Broome Co. AVhen destroyed by Col. But- 
ler in 1778 he mentions a lower or Tuscarora town three miles below, this would be near present 
Windsor. The old fort mentioned is probably one built for the Indians by Sir William Johnson in 
17.56. Rev. Gideon Hawley was a missionary here at an early date. See Capt. Gray's map. 

If Col. Pawling, commanding a regiment of New York levies, was to meet Clinton at this pointy 
'but arris ing after the army had passed, they returned to Wawarsing. 

II Shawhiangto, a small Tuscarora town four miles below Onoquago, burned hy General Clinton 
Aupiust 17. 1779 ; it contained ten or twelve houses, located on the west side of the river, near pres- 
ent Windsor in Broome County. 



'24: JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

which we burnt, then marched on over a very barren mountaneous country lo or I2 Miles 
came to aTuskurora Settlement called Ingaren* consisting of 5 or six houses but a good 
deal Scattered, encamped at the lower end of the Settlement after burning the houses, 
here they had planted a good deal of Corn potatoes &c. which we destroyed a few Yards 
in front of our.Compys. encamping ground there was a tanfat farm with several Hides in 
a tanning which they Soldiers got & close by it they discovered a little man in a hole which 
was laid there & a little dirt thrown over him just to cover him, we had his head uncover'd 
but he was to putrified, we could Not discover whether he was a white man or Indian but 
supposed to be a white man as there was a Scotch Bonnet found near him — marched to 
day 15 Miles 

Wensday 18— Marched of from Ingaren 7 oClock ; thro a very fine Rich country very 
well timbered but poorly Watered, scarce any, arrived at Chinango River at 4 oClock 
where we forded it about 4 feet deep & almost as wide as the Susquehana but not so deep, 
as soon as we got over we halted and Major Parr with 100 men went up the River to de- 
stroy the Chinango f town which lay 4 Mile up the River but when we came there we 
found the town was burnt which consisted of about 20 houses it seems when the Indians 
Evacuated it last winter they destroyed it, therefore we Returned iS: found the army 
encamped 2 Mile below the Chinango River Marched to day 22 Miles and burnt several 
Indian houses on the Road, this evening came up the River 2 Runners who informed us 
that Genl. Poor with 1000 Men was within 9 Miles of us coming to meet us and that Genl. 
Sullivan lay at the mouth of the Tyoga and that he had sent part of his army up to Sha- 
mong which they destroyed and had returned to Genl. Sullivan with the loss of 9 Men 
killed and some more wounded which was in Small Skirmishing, the Indians had taken of 
all their things from Shamong excepting a few cattle which our people got. 

Thursday igth — Marched this morning 7 oClock went 2 Mile when we burnt 7 or 8 
houses on the East side of the River, 4 Miles farther at the Chuggnuts i we fell in with 
Genl. Poors army who was ready to march, they had Burnt this Settlement which lies on 
the East side of the River about 20 houses made no halt here but went on 4 Mile Genl. 
Clintons Army in front & Genl. Poors in the rear, came to a Midling large Creek where 
we made a halt for one hour then marched on 12 Miles without halting & arrived at 
Owego >; about sun Down after a very fatiguing march of 22 Miles, this afternoon fell a 
Small Shower of Rain 

Friday 20 Raind a little last night and Succesively all this Day therefore did not 
move : went a party down to Owego town which lies one mile lower down and burnt it 
consisted of about 20 houses 

Saturday 21st — Clear weather this morning but a very heavy fog, marched of a little 
after 7 oCIock forded Owego Creek which is reckoned one third of the Susquehana at 
this place, it was about three feet Deep & about 50 Yards Wide went thro' the ruins of 
Owego town crossed a pretty large brook went 12 Miles halted at a Small brook one hour 

* Ingaren, a small Tu.scai-ora town, at or near Great Bend, in Susquehanna county, Pa. It was 
called Tuscarora by Van Hovenburgh, and described as being sixteen miles from the camp, four 
miles below Chenango river ; and twelve miles by land and twenty by jwater, from Onoquago, 
where the army encamped on the 16th. Was destroyed by General Clinton, August 17, 1779. 

t Chenanro, also called Otsiningo, an important Indian. town located four miles north of Bing- 
hamton on the Chenango river, in present town of Chenango, near the present village of the same 
name. The twenty-two miles travel mentioned, evidently includes the march up the Chenango to 
this town, and from thence to the camp. Van Hovenburgh estimates the day's march of the army 
at 16 miles. Many writers incorrectly locate this town at Binghamton. 

* Chociinut, or Cliugnntt, an important Indian town of fifty or sixty houses, mostly on the south 
side of the Susquehanna at the mouth of Big Choconut ereek, on the site of the present village of 
Vestal, in town of Vestal, Broome county. Burned Aug. 19, 1770. by Gen, Poor's detachment 
which encamped on the north side of the river near present Union where the two detachments 
united. Gen. Clinton's camp the same night, was six miles distant up the river. 

§()WAriEA, an Indian town of about twenty houses occupied in 1779: located on Owego creek 
about a mile from the Susquehanna near the (present village of Owego, in Tioga county. Gen. 
Poor's detachment encamped Aug. 17th, on the site of present viUa.tje. where was a small Indian 
Hamlet. Owagea was lim-ned Aug. 10. 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 25 

for refreshment. Proceeded on 3 Mile further when we encamped at 4 oClock Opposite 
Fitzgeralds farm * in the woods it a very fine farm but no house on it nor any body livinj^ 
on it— On this ground where we encamped Mr. Sawyers a Man who was made prisoner by 
Indians Along with his Neighbor Mr. Cowley who both lived on ihe head of the Deleware, 
After the Indians having them so far on their Journey they rose in the Night killed the 
Indians which was 3 or 4 »S: made their Escape, we saw the bones of the Indians. Since 
we came on the ground to day we met with a bad Accident, two of our Boats of Amuni- 
tion over set in the River tS; Damaged a good many boxes of Catridges & a few Casks of 
Powder — to Night went on Guard 

Sunday 22d. Marched of this morning 7 oClock, proceeded on crossed to midling large 
brooks Arrived at Tyoga 11 oClock where we found C.enl. Hands Rrigade encamped one 
Mile above the mouth of the Tioga where the was building 4 Block houses they other 
troops was encamped on the point which was Genls. Poors ^: Maxwells Brigades we 
■encamped on the Right of the whole, on our coming in to Camp we was saluted by 13 
Pieces of Cannon which was Returned by our two little pieces, on the River we found 

* Manckatawangum, or Red Bank, here (-ailed Fitzgerald's Farm, appears to have been on the 
^outh side of the Susquehanna, in the town of Nichols, nearly opposite the village of Barton. 
Major Norris' Jonrnnl, in going up, says on the 16th the detachment '' encamped near the ruirs of 
in old town caller, itfACKTOWANucK."' Lieutenant Jenkins' Journal says "10 miles frcm Tioga 
at a place called Manokatawangum or Red Bank,'' and mentions encamping at same point on 
the retm-n march. A table of distances in Canfield's Journal says " from the mouth of the Tioga 
(Chemung) to Mackatowando 10 miles." This would locate the Indian town at or near present Bar- 
ton. On the Tioga county map. Mohontowonga Farm appears on the south side of the river oppo- 
site Barton, and an island in the river named Mohontowango. 

Early in the spring of 177fl, two men named Sawyer and Cowley were captured near Harpersfield 
by four Schoharie Indians, named Han Yerry, Seth's Henry. Adam and Nicholas. One of the cap- 
tives was an Irishman, the other a Pcotchman. They were refugees from Harpersfield, who had 
sought safety in Schoharie at the beginning of the difficulties. The prisoners cou'd not speak 
Dutch, which the Indians understood, nor could the Indians understand English. When captured, 
they claimed by signs to be friends of the King, and were not only willing, but anxious to accom- 
pany their captors. The prisoners set off with such apparent willingness on the journey, that the 
Indians did not think it necessary to bind them, but permitted them to procure wood and water 
They had been captives eleven days without finding a favorable opportunity for escape, but on 
arriving at a deserted hut at this point, the captives were sent to cut wood a few rods distant, 
using for this pui-pose an ax belonging to one of the prisoners. On such occasions, usually one cut 
and the other carried to the camp fire ; but this time, while Cowley was chopping, and Sawyer 
waiting for an armful, the latter took from his pocket a newspaper, and pretended to read its con- 
tents to his fellow, but really proposed a plan for regaining their liberty. After procuring a suffi- 
cient quantity of wood, and partaking of a scanty- supper, they laid down for the night as usual, a 
prisoner between two Indians. When the Indians were sound asleep, the prisoners arose, secured 
the guns, shakingthe priming from them, Sawyer securing the tomahawk of Han Yerry, and Cow- 
ley the ax. At a given signal, the blows descended, and the weapons sank deep into the brain of 
their victims, but unfortunately Sawyer in attempting to free his weapon from the skull, drew the 
handle from its socket. These two Indians were killed, but the noise avi'oke the others, who in- 
stantly sprung to their feet ; as Seth's Henry arose, he received a blow partially warded off by his 
right arm, but his shoulder was laid open and he fell back stunned : the fourth, as he was about to 
escape, received a heavy blow in the back from the ax ; he fled to a swamp near by and died. On 
returning to the hut and consulting as to what course they should pursue. Setirs Henry, who had 
recovered, but feigned death, again sprang to his feet, caught his rifle and snapped it at one of the 
prisoners, ran out of the hut and disappeared. The two friends primed the remaining guns and 
kept vigilant watch until daylight to guard against surprise. They set out in the morning to 
return, but did not dare to pursue the route they came, very properly supposing there were more 
■of the enemy in the vicinity, to whom the surviving Indian would communicate the fate of his 
comrades. They re-crossed the i-iver in a bark canoe which they had used the preceding after- 
noon, and then directed their course for the frontier settlements. On the fii'st night, Cowley, car- 
ried away by the excitement was deranged for hours, and his companion was fearful that his rav- 
ing would betray them, but reason returned with daylight. As they had feared, a party of Indiana 
was soon in hot pursuit— from a hill they saw ten or a dozen in the valley below ; but they con- 
cealed themselves beneath a sheltering rock, and remained there one night and two days. When 
there an Indian dog came up to them, but after smelling for some time, went away without bark- 
ing. On the third night they saw the enemy's fires literally all around them. They suffered much 
from exposure to the weather, and still more from hunger, but finally arrived at a frontier settle- 
ment in Pennsylvania, and afterward returned to Schoharie, where they were welcomed as though 
risen from the dead. Sawyer is said to have died many years after in Williamstown, Mass., and 
Cowley in Albany.— Sim ins'' Srhohari>'., 291, 2, 3. 

4 



26 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Genl. Hands Brigade under arms with a Band of Musick which played Beautiful as we 
passed by them we encamped on a very pretty piece of ground and Spent the Remainder 
of the day in seeing our friends in the Different Regts., likewise when we arrived here- 
our Infantry was Disbanded & ordered to join their Respective Regts., very heavy Show- 
ers of Rain this afternoon Marched 7 Miles 10 day 

Monday 23d. to day we lay at Tyoga Spint the day in seeing our friends — to Day- 
a Capt. of Genl. Hands Brigade was Shot by Accident dead 

Tuesday 24th. Drew some Cloathing for the men went to day to see an old Indian 
burying ground which lay just by our Camp there was about 100 Graves some of which 
our men had Dug up, they bury their Dead very curious after this manner. The dig a 
hole the length of the person' the are to bury & about 2 feet Deep, they lay him on his. 
back in the grave with an old Blanket or blanket Coat round him and lay Bark over the 
Grave even with the Surface of the Earth so as to prevent the earth from touching the- 
body, then the heap up the dirt on the top of the Grave in a round heap which is from 4 
to 6 feet high, but the graves is very old and a number of them as this formerly was a 
very Capital town, but a few Years ago they Moved up the Tyoga to Shamong where the 
built that town & there is no houses here now but very pretty land — This afternoon our 
Regt. move up the River & joined Genl. Hand's Brigade with 4 Companies from the other 
Regts cS: had orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march to morrow — 

Tyoga Branch Wensday 25th. Raind almost all Day had all our heavy Baggage 
Stored in the Garrison. Reed, orders to march to morrow morning 8 oClock the Rain 
Raised the River very much, I heard that three Oneida Indians arrived at Hed Qrs. this, 
evening from Oneida Castle, but what News the brought I don't know 

Thursday' 26th. This morning: they freshet in the River had carried away s number 
of our boats down the River-- marched of about 11 oClock leaving all our heavy baggage 

6 woman at the Garrison, carried on pack horses 27 Day provision likewise went with us 

7 Pieces of Ordinance with three Amunition Waggons, four boats came up the River 
marched two mile up the Tyoga where we encamped 4 Mile from the mouth of Tj-oga. 
on very good ground but woods 

Friday 27th. Marched of this morning 8 oClock in the following line of march viz : 
Genl. Hands Brigade of Light Infantry in front in 6 Colums each. coUim 2 Deep and 2. 
or 300 Yards distance from eachi* Genl. Poors brigade on the right in one Column by Pla- 
toons following Genl Hands right column. Genl Maxwells Brigade on the left in one 
column by platoons following Genl. Hands left Colum. Genl. Clintons Brigade fetching 
up the rear in the same line of March and Genl. Hands Artillery & Pack horses in the 
Centre. Col Ogden on one flank and 200 Men & Col. Dubois on the other with the same 
Number in order to gain the Enemys rear in case of an Attack ; the Rifle Men in front of 
the whole reconoiting Mountains, roads. Defiles &c — Marched this Day 6 Miles within a 
Miles of Shomong where they had planted a great deal of Corn beans &c which we 
feasted very heartily on, there was several Indians saw on our March to day, but they 
made their escape, likewise Major Parr who was Advanced with the Rifle men saw a num~ 
ber of fires 5 or 6 mile a head which he supposed the Indians was at. went on Guard to. 
night 

Saturday, 28. Very heavy Dew this morning did not move to day till 2 oClock 
occasioned by our Amunition waggons breaking Yesterday & had to mend them before we 
started. Just as the Genl. beat there was a few of our N'olunteers went across the river to 
burn a house they was fired on by 6 or 7 Indians, they imediately recrossed the river in 
a fright without even returning a Shot The Artillery Pack horses & Some troops crossetl 
the river here to escape a very large hill which there was to cross and crossed at Shamong 
where the army encamped 2 Miles from where we came from to day this town was very 
beautifully Situated on the bank of the Tyoga but a good deal Scattered the land E.\cellent 
it lies near a West course from Fort .Sullivan but a little to the North of West, it was burnt 
by Genl. Sullivans army Just after their Arrival at Tyoga which I before Mentioned 

Sunday, 2gth. Marched this morning g oClock, went about 3 Mile when we found the 
Enemy strongly Entrenched with Logs Dirt brush &c the firing Imidiately begun in front 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. ' 27 

with the Rifle Corp & the Indians made great halooing, orders was given then for the 
troops to form in line of battle which was done. Genl. Hands brigade in front but none 
of the troops advanced as we discovered the main body of the Enemy was here and had 
their front secured by a large Morass & brook, their right by the River & on their left 
partly in the rear was a very large hill, their lines extended upwards of a Mile the firing 
was kept up very briskly by the Rifle men & a company who was sent to reinforce them, 
likewise the Indians returned the fire very brisk with many shouts for about 2 hours while 
a disposition was made for to attack them. Genl. Clintons & Poors brigades was sent of 
round their left flank to take possession of the hill in th^ Enemys rear and extend their 
line intirely round them if Possible. after the had gone about half an hour Genl. Hands 
brigade advanced in a line of- battle with all our Artillery in the Centre within about 300 
Yards of the Enemys works but in full View of them a very heavy canonade began & 
throwing of Shells the enemy returned the fire very brisk for about half an hour when the 
Enemy retreated up the hill in a great Disorder & as the got near the top received a very 
heavy fire from Cienl. Poors brigade : the enemy then took round Genl, Poors right flank 
by the river which Clenl. Poors had not guarded as he had not time to, therefore they made 
their Escape leaving a number of their dead behind them. As soon as the Enemy left 
their works Genl. Hands brigad pursued them up the hill as far as where Genl. Poor 
was when we made a halt, the rifle men pursued them about one Mile farther and made a 
Negro prisoner, likewise saw some of their wounded going up the river in Canoes they 
fired on them but the All made their Escape wounded and all. The Army then returned 
down the hill & encamped about 2 Mile above the Enemys works, our loss about 40 killed 
X wounded among which is three Officers one of which is since Dead, their loss cannot 
be ascertained as they all carry their dead & wounded of, but there was lo or 12 Scalps 
taken which was killed by Genl. Poors brigade on the hill, likewise made one white man 
prisoner & one Negro who informed us that their force was about 400 Indians and 300 
Tories their chief commander Old Butler, other officers Young Butler, Brant & McDonald 
the others Indian Chiefs. Up the brook about one Mile from where the Indians had their 
works was a New Indian town midling large but poorly built, which was burnt by Genl. 
Clmtons Brigade the most all Hutts. The Enemy left very little plunder behind but had 
Genl, Poor had a little more time to extend his Army round their rear to the river they 
would undoubtedly all been made Prisoners, or our Victory been a great deal more com- 
pleat, but it is generally believed the Enemys loss is very considerable — 

Monday, 30th. Raind a little last night and partly all this day by Showers near half 
the Army out to day cutting up Corn which is in great Abundance here ; the party out of 
our Brigade went over the River where the corn Chiefly grows, went up the River about 2 
Miles then took up a large branch of the River (which bears near S. \V.)one Mile burnt 
5 houses and destroyed all the corn in our way. Our Brigade Destroyed about 150 Acres 
of the best corn that Ever I saw (some of the Stalks grew 16 feet high) besides great Quan- 
tities of Beans, Potatoes, Pumpkins, Cucumbers, Squashes i.\: Watermellons, and the Ene- 
my looking at us from the hills but did not fire on us. The Army lay on this ground all 
day and draw'd 16 Days flower and the Army was put on half allowance of provi ^ion 
which the men submitted to with a great deal of chearfullness. 

Tuesday 31st. This morning all the boats was sent down the River likewise in the 
boats the Amunition waggons & all the Artillery excepting four three Pounders and a little 
Cow horn the wounded & sick went down among which was Capt. Tuda which was very 
sick ; the Army moved this morning 9 oClock fair weather proceeded on to Newtown 
which consists of between 20 & 30 houses very well built but very much scattered ; halted 
at the Upper end of the town 6 Miles from where we encamp'd for refreshment by a 
large Creek which empties it self in the River here & runs about N: W; here the Rifle men 
was Detatched Col. Daytons Regt. & a company from our Regt. up the River to take 
some boats that was reported was seen in the River we went up the River about 7 Miles 
saw no Boats nor no sign of any & night coming on we turned about returned one Mile 
down the River and lay in a Corn field all Night ; the Army left the River and went about 



28 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

a N: W; course up the Creek I mentioned about 5 Mile where we encamped, midling good 
road for the Artillery to day and a very good path. 

Wensiiay .September 1st. lay very bad last night without any Blanket or Provision but 
roasted Corn, we Arose about Day break & Destroyed the field of Corn marched of about 
sunrise down the river one Mile & a half where we destroyed another field of corn, then 
■Struck of a North course thro' the woods till we came on the path of the Army proceeded 
on and came to where the Army was encamped all Night, after marching about 7 Miles 
found the rear of the Army Just a moving of the ground kept on marching till we over 
took the Army about n oClock, when each corps fell into their Respective places in their 
line of march with the Army and went round the head of the Creek proceeded on over 
mountains, crossed some small branches of the Seneca waters then fell on pretty large 
Creek which empties into Tyoga Lake runs North course ; went down this creek and 
crossed it 9 times as the Valley was very Narrow ; at Dark we arrived within J^ Mile of 
Katarina town or Catharines town where we made a halt got our troops in good order as 
we expected the, Enemy was yet in the town for we heard the Dogs bark & saw fires, but 
we proceeded into the town without any Interuption but very dark crossed the creek 
again to the East side and encampd, pulled down the houses for firewood in what situ- 
ation the town lay in we could not see ; the Soldiers catched 2 or 3 horses a cow or two 
some Calves & hogs and some trifles of other plunder the troops all encamp'd here except- 
ing Genl. Clintons Brigade who lay about 3 Mile from here in the rear of all the Pack 
horses — the Army marched 13 Miles to day 

Thursday 2d. This morning rose up and found our Brigade lying in the lower part of 
the town which consisted of between 30 & 40 houses on each side of the river very well 
built and on good land and midling compact ; we burnt the chief of the houses last night 
for firewood the Pack horses began to come up & some of them had lost a great deal of 
provision & some horses was killed on the Road with fatigue of Yesterdays march this 
morning a very aged Squaw was found in a Corn field who was not able to get of with 
Age she was brought in and She told us that the warriors had stayed m the town till Near 
night before they went away likewise told us that a great many Squaws & Children was 
over a hill somewhere near .Seneca lake 4 or 5 Mile of in consequence of which Col. But- 
ler with a Detachment of 3 or 400 Men and the Cohorn went of about 12 oCIock in pur- 
suit of them and returned in the evening with[out] seeing anything of them there was 
another Squaw found in the woods who pretended she was lame lS: the Soldier came home 
to get some others to help fetch her in & when they returned the Squaw had hid away >& 
the could not find her • the old Squaw after She was examined at Hd. Quarters they was 
going to .send her to" the Indians but she was so old she could not ride, from her looks and 
what we could learn she must be I think above 120 ygars old. Our Indians built a house 
for her & we Gave her provision & left her. This Day we Spent here in refreshing our 
Men and getting up our provision but a great deal was lost, likewise Gen. Clintons Bri- 
gade came in about 12 oClock this town lies on what the Call Seneca Creek 

Ekiday 3d. Marched this morning 8 oClock left the Seneca Creek a little on our left 
and in about 3 Mile came to the head of the Seneca Lake which is a very pretty Lake they 
tell me it is 3 Mile wide and about 30 Mile long, we kept on the East side of the Lake & 
great part of the time had a pretty view of it from the hills and keep near it all the way-- 
marched 12 Mile and encamped about 4 oClock past over 3 brooks to day runnitrg into the 
lake midling large the first was a beautiful brook falhng down the hill from rock to rock 
from great hights the other two was near togathcr, most part of the land to day was Excel- 
lent we passed over ; an Indian was seen by our Advanced Guard to day but made his 
Elscape about one Mile in front of our Camp was a house the Indians had Just left & left 
their kettles on the fire boiling fine Corn & beans which we got but what is most remark- 
able the corn was all purple — came North course to day — great many large rattlesnakes 
was killed to day 

•SATURDAY 41h. Kecd. orders last night to march to day 5 oClock without th; usual 
Signals of Guns firing but it Raind last night & a little this morning which prevented our 
marching till 10 oClock when we Struck tents and marched keeping the Lake Just on 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 29 

our left, marched 13 Miles & encampd on a Small brook at Dark within site of the lake ; 
came near a North course but most Part to the East and last 2 Mile to the West ; 
Destroyed several Indian houses & Corn fields to day on our march, passed 4 Brooks 3 of 
which was within 3 Mile of where we Started Extraordinary fine land we came over to 
dav went on Guard to night 

Sunday 5th. Had a very Disagreeable guard last night unloading Packs till near 11 
oClock. Very fine day but did not march till 10 oClock as we was 2 or 3 Mile in front of 
the Army & all our I^ack horses did not come till this morning marched to Kandaia twixtr 
3 Mile Destroying two houses and 2 corn fields on our March. The Rifle men on entring 
the town retook one of our Prisoners who was taken at Wyoming last summer who 
informed us that the Indians left this place Thursday and he thinks there was about 1000 
& he heard them say they intended to fight us at the next town. Just after they had 
taken him they was fired on by an Indian who knocked a Stick out of one [of] their hands 
with the bullet but he made his escape without receiving a Shot. This town is very well 
built chiefly sqr and Logs and midling compact got a great deal of Corn & beans here for 
the Army to eat, we encamped here about I oClock & chief of the houses was pulled 
down for firewood. Came over very good land to day Course North West by North near 
the lake all the way 

Monday 6th. Last night the whole Army Discharged their Pieces. This morning 
went very early round to see the Situation of the place the houses was chiefly all pulled 
down for firewood the Appletrees which is a good number & very old was either cut down 
or killd, likewise the peach trees but there were not many of them ; among number of 
other Curiosities I went to see their burying ground which some of the graves is very curi- 
ous, one in particular which I believe was some Chief or great man & was buryed in this 
manner ; the body was laid on the surface of the earth in a Shroud or Garment, then a 
large Casement made very neat with bords something larger than the body & about 4 foot 
high put over the body as it lay on the earth and the outside & top was painted very curi- 
ous with great many Coulours, in each end of the Casement was a small hole where the 
friends of the Deceased or any body might see the corps when they pleased, then over all 
was built a large shed of bark so as to prevent the rain from coming on the Vault, the 
chiefs of the [mss. torn] in the manner I described before. The town dont lay quite on 
the banks of the lake but about j4 Mile from it on a very pretty plain •& about 20 houses 
named Kandaia & a small brook running thro it ; Orders came out for a Regt. from every 
Brigade to go 3 or 4 Mile in front of their Brigades in search of Pack horses and Cattle as 
there was a great number run of last night frohi the firing & got straggled away bt't I 
believe Chief of them was found after a long hunt which prevented the Army from 
marching till between 2 & 3 oClock when we marched 3 Mile and encamped close along 
the edge of the lake in a Beautiful situation and opposite to us on the West side of the 
Lake we could perceive a small Indian town but the Name I dont know. This Evening 1 
came up 4 or 5 Pack horse Men which lost themselves Yesterday and told us that Yester- 
day they took the wrong path and went on till near night when they came to a Small 
Indian town on the Cauga Lake which the Indians had Abandoned, there they found 
there Mistake & came to us as soon as Possible after burning the houses they got like- 
wise a very fine horse and a great number of Peaches & Apples which they brought to 
Camp. There was a Express Arrived from Tyoga before we left Kandaia and brought 
letters and News which Informed us that Congress had passed a resolve to allow the 
Officers 100 Dollars for each Retaind Ration in lieu of 10 which they formerly had ■ 
likewise that the sodiers Pay was raised. 

Tuesday 7rh marched this morning 7 oClock thro a very fine level Country as Usual 
and the same course as formerly about North for near nine Mile when we came near the 
foot of the lake and outlett which I understand empties into Cauga Lake, here we halted 
as we expected the enemy to Attack us and reconoitered the Ground very well before we 
proceeded but found no Enemy there, we had to file off from our left and keep Close on 
the Banks of the lake Occasioned by a bad Marsh which was on our right likewise to 
cross the fording of the Outlett which is about 20 Yards wide — but Midling deep & Rapid 



30 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

after we Crossed keep near West Corner along the Beach of the I,ake for near a mile, 
where we found our Colums but soon finding a marsh in our front had again to file off 
from our left & march again along on the Beach for about Yz Mile when we again got in 
to our former position in Colums and then waited till the Army had time to Cross and 
came up when we marched on a little way & came to another marsh in front which pre- 
vented our marching any longer in Colums we again filed of to the left and marched 
along the Beach till we [camej to Butlers building which is two or three houses on the 
banks of the Lake in a very beautiful Situation here we again formed Colums and 
marched thro a Corn field near where the Men had orders to pluck Corn as they marched 
thro which the did ; we then proceeded on towards the town near S. W. Course but our 
Guides being very bad the whole Armv Got into the town before we did and was near 
Dark before we got in & quite Dark before we encamped. This is the Chief town in the 
.Seneca Nation it lies about i^ Mile from the Lake and about a West course, it lies on 
a pretty level spot but no good Stream of Water near it, only one small Brook running 
thro it which affords but very little water, there is about 70 or 80 houses in it and built 
very Compact and the chief of the houses very good, likewise I heard there was 2 or 3 
old Block houses in it but I did not see them as it was Dark when we came in and the 
men began Imediately to pull down the houses for firewood. I believe the Indians had 
left it several Days as there was not much appearance of their being here lately ; on the 
first entrance of our Brigade a young Child I believe about 3 year old found running 
about the houses which One of our Officers pickt up and found it to be a White Child but 
it was so much tand & smoaked that we could hardly Distinguish it from a Indian Child 
and was Exceeding poor scarcely able to walk it could talk no English noth'g but 
Indian & I believe but little of that the Officer took great care of it and Cloathed it as 
it was naked when he found it & could give no Account of itself only said " his mamy 
was gone " The men got very little plunder The men got very little plunder or anything 
[in] the town as the Indians had taken everything almost with them the Chief [thing] 
the got I believe was one or two horses The name if this town is Kanadasago Marched 
to day 13 Miles 

Kanadasago Wensday 8th. This morning came out orders that the men was to 
remain here all Day & for the Men to Clean their pieces likewise for all the sick lame &c to 
return to Tyoga properly offigered ; aft. 10 oClock Major Parr with the Rifle Corps & the 
Cohoun was going up the lake to a little town called Kushay to Destroy it. I with a num- 
ber of others went Volunteers and got there about 12 oClock found it about 8 Miles from 
Camp and the town opposite to where we lay two nights ago, the town consisted of about 
15 houses tolerable well built and all together we got here 5 horses and a great number of 
Potatoes Apples Peaches cucumbers watermelons fowls &c and found a great Quantity of 
corn here which we went about to Destroy, after burning the houses, but our party being 
to Small Major Parr sent for a Reinforcement to camp we all lay under a bark hutt to 
Night or shed — I believe the Indians had left it the samctime they left Kanadasago it lies 
on the Banks of the lake very prettyly situated which is 4 Mile wide here. 

Thursday gth. Kushay Last night very hard thunder and lightening and Rain but 
Cleard up towards morning about 6 oClock the Reinforcement arrived consisting of 200 
Men & informed us the Army was going to march this morning the Volunteers Ime- 
diately set for camp leaving Major Parr and the rest to Cut the corn, and Just as we got 
to Kanasdasago about ii oClock the Army was Just a marching of after Destroying all 
the houses which remained & corn we marched a West course from Kanadasago thro most 
part [of] a Low swamp encamped about 5 oClock on a very pretty brook after marching 7 
Miles ; in the evening Major Parr Joined us from Kushay 

Eriday loth, Marched this morning 6 oClock each brigade was Ordered to leave a small 
Detachment behind to bring our Straggled horses & cattle, we marched thro a very low 
swamp chiefly timbered with Maple & beach about 5 Mile when we came to upland pretty 
good great part of it no trees on but great quantities of Wild Grapes growing, 3 Mile far- 
ther we came to a Small lake called Kanandaqua which is I believe about 5 Mile long & one 
wide runs N ; & S : we crossed over the outlett which was about 3 foot Deep & about 20 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. , 31 

\'ards wide, soon after we came to Kanandaqua town, which I believe the Enemy had 
Just left as the fire was Vet burning we halted here about an hour & burnt the houses 
which was about 25 and very Compact & Neatly built but no good water near it then the 
Lake, we went about one Mile farther to a number of cornfields and encampmed about 4 
■oClock came 10 Miles to day and about N ; W ; Course, went on Guard to Night — Hun- 
:gry bellies and hard Duty now which I think we may call hard times — The Seneca lake I 
was told by the Surveyor is Just 3b Miles long and 4 Mile wide. 

Saturday nth. had the provision Guard last night which was very Disagreeable, this 
morning the troops marched at 7 oClock went back to the town & took another road, I 
remained on the ground with my guard to further on the stores till II oClock when I had 
leave several Boxes of Amunition behind which I hid, did not overtake the Army till they 
Avas encamped at Planyaye about 5 oClock after marching 14 Miles near West Course 
■Some part of the land to day good and some but Midling Hanyaye is a pretty little 
<J^ompact town of 6 or 10 houses lying near the end of a Small lake running near N : 
& S ; and about as big as the other Lake at Kanandaqua and plenty of Corn & beans, 
when the Rifle Men entered the town there was a few Indians Just made their escape left 
their Packs & Blankets & potatoes Roasting in the fire. 

Sunday 12th. Thunder last Night and Rain and this morning it Raind till 10 oClock 
Avhen it cleared up and the Army marched at ri leaving all the heavy Baggage & pack 
horses excepting a few of the strongest which was took on to Carry spare Amunition & 
Tiome Provision & tents what was left was stored in the Indian houses & a Capt. & 50 Men 
left with it ; the Army on leaving the town crossed the outlet of the lake which was not 
very large and then fornid their line of March and proceeded on very good land in general 
and course N : W by West 5 or six Mile then to the S : of West towards evening and 
•encamped at Dark after marching 11 Miles — To day I heard there was an other town 
& Corn Destroyed on Kanandaqua lake nearly as big as Kandaqua and 2 or 3 Miles from 
it ; on this days march a party of the Enemy kept just a head of us as we could Dis- 
•cover their tracks very fresh and the water muddy where they had crossed. 

Monday 13th. March this morning 6 oClock and a very heavy Dew on the Grass and 
the morning very Cold, in about one Miles marching came to Adjutse town lying near a 
■small Lake a little to the Northward consisting of 10 or 15 Houses ; here we halted 
made fires & drew 3 Days beef, after a little time fatigue parties was sent out to Collect 
the Corn in houses to burn ; about 10 oClock we heard a few Guns firing in front, the 
troops was Imediately formed aud marclied over the Inlett of the Lake a very bad morass 
■& Creek and a large hill on the opposite side where we found the Indians who was formed 
■on this hill had fired on the Surveyor & his party & had Mortally wounded one of his 
-men ; the Rifle Men Rushed up the hill & the linemy made their Escape soon as Possible 
leaving behind them their Packs hatts &c which the Rifle men Got, our Brigade marched 
up to the top of the hill and formed the line of battle where we halted till the Army 
■would get over, here one of our Men eame in wounded who informed us that Lt. Boyd 
Tvith his party iS Riflemen & 8 Musquet men of our Regt. who was sent last night to 
reconoiter the next town was intirely cut to pieces, a little time after Murphy came in who 
told us a very strait story about it in this manner Lt. Boyd with his party went on without 
■any Interuption till he got to the town about Day break when he found it Evacuated, he 
then sent 2 Runners back to inform the Genl. and he retired a little in the woods in sight 
of the town concealed to try if he could not catch a prisoner, he soon after saw 4 
Indians come in to the town a horseback, he sent 5 or 6 Men to take them or kill them 
the men fired on the Indians killd & Sculped one and wounded another and took a horse 
■saddle & bridle, he thent sent of two more Runners to the Army but they soon Returnd 
to him & informed him they had seen 5 Indiaris on the road, he then thout proper to 
return with his party to the Army which he expected to meet very soon, he had not gone 
far before he fell in with the same Indians which he fired on, they run on before 
him and he pursued them Slowly & every once in a while he would come in sight of them 
and fire on them & so they kept on till he caine to this hill in front of an camp about j^ of 
a Mile where the Indians fired on the Surveyor when he heard our Drums and thought 



32 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

himself intirely safe but to his great disappointment found a large party of Indians found 
them behind trees he Imediately formed his men for Action and began a very heavy fire 
which lasted some time but the Indians whose number was so far superior to him surrounded 
him and made prisoners or killed the whole excepting a few which came in, we found 4 
or 5 of our men on the ground Dead & sculped and it is supposed that Lt. Boyd was 
made prisoner, the Enemy had a number killd as the men that was hid in the bushes 
saw the Indians carry a number of in blankets — After the Army had got over the Creek 
we marched on to Cossawauloughly town 7 Miles ; our Advance Guard just after the 
entered the town saw some five Indians we all halted had our Pieces of Artillery drawn 
in front then Advanced but found nobody in the town, when it was about Dark the 3 
Pieces of Artillery was drawn up and fired all together with round shot to scour the 
woods. This town lies on a Branch of the Chenesee River and consists of about 25 
houses very well built but almost new. the houses was Chiefly puUd down for firewood. 
Course N: W: one or two man of Lt. Boyds party came in to night 

Tuesday 14th. The whole Army was under arms this morning an hour before Day & 
remained so till sunrise ; about 7 oClock fatigue parties was sent out to Destroy Corn 
which was there in great Abundance and beans, about I2 oClock we marched crossed 
over the branch of the Jinasee River and came upon a very beautiful flat of great extent 
growing up with wild Grass higher in some places than our heads, we marched on this 
flat 2 Mile and Crossed they Jinesee River which is about as big as the Tyago but very 
Crooked. . left the flats and march'd thro the woods 3 Mile and arrived at Chenesee Town 
which is the largest we have yet seen ; it lies in a Crook of they River on extraordinary 
good land about 70 houses very compact and very well built and about the same number 
of out houses in Cornfields &c : on entering the town we found the body of Lt. Boyd 
and another Rifle Man in a most terrible mangled condition they was both stripped 
naked and their heads Cut off and the flesh of Lt. Boyds head was intirely taken of and 
his eyes punched out. the other mans hed was not there, they was stabed I supose in 
40 Diferent places in the Body with a spear and great gashes cut in their flesh with knifes, 
and Lt. Boyds Privates was nearly cut of & hanging down, his finger and 7"oe nails was 
bruised of and the Dogs had eat part of their Shoulders away likewise a knife was Stick- 
ing in Lt. Boyds body They was imediately buried with the honour of war. 

Wensday 15th. The whole Army went out this morning 6 oClock to destroy corn and 
was out till 12 oClock, there was here the greatest quantity of corn & beans here of any 
of the towns some of it we husked and threw in the River the rest we Carried to the 
houses & burnd the whole we totally destroyed, about lo oClock we Reed, orders to 
begin our march home which we did leaving the towns in flames. To day there was a 
white woman & Child came into us but I believe brought no Inteligcnce of Cbnsequence 
— Marched over the Chenesee River and encamped after Dark on the Edge of the flats 
nigh to Cossawauloughly town 

Thursday i6th. The whole army was out this morning cuting corn which we left as 
we was going, our brigade crossed the River to cut which we did and I believe there was 
a great Quantity destroyed and some houses burnt, Marched of about 10 oClock in the 
folowing line of March An Advance Guard of 100 Men in front Genl. Chntons brigade 
folowing in 4 Columns the other troops marching as usual Genl. Hands brigade fetching 
up the Rear, 2 Pieces of Artillery in the rear of him & the Rifle Men in the rear of they 
whole, the Cohoun with the Advance Guard — Capt. Henderson with 60 Men went in front 
of the Army to bury the Dead and Just as we came up he was a going to bury 14 Bodies 
in a most terrible mangled Condition they was buryed with the honour of war — Encamped 
to night at Adjutse 

Friday 17th. Marched this morning sun rise and a very cold morning with hard 
frost Arrived at Hanyaye i oClock where we encamped found our Garrison all in good 
order conisting of 300 Men instead [of] 50 which I mentioned Comanded by Capt. Cum- 
mings, they was encamped round the house where we had left our stores in, and the 
camp was abatted in, and round the house the had made a small Fort of Kegs and Bags 
of Flower and had three Pieces of Artillery in it and the house they had made full of loop 



I.IEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 33 

holes so as to fight out of it in Case of Necessity and upon the whole I think the was 
very safe — To day we passed a small Lake 6 Miles from here lying on a Parallel with the 
rest called Conyradice and about as Big I forgot to mention this Lake on our going we 
crossed the outlett of it but it was not very large This evening each man in the Army 
Drew 6 Pound of Flower which come very welcome as we can now sit down arid eat a 
hearty meals Victuals with a Clear conscience, & before on our half allowance we Dare 
not — 

Saturday i8th. This morning had to kill a great number of our Horses which was 
not able to carry packs nor even be drove on with the army — Very cold, marched 7 oClock 
from Hanyaye passed Kanandaqua and waded the otlett of the Lake and encamped a little 
before Sun down Close on the end of the Lake — On our March to day 2 or 3 Oneida 
Indians came to us from Fort Schuyler and brought us the very agreeable News of New 
York being in our Possession which is generally believed thro' the Army — A Number ol 
our Pack horses which was not able to go any farther we Shot on the road to day 

Sunday 19th. Marched this morning 8 oQlock very much trouble with pack horses 
had to kill a number on the road, about Dark Arrived at Kanadasago where we encamped. 
To day express arrived from Tiogo who contradicted our late agreeable news but brought 
papers which Informed us that Spain had Declared war with England — went on Guard to 
Night 

Monday 20th. This morning I saw the ruins of an old Stockade Fort very large which 
the Indians had here last war, likewise I am Informed that there was one at Kanandaqua 
and one between this and that on a brook — This morning a Detachment under the Com- 
mand of Col. Smith went up the Kushe & a little above to Destroy some Corn thet was 
left there. A detachment of York troops and an ofificer from each of the York Regts. 
under the Comd. of Col. Gansevort was sent of to Albany by the way of Fort Schuyler 
I believe to bring on the oiScers baggage to the Main Army, likewise a large Detachment 
of 5 or 600 Men under the comand of Col. Butler set of about i oClock 1 believe to Ca- 
uga Lake to Destroy their Country. Col. Gansevorts comand went with Col. Butler, at 
4 oClock the Army marched from Kanadasago crossed the outlet of the Lake & encamped 
after Dark by the side of the Lake — Col. Smith with his Detachment returned this 
evening 

Tuesday 21st. a Detachment this morning under the Comand of Col. Dearborn 
went to Cauga Lake to Destroy some small Settlements there and Corn — The Army 
marched this morning 7 oClock 2 Miles beyond Kandaic where we encamped about 4 
oClock. 

Wensday 22d. Marched this morning 7 oClock had a very bad Defile in front to pass 
which detaind us a good while encamped a little before Sun down within g Miles of 
Catharines town, very cloudy all Day 

Thursday 23d. Very Cold last night but a fine clear day, marched about 7 oClock 
arrived at Catharines town where we Stopd. about one hour to refresh, then proceeded on 
3 Miles up the Narrows where we encamped about sunset while we Stayed in the town we 
buryed the lame Squaw which I mentioned on our going, it is supposed she was Shot by 
some of our men likewise the Old Squaw that we left here had built or got built a neat 
little bark hutt where she lived, the General ordered to be left her almost a keg of flower 
and some meat which was done and I supposed she will live in splendour 

Friday 24. Clouday like for rain this morning march'd about 7 oClock up the Seneca 
Creek very swampy bad road crossed over the Dividing ridge and came on the waters of 
the Susquehana that is Spring Creek which empties itself into Tyoga a little above New- 
town at the mouth of this creek we arrived about 4 oClock where there was a Small Gar- 
rison established of about 200 Men who had come up from Tyogo with six days Provision 
for us, they had erected a Small Battery or Fort Just on the point where the lay with 2 
Field Pieces and their Provision ; on our coming to the place the Garrison saluted us with 
thirteen Pieces of Canon which was returned with the same Number from us and we 



34 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

encamped here, and drew each officer & soldier one Jill of Whiskey after a fatigue of near 
one Month without a drop, likewise we 'drew full allowance of Beef for the first time. 

Saturday 25th, In consequence of Spain Declaring war against Great Britain and of 
the late generous Resolution of Congress of raising the Subsistence of Officers & soldiers 
of the Army The General ordered a Feu De Joy to be fired by the army this afternoon 
at 5 oClock and likewise he ordered to be delivered to the officers of each Brigade one of 
the best oxen there was & 5 Gallons of Spirits : accordingly at 5 oClock the troops was 
drawn up in a single line with the field Pieces on the Right the Feu De Joy began with 
13 discharges of cannon and then a running fire of the Musqitry from the right to the 
left of the line Intermixed with Field pieces but it did not please the General and he 
made the musquitry fire again afterwards the officers of each Brigade assembled and 
Supped together (excepting Genl. Poors) on their ox and five gallons of spirits and spent 
the evening very agreeable. The officers of our brigade assembled at a large bower made 
for that purpose Iluminated with 13 pine not fires round and each officer atended with his 
bread, knife and plate and set on the ground Genl. Hand at the head & Col Procter at 
at the foot as his officers suped with us in this manner we suped very hearty and then went 
to drinking our spirits, and the following Toasts was given by Genl. Hand — The 13 Sis- 
ters and their sponsers — -The honorable the American Congress — Genl. Washington & the 
American Army — The comander in chief of the Western expedition— The Allies of 
America & the United House of Bourbon — The memory of Lt. Boyd and the Brave sol- 
diers under his command who was unhumanly massacred on the 13th Instant — May the 
American Congress and the I.ggislatives of America be endowed with wisdom and be as 
firm as the Pillars of time — -May the Citizens & soldiers of America be Unanimous in sup- 
port of American Liberty — May Discord & Fraud be banished from the Shores of Amer- 
ica — May the Kingdon of Ireland merit a Stripe in our Standard — An honorable peace or, 
persistant war to the Enemies of America — May the Enemies of America be Metamor- 
phised in Pack horses and sent on a Western Expedition - afterwards there was two or 
three Indian Dances led down by Genl. Hand and performed by the rest midling well then 
each officer returned to their Qrs after kicking up a Small Dust of Striking tents &c. 
' Sunday 26th. Did not feel very well this morning after my frolick but was ordered on 
detachment but it raind a little which prevented our going. Col. Dearborns Comand 
came in to day and brought in two squaws Prisoners and left one Indian and one squaw- 
very sick on the Cauga lake, which they could not fetch along the Destroyed five Indian 
towns on the Cauga lake midling large and very well built in general and Destroyed a 
great quantity of Corn 

Monday 27th. The Detachment that was a going yesterday Paraded this morning 7 
oClock under the comand of Col. Cortland and went up the Tyoga 8 Mile and took some 
Boats with them and loaded them with Corn & pumpkins and sent down to the Army and 
Destroyed a great Quantity more and then returned a little after Dark — This evening Mr. 
Lodge the Surveyor came in & told us Col. Butler lay all night within 5 miles of here and 
would be in tomorrow likewise the Boats arrived here from Tiogo to transport the sick & 
baggage down 

Tuesday 28th. This morning all the sick was orderd to go down in Boats to Tiogo, 
and the Lame to ride down the worst horses. ' the same Detachment that was up the 
Tyoga yesterday was ordered up again to day and a very large comand was ordered to go 
! down the Tyoga to Destroy Corn ; Just as our Detatchment Paraded Col. Butlers Comd. 
{ came in and informed us that they had destroyed on the East side of the Cauga Laie 
' three Capital towns and a great number of scattering houses and Destroyed a very great 
quanity of Corn the houses I am informed was much larger and better built than any 
we have yet seen, and it was a very old sittled Country as the had great number of Apple 
and Peach trees which they likewise Cut Down — Our Detatchment marched up the Tyago 
5 Miles above where we was yesterday and burnt 2 or 3 houses and Destroyed a little 
Corn on each side of the river a little before night I went up the river about 5 Mile far- 
ther but found no Corn and returned where we found them encamped in one of the corn 
fields but had no tents 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 35 

Wednsdav 2gth. slept tolerable well rose early loaded two boats with corn which 
we had with us and set of down the river about 7 oClock arrived where the Camp was 
about 2 oCIock where we found the Army had left in the morning, here we halted about 
2 hours collected some horses and killed a number more likewise sent down a Boat which 
the Army had left. Marched of from there with a Determination to join the army to 
night, at the time we arrived at shamung it was Dark ho.wever we march'd on thro the 
Narrows a very Dificult road to pass and arrived at the main Army about 12 oClock at 
Night which was encamped 3 Mile below shamong 

Thursday 30th. Marchd this morning g oClock halted within one Mile of Fort Sulli- 
van on the mouth of Tyoga and sent for our Musick & Coulours likewise found the men 
in a proper line of March then march'd on with Musick playing and Colours flying and 
■encamp'd on the same ground we did before. When our troops passed the Fort the Gar- 
rison was paraded and saluted us with 13 Pieces of Cannon regularly fired, afterward the 
same number was return'd by us, then three Cheers from the Garrison — The officers of 
each Regt. had a Dinner paraded for them in the garrison where they Imediately 
repaired and Dined and took a hearty Drink of Grog and went to sleep — since we left 
this Col Shreve who commanded had a very strong picket fort made here surrounded with 
very good Abattees and the 4 Block houses for the four Bestions which Comanded each 
River and all the men was encamped in the Garrison — Just been from Tyoga thirty-five 
Days and from Tioga. 136 Miles 

October i, Friday lay in camp all Day resting and Cleaning our selves 

Saturday 2d. This Day a Number of officers was sent to Wioming to prepare for 
the reception of the Army and a Number others went on other business 

Sunday 3d. Orders came out to day for to have all the Stores loaded in boats and 
ready to march to morrow morning with the Army, at six oClock The Hospital and sick 
to go down to the river this afternoon this Day a large fatigue Party was turned out to 
Destroy the fort, which they did effectually by pulling up the pickets and casting them in 
the river and burning the Abattees 

Monday 4th. — This Day a little rain. Chief part of the- Army march'd, only left a 
sufficient quantity to man the boats marched about 8 oClock crossed over the Tyoga 
and a little while after Crossed the river to the East side and proceeded on midling good 
road to Wysankin when they incamped I went in the boats and got to Wysankin two 
hours before the Army and all encamped together ; this place was formerly a small settle- 
ment but Destroyed by the Enemy 

Tuesday 5th. The whole of the Army was ordered to go in Boats this morning and 
we set of about g oClock Down the River, our Regt. bringing up the rear of the Army 
and a little after Dark encamped on the shore, Our Regt. by themselves the Army Chiefly 
in front where we lay all Night 

Wensday 6th. Started midling early this morning but did not overtake the Armv or 
at least Head Quarters but passed a Number of boats encamp'd Just at Dark on a small 
Improvement where we staid all Night 24 Miles from Wyoming 

Thursday 7th. Embarked tolerable early this morning passed several small im- 
provements on the river which had been but now Destroyed by the Enemy Arrived at 
Wyoming about 5 oClock where we found Chief of the Array encamped, we imediately 
Disembarked and incamp'd in our proper place — Wyoming before it was Destroyed by 
the Enemy was a very pretty settlement and very large excellent land it lies on each 
side of the river and is very long Chief of the inhabitants have left the settlement 
what few there is here Erected small hutts where they live very uncomfortable I think, the 
Inhabitants had a very severe battle with the Enemy before they Destroyed but was De- 
feated by which means the Enemy got Possession of the settlement and Destroyed it 
the Inhabitants had a number killd which left a great many Widows in the place, since 
the Battle they havs erected a very good Fort and Continental Troops has been stationed 
at it which has keep it since. 



36 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Friday 8th. A large party was sent on to East — ton to day to repair the roads. I 
went up to see some of the Inhabitants to day which appeared very strange to me being 
so long from seeing any of them — 

Saturday gth. This day we Reed, orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march to- 
morrow morning early, likewise Genl. Sullivan Set of to Eastown leaving the comand 
of the Army to Genl. Clinton» this being my birth day I with a few of our officers had a 
Sociable Drink of Grog this evening — 

Sunday loth. The Genl. beat this morning 8 oClock could get no v^aggons to carry 
our baggage therefore had to break up our Chests & and Carry our baggage oh Pack 
horses The Army did not march till 3 oClock in the Afternoon when the set of for East- 
own the Army was very much Detained on Account of getting on the Amunition Wag- 
gons and some [of] the General & Field officers had to Cari-y their baggage as the horses 
was very weak and the road Exceeding bad up a very long hill good many waggons left 
behind and the baggage taken out and Put on Pack horses, a little after Dark got on the top 
of the hill about 4 Mile from Wyoming where we Encamped on very stony ground and 
the Army very much Scattered 

Monday nth. Marched this morning early came to Bullocks which is a house 7 
Miles from Wyoming formerly a tavern but the Inhabitants had fled here we found the 
front of the Army who lay here all Night Just preparing for to march we halted & drew a 
Gill of Rum Each then marihed on to the Edge of the Great swamp 17 Miles from Wyo- 
ming where we encamped on tolerable gooci ground. 

Tuesday 12th. Marched this morning 8 oClock Entered the great swamp which is a 
very bad road the waggons was sent on at Day break this morning and to halt at Locust 
hill about the middle of the swamp till the Army came up we arrived at Locust hill about 
I oClock where we found the waggons, Ijere we halted and eat Dinner passd the waggons 
which come on in they rear. Just as the Army got thro the Swamp which is 12 Miles 
thro ; a very heavy shower of rain come on which wet us very much, marched 3 Miles 
thro the Swamp and encamped a little before Dark on a pretty little brook 32 Miles from 
Eastown ; a great many horses Died in the Swamp to day and a Great many waggons 
broken to pieces, and the baggage of the Army did not come up — To Day we met about 
50 waggons in the swamp going to Wyoming for what baggage of the Army was left 
there, about one half was turned to fetch on our baggage the others went on to Wyoming. 

Wensday 13th. Marched this morning g oClock those fresh waggons helped on the 
baggage midling well, in marching about 5 Mile came to Larnards tavern it being the- 
beginning of the settlement of a Christian Country, which appeared to me very strange 
here, we halted in a field Ij^ hours to refresh Then marched on very good roads g Mile 
thro a thin settled country and about 5. oClock arrived at Brinkers Mills where we hac^a 
large Store of Provisions for this Army, and here the had a small picketed fort where they 
had store houses in to keep their provision, and a small Gai-rison of Militia, as soon as 
we was encamped I went out to a Country house and got an Elegant Dinner which I was 
very well pleased with likewise we Drew Provision this evening 

Thursday 14th. Here we got a few more waggons almost sufficient to carry all they 
baggage Marched to day n oClock thro a middling good settled Country, Crossed the 
Blue Mountain encamped at Aliens tavern 7 Miles from Brinkers Mills about 3 oClock, 
Here an officer from each Regt. was ordered to attend at Head Qrs. after taking the 
minds of the officers of their Regts. concerning the high prices of Articles whether they 
would give it or no, after a Consultation of an hour or two they came to this resolution 
that they would not Purchase of any tavern keeper any liquor or provision while on the 
march to Head Quarters Sickness Excepted —Orders came out for the solders & officers 
to be as Clean aS' possible to march into Eastown. 

Friday 15th. Marched this morning 8 oClock baggage all in the Center thro a very 
good road arrived at Eastown about 3 oClock — The Army marched thro the town in 
ample order and encamped in Diferent places, our brigade encamped up the Laihi about 
a Mile on very good ground — I was very much pleased to see the resolution of the officers 
so strictly adhered to, as I did not see a single soul enter a tavern which was a great Dis- 



LIEUT. ERKURIES BEATTY. 87 

appointment to the Inhabitants, as they had laid in great stores and thought they would 
have a very fine market for it by this Army — Genl. Sullivan again takes the Comand of 
they Army 

Saturday i6th. Lay in Camp all Day nothing material happening 

Sunday 17th. Lost all my Cloaths last night stole from the Wash woman left me in a 
Deploraible condition not a second shirt to my Back — The v^^hole Army went to Church to 
Day and heard a very Elegant Oration from the Revd. Dr. Evans Sutible to the Occ^ision — 
likewise Genl. Sullivan and the Western army had the thanks of Congress, went out in 
the Country to day and got Buckwheat Cakes, Butter, Milk and honey which was a very 
great rarity indeed 

Monday i8th. To day the Regt. was Mustered for 4 Months and the Day was taken 
up Chiefly in making Muster rolls &c — Part of my Cloaths was found to day hid in the 
mountain but two of my best shifts is yet a missing 

Tuesday 19th. Wensday 20th. Thursday 2tst. 

Friday 22d. Went this Day to Bethlehem and saw the Curiosities of that Place and 
Drank some Excellent wine and returned ho^ie a little after Dark and so I believe I may 
here end my Journal with a belly full of good wine Given under my hand this 22d. Day 
of October in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy Nine 

E. BEATTY 



JOURNAL OF LIEUTENANT THOMAS BLAKE. 



Lieutenant Thomas Blake was of Dorchester, Mass. He was the 
son of Samuel and Patience Blake, and was born October 7, 1752. In 
1775 when the alarm, consequent upon the attack of the British at Lex- 
ington and Concord reached him, he immediately joined the continental 
army at Cambridge. In ISTovember, 1776, he was commissioned as 
Ensign in Colonel Stark's First New Hampshire Eegiment, with which 
he continued until its dissolution in January, 1784 In 1778 he was 
promoted to a Lieutenant and was afterwards Paymaster and Regimental 
Clothier. His journal of the marches and campaigns of the Eegiment 
for about five years was published in the " History of the First New 
Hampshire Regiment in the War of the Revolution, by Frederick Kid- 
der, Joel Munsell, Albany, 1868," from which the followiag, embracing 
what relates to the Sullivan expedition, is extracted. After the Revolu- 
tion he settled in Boston, Mass., where he died February 16, 1840. 

Dec. 4. [1778] We began to build our huts, which we finished in a short time, and 
tarried in them till the loth of April, and then marched to the high lands on North river, 
where we went into huts and staid till May gth 1779, then marched for Easton in Penn- 
sylvania, where we arrived the i8th, and took quarters in the Court House and other 
spare buildings. 

May ig, 1779. Gen. Sullivan arrived at Easton, being appointed to command of the 
western army. 

May 28. — Col. Cillys regiment marched to Wyoming 12 miles. 

May 29.- — Marched to Pocono point 15 miles. 

May 30. — Marched to Tuckhannock 10 miles. 

May 31. — Marched to Locust hill 6 miles, where we came up with Col. Courtlands 
and Col. Spencer's regiments, who were cutting a road through to Wyoming. We pitched 
our tents and went to work with them, and a detachment of 200 men from the three regi- 
ments marched forward to Wyoming. We worked on the road till June 7, and moved 
our tents 8 miles. 

June g. — Moved 2 miles and encamped. 

June ii. — Moved 5 miles to Bullock's house. 

June 14. — Marched to Wyoming 7 miles, and 65 from Easton. 

June 17. — Col. Cilly's, Courtland's, and Spencer's regiments marched up the river to 
Jacob's Plains 4 miles and encamped. 

June 23. — Gen. Sullivan came in to Wyoming, also 5 other regiments. 



LIEUT. THOMAS BLAKE. 39 

July 4. — Col. Cilly's and Courtland's regiments crossed the river and marched down 
two miles toward Wyoming, and encamped with the rest of Gen. Poor's brigade. 

July 5. — Gen. Poor made an entertainment for the officers of the brigade in commem- 
oration of American independence, and after dinner the following toasts were drank : i. 
United States. 2. July 4, 1776, the memorable. 3. The grand council of America. 4. 
Gen. Washington and the army. 5. The king and queen of France. 6. Gen. Sullivan 
and the Western expedition. 7. May the councillors of America be wise and her soldiers 
invincible. 8. A successful and decisive campaign. 9. Civilization or death to all sava- 
ges. 10. To the immortal memory of those heroes that have fallen in defense of Ameri- 
can Hberty. n. May the husbandman's cottage be blessed with peace, and his fields 
with plenty. 12. Vigor and virtue to all the sons and daughters of America. 13. May 
the New World be the last asylum of freedom and the arts. 

July 27. — Gen. Poor's brigade marched down to Wyoming and encamped with the rest 
of the army. 

July 31. — Having all things in readiness, the army began their march up the river. 
We marched to Lacawaneck 10 miles. 

Aug. I. — Marched to Quilutamack 7 miles, and met with so much difficulty in passing 
some large mountains that ran down to the river, that the rear did not come up till sun- 
rise next morning, for which reason we lay still the second day. 

Aug. 3. — Marched to Tunkhannick 12 miles. 

Aug. 4. — Marched to Vanderlips farm 13 miles. 

Aug. 5. — Marched to Wylusink 10 miles. 

Aug. 6 & 7. — Lay still. 

Aug. S. — Marched to Standingstone 11 miles. 

Aug. 9. — Marched to Shesheck 16 miles. 

Aug. 10. — Lay still. 

Aug. II. — Forded the river, and marched to Tioga 5 miles, and there encamped on the 
point between the Seneca and Tioga branches. 

Aug. 12. — Toward night we had orders to prepare for a march, and left Tioga just 
after sunset with one days provision, leaving all our tents standing, and our baggage in 
them, with a few men least able to march. Marched all night though very dark and bad 
traveling ; and just at day break next morning reached Chemong, a small Indian town 1 4 
miles from Tioga ; but they being alarmed before we could surround the town made off. 
They had previously moved all their women, children and effects, leaving only about fifty 
of their warriors as a guard. Gen. Hand's brigade followed them up the river about two 
miles where they had posted themselves in a very advantageous position. They gave the 
brigade a shot and ran off. In the meantime we set fire to all the buildings in the town, 
about twenty, then marched, crossed the river, and destroyed three or four fields of corn, 
cutting and throwing it in heaps, the corn being then in the milk. While at work on tne 
last field, we were fired upon across the river by the Indians, killing one and wounding 
four of our men. The whole of our killed and wounded this day was about 15 or 16. 
We were not positive of killing more than one of the Indians. In the afternoon we 
marched back to Tioga. 

Aug. 15. — A party of Indians came down to the south side of the river, opposite the 
encampment, and fired upon some men that were tending cattle, killed one and wounding 
another. 

Aug. i6. — A detachment of goo men commanded by Gen. Poor, marched up the river 
to meet Gen. Clinton's brigade who were to meet us at Tyoga from the Mohawk river. 

Aug. 17. — The Indians killed one man near the encampment. 

Aug. 22. — Gen. Clinton's brigade with the detachment sent to meet him, came in. 

Aug. 26. — Three Indians belonging to the Oneida tribe came in to join our army and 
assist our guides. The same day the army began to march into the Seneca country, leav- 
ing a garrison of 500 men ; marched 4 miles and encamped. 

Aug. 27. — Marched 6 miles. 

Aug. 28. — Thence to Chemong 4 miles. 



40 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Aug. 29. — We marched about 4 miles, where our advanced guard were fired upon by 
the enemy from a breastwork they had thrown up, of about a quarter of a mile in length, 
extending from the river to a large range of mountains, which lay parallel with the river. 
The army halted, and Gen. Poor's brigade marched back of the mountains in order to 
cross the range in rear of the enemy. In the meantime we kept a few men firing before 
the breast work, in order to arouse the enemy. Gen. Poor's brigade marched round about 
three miles, and as we attempted to ascend and cross the mountain, were fired upon by 
the Indians, who gave at the same time a most hideous yell which resounded in the moun- 
tains as if covered with them. 

The brigade formed line and marched up, receiving a constant fire from them ; but as 
Soon as we reached the top they fled, and those at the breastwork at the same time. We 
had 4 men killed and 32 wounded. There were 11 Indians left dead on the ground. 
They took off their wounded, as appeared by the blood where they crossed the river. We 
took two prisoners during the action, a white man and a negro, who informed us there 
were 600 Indians, 200 Tories and 14 British troops all under the command of Col. But- 
ler. That they had been waiting some time for us, intending to cut off our provisions, 
and to hinder our further progress into their country. 

Aug. 30. — We lay still, and in the evening sent the wounded men down to Tioga in 
boats. 

Aug. 31. — Marched 10 miles. 

_Sept. I. — Marched to French Katharines 13 miles. 

Sept. 2. — Lay still 

Sept. 3. — Marched 10 miles and encamped on the north side of Seneca lake. 

Sept. 4. — Passed Appletown and marched 13 miles. 

Sept. 5. — Marched to Kondar — 6 miles. 

Sept. 6. — Marched 4 miles 

Sept. 7. — Marched round the end of Seneca lake to Kanadasaga 13 miles. 

Sept. 8. — The army lay still ; a detachment went up the south side of the lake to 
destroy a town. 

Sept. 9. — Marched 8 miles. 

Sept. 10. — To Kennendaughque 12 miles. 

Sept. ir. — To Hanneyauyen 13 miles ; here we left a garrison of 100 men with part 
of the flour and ammunition. 

Sept. 12. — Marched 11 miles. 

Sept. 13. — After marching 2 miles we came to a town called Keneghses where the army 
halted to build a bridge over a large sunken place for the troops to cross. In the mean- 
time, part of the riflemen went forward to the next town. On their return within about 
a mile of the army, they were fired upon by the enemy who had posted themselves on a 
hill ready to give us a shot as soon as we came out of the swamp. They killed 13 of the 
riflemen and took two prisoners. Our men being alarmed by the fire, the light troops 
marched to their relief, on the appearance of which the enemy quit the ground leaving 70 
of their packs. After this we marched to Gaghaheywarahera ; the whole of our march 
to day being 9 miles. 

Sept. 14. — We marched 2 miles and forded the Chinesee river, then 3 miles down the 
river to a large town called Chinesee Castle, and here found the two men that had been 
taken the day before cut to pieces in the most barbarous and inhuman manner possible to 
be conceived. In this town were 180 houses and an exceeding large field of corn, which 
took the army until the middle of the afternoon next day to destroy, after which we 
marched about 4 miles. 

Sept. 16. — We marched to Keneghses. 

Sept. 17. — Marched to Hannauyan 

Sept. 18.— Marched to Kennendaughque. 

Sept. 19. — Marched to Kanadasaga. 



LIEUT. THOMAS BLAKE. 41 

Sept. 20. — A detachment of 500 men commanded by Col. Butler were sent off to go 
up the lake (Keyuga) on the northeast side ; the army marched a little past the end of 
Seneca lake. 

Sept. 21. — Another detachment of 200 men under command of Col. Dearborn left us 
to go up the southwest side of Keuga lake. The army marched 3 miles past Kendaia ; 
and • 

Sept. 24.— We met some ot our boats 5 miles above Newton, where we halted until 
the detachments came in ; and 

Sept 29 & 30. — Marched to Tyoga. 

Oct. 4. — The army marched for Wyoming, making 14 miles. 

Oct. 5. — The whole army went on board the boats, except a sufficient number to drive 
the horses and cattle, and arrived at Wyoming, on 

Oct. 7. — About noon. 

Oct. 10. — Marched for Easton where we arrived 

Oct. 15. — And encamped near the river. 

Oct. 27.— Marched toward the North river, and 

Oct. 30. — Pitched our tents at the mouth of the cove. 

Nov. 6. — Marched to Plimpton and encamped. 

Nov. 24. — Marched 15 miles toward the Noith river 

Nov. 25. — Marched to the river and crossed. 

Nov. 27.— Marched to Crumpond, 

Nov. 28. — Marched 12 miles 

Nov. 2g. — Marched to Ridgbury. 

Dec. I. — Thence to the place pitched upon for building our huts for the winter, which 
was about half way between Danbury and Newtown. 



JOURNAL OF MAJOR JOHN BURROWES. 



Major John Burro wes married Margaret, daughter of Judge Sam- 
uel Forman and Helen Denise, his wife, both families living at Middle- 
town Point, (now Matawan), N. J. He was brought up as a merchant, 
entered the continental army at the beginning of the war, and came out 
a Major with a high reputation, having been in several engagements and 
had many narrow escapes. He was much with General David Forman 
(who was nicknamed " Black David ") and gained from the Tories — who 
were much afraid of both — the sobriquet of " Black David's Devil." 
His wife died, leaving three children, of whom the daughters, Mrs. Jacob 
W. Hallett and Mrs. Sidney Breeze of Oneida, N. Y., survive. After 
the war, Major Burrowes went to Georgia, and was never heard from 
after starting on a journey into the interior at an unhealthy season. Of 
Mrs. Burrowes' sisters, Eleanor Forman married Phihp Freeman, the 
poet, Catharine married Benjamin Ledyard, of New London, Conn., 
who was later a merchant in New York city, and later still, County 
Clerk, at Aurora, IST. Y. The brother Jonathan Forman mamed Ben- 
jamin Ledyard's sister Mary, who " went over her shoe tops in blood " 
in the barn where the wounded lay, the morning after Arnold's descent 
upon New London, where her uncle. Colonel William Ledyard was 
killed after his surrender. The only surviving child of General Jona- 
than Forman (who served throughout the war in the New Jersey line 
and later went to Cazenovia, N. Y.), Mary Ledyard Forman, married 
Henry Seymour and was the mother of Horatio, and John F. Seymour, 
of Utica, N. Y. 

Captain John Burrowes was Major in S})encer's Fifth New Jersey 
Eegiment. He was fonnerly of Forman's Regiment By general orders 
of June 26, 1779, Colonel Spencer was directed to join Maxwell's Bri- 
gade and " the companies of late Forman's Corps will join Spencer's 
Regiment." 



MAJOR JOHN BURROWES. 43 

The following is from a copy of the journal made from the original 
manuscript by Mrs. Elizabeth Breeze Stevens, a granddaughter of Major 
Burrowes, living at Oneida, Madison County, F. Y., and has been 
carefully compared by George G. Barnum, Esq., Corresponding Secre- 
tary of Buffalo Historical Society, with a copy in the archives of that 
society. The original manuscript, in the possession of Hon. Breeze J. 
Stevens, Madison, Wis., a son of Mrs. E. B. Stevens, has been mislaid. 

JOURNAL. 

1779 

Tioga 23d August 1779. 

This morning took command of the guard on the west side of Cayuga. 

{Observations) While on guard I heard orders were issued for the army's marching on 
Wednesday morning — to morrow afternoon all preparations for having the baggage in 
readiness — that there be no detention to the marching early in the morning. 

Tuesday— Tioga 24th August 

This day employed in loading the pack-hotses, turning out the covering parties and flank 
guards — The gun fired at 4 o'clock for the troops to strike their tents,^ load them and 
parade. The insufficiency of horses was now discovered. However by unloading the 
horses that were loaded with the officers baggage, the provisions and ammunition are in a 
likely way to go on. At 7 o'clock another gun was fired to pitch tents and encamp for 
the night. 

Wednesday, Tioga Aug. 25th. 

Turn out again this morning and got things ready to depart from this. The morning 
looks like rain — at 8 o'clock it began to rain and continued the whole day, which puts a 
stop to our march this day. 

{Observations) Hurrying our march is highly necessary and with all dispatch possible 
on several accounts. We have now but twenty seven days provisions for the army anc' 
have to march one hundred and twenty miles farther in an enemy's country — horses 
growing poor, as there is nothing but Indian grass and that very old, The season of the 
year is advancing when we should begin to think of winter quarters as the men are poorly 
clothed and not above one in 12 have a blanket, and nights here are already very cool. 
We have at this place all the sick and a garrison of two hundred & fifty men, with some 
pieces of artillery for the block houses. 

Thursday 26th August 1779 

Although this morning we were to begin our march very early, we did not get off till 
12 o'clock. In all armies the first day is only to start. We make our halt at 5 o'clock 
the distance of three miles from Tioga : and as Genl. Maxwells brigade marched on the 
left, we encamped on the Cayuga Branch. 

{Observations) As soon as bur tents were pitched I amused myself with walking on 
the bank of the river which brought to my view a large bottom or beautiful plain, not a 
stump to be seen, a great burthen of wild grass, and with little industry (from the ap- 
pearance of the soil) would make most excellent meadows, the upland very indifferent. 

27th August 1779 Friday 

The morning gun fired at 6 o'clock. At 8 o'clock another gun for Assembly to beat, 
at which time the men stack their tents and load the pack-horses. The third gun fires 
for the march to commence which was between 9 and 10 o'clock — we march about 3 milfts 
when we have a very bad defile to pass nearly three quarters of a mile in length, and after 



44 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

tedious and frequent halts we passed it-through the most difficult road — we arrive at this 
place a march of six miles for this day. 

Observations — The country continues rhountaindus anil the ropd very disagreeable. 
The sight of Carriages in this part of the world is very odd, as there is nothing but a foot 
path. We got this night at a large flat three miles distant from Chemung where corn 
grows such as cannot be equalled in Jersey. The field contains about loo acres, beans, 
cucumbers. Simblens water-melons and pumpkins in such quantities (were it represented 
in. the manner it should be) would be almost incredible to a civilized people. We sat up 
until between one and two o'clock feasting on these rarities. 

Shemung 28th August 1779 

The army dont move until 2 o'clock this afternoon. The detention was occasioned by 
the badness of the defile we crossed the day before. Genl. C linton with his brigade, 
pack-horses & cattle could not pass it until this morning. We arrise at this place at sun- 
set, the pack horses being in the rear, made it after dark before we got our tents pitched, 
the badness of two defiles we had to cross took up the whole afternoon to get three miles. 
We crossed the Cayuga twice. The river was three feet deep, and the rapids very strong, 
it swept a number of our pack-horses down the river. 

Observations. — Directly after we crossed the Cayuga the second time, Genl. Hand sent 
Genl Sullivan word there were a party of Indians coming down the mountain just by us. 
The men were immediately paraded and in readiness to give them a reception but soon 
after we found it to be Genl Clintons advanced guard. 

MlDDLETOWN 29TH AUGUST SUNDAY. 

The gun was fired for the usual signals. The army marched at half past lo o'clock, 
we had marched about three miles and a half when we heard some firing in front and soon 
was informed that Col. Butler who com.nanded the advanced guard had received some 
Shots from a party of Indians, who soon as gave the fire ran. with a view of drawing our 
men after them into their works, when the advanced guard had marched half a mile fur- 
ther they were met near a very bad pass by a number of Indians (thought-to be between 
two and three hundred) They also gave a few fires and ran. Our men pursued until they 
got over the defile, when they perceived their works. They halted and some of the rifle- 
men got behind trees where they fired in their lines which was returned. After their firing 
at each other some time a few single shots, the rear of the army had got up Genl. Poor 
Genl Clinton were sent off to gain their left flank which was very difficult, as their lines 
were a half a mile long— Their right secured seemed by the river, and their left by a very 
high mountain, which Genl Poor and Genl. Clinton had to go over. After they had 
marched some time Col. Proctor was sent with three pieces of artillery in front to amuse 
them while we were gaining their left. Their sentry on the mountain discovered our 
troops trying to get around them. They immediately gave their whoop for a signal, the 
body instantly left their lines, they retreated to the mountain where our troops fell in with 
them and gave them a few shots and ran up. it was returned from them and they ran, 
our men pursued we killed and scalped — took one tory prisoner. The army marched on 
Until we arrived at the town, about a mile and a half within their works where we encamped, 
and Genl. Poor and Clinton join and take their posts and encamp also — Genl Hand 
advanced two miles in front a short time after we had halted. Genl Hand sent a negro 
to Head-quarters. Some of his men took him running off. he was separated from his 
company and almost scared to death— The tory and negro told one story on their exam- 
ination, they say their body consisted of 400 Indians and tories commanded by Col. 
Butler and Brant and McDonald was with them also. They were much alarmed at our 
artillery and hastened their retreat greatly. Our loss was 

Monday Middletown 30th Aug. 

The army dont march this day but are employed in cutting down the corn at this place 
which being about one hundred and fifty acres, and superior to any I ever saw. Our 
wounded to be sent to Teoga in boats — They go just after dark 



MAJOR JOHN BURROWES. 45 

{Oltse/'vations.) The land exceeds any that I have ever seen, some corn stalks raeas-| 
ured eighteen feet, and a cob one foot and a half long. Beans, cucumbers, watermelons, 
muskmelons, cimblens are in great plenty. About dark the army was paraded on their 
different parades and a request of the General read to them, whether they would draw 
but half a allowance where corn and beans were to be had, that we might make our pro- 
visions last so as to accomplish our business in this part of the Continent, it was agre ed I 
and answered to by three hearty cheers. 

Camp ten miles from Middletovvn 3jst August 1779 Tuesday, 

Our march commences this morning at 11 o'clock and continues until sunset — We make 

our halt in an open piece of pine land, formed the hollow square for the safety of our 

c.ittle and pack-horses. On our way burnt all the houses on our road. Newtown Shared 

the same fate — Col. Daytons regiment were sent further up the Cayuga and on his way 

destroyed some large fields of corn and, burnt a number of houses. . 

(Observations.) The country mountainous, makes our marches very tiresome. The i 
men find a deal of plunder of different kinds at every town and settlements we come to. 
all of which the Indians had taken from the inhabitants on our frontier. The savage vil- 
lians continue flying before us and' generally leave their towns a few hours before we enter 
them. Its variety that makes time pass with ease but thro this country it is directly the 
contrary, as there is nothing but wood and mountains and swamps perpetually. ,._-• 

French (Catharines Wed, Sept. i. 

We reach this place at eleven o'clock at night, a march of 14 miles, thro roads that 
cant be described, eight miles of the way was a most horrid swamp, the last four miles 
the army had to ford one creek seventeen times mud holes were excessively bad — Our pack- 
horses tired out. sticking fast in the Swamps, the packs in the mud. The men giving out, 
they having fourteen days provisions on their back exclusive of their other baggage. We 
make up a fire, and roast corn for our supper and layed down about one o'clock to sleep with 
the heaven to cover us. 

(Obset-vatioHs .) — We never had so bad a days march since we set off, but what will not 
men go through who are determined to be free. 

French Catharines 2nd Sept 1779 Thursday. 

One of the soldiers found at this place this morning an old squaw in a bunch of bushes, 
she not being able to go off with them, was hid there to be safe. She is the greatest pic- 
ture of old age I ever saw. The General sent for her, she was carried to his marque. 
The poor old creature was just ready to die with fear, thinking she was to be killed. She 
informed the General that there was a great debate between the warriors their squaws 
and children. The squaws had a mind to stay at home with their children. It was car- 
ried to such a length that the warriors were obliged to threaten to scalp the women if 
they did not go. They sent them off about the middle of the afternoon. The warriors 
themselves staid till after sunset the evening we got in. This place gets its name from a 
French woman that married an Indian and settled the place. She also fled with her chil- 
dren. She has two very handsome daughters. 

(Observations.) — This town is on a large creek that empties into Seneca lake, and about 
four miles from the Lake. The land exceeds any I ever saw. There is a number of 
peach, apple & plum trees at this place, and the only Indian town that had that we had 
been to. The soldiers find plunder at every town of different kinds. They got six or 
seven Indian horses to day and two cows. 

Camp 12 miles from French Catharines 3'D Sept. Friday. 

The usual signals were given to pack. The army marched at half after 8 oiclock. 
After we marched about two miles from French Catharines we rise a high mountain, on it 
we found the woods very opeui no underbrush. The artillery and baggage march very 
well. We meet with three bad defiles through the day. otherwise it is the best marching 
we have had yet. In marching about four miles from Catharines we struck on the south 
end of Seneca lake, and march on the east side within a small distance of it the whole 



46 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

.day. On our march we catched more horses and saw where the Indians had killed a beef 
the night before. We halt half after four o'clock after marching over a great quantity of 
very good land, our horses are tied up to the trees, without anything to eat for this 
night, and ourselves suffer some hungry hours, for not being near any cornfields. We are 
obliged to be very careful of our half allowance to take us back if necessity should 
require it. The General got intelligence directly after our halt that the Indians were 
about three miles ahead. Col. Smith was sent off with a party to make discoveries and 
take a prisoner if possible. The intention of taking a prisoner was to let him go again 
giving him to know we would not hurt the women and children, that they might stay at 
home in peace. This was in hopes of making them treat, had it have been accomplished, 
but when Col. Smith had got within sight of their fires and marching on very easy in the 
path, he started a horseman of theirs who rode off and alarmed them. When Col. Smith 
had advanced to their fires they had just left them. There were kettles of corn on the 
fire and some roasting which they left in their flight. 

Camp 24 miles from Catharines, Saturday 4TH Sept. 

Began our march this morning at g o'clock, and on our march Strike on the side of the 
lake at a little Indian town called Appletown, where I had a beautiful view of the lake, it 
is about 4 miles wide and 40 long. It is very straight and not an Island to be seen, noth- 
ing can resemble the prospect more, than it does, the view of the bay and narrows at 
Middletown Point N. Jersey. The soldiers drove three Indian horses into the lake and 
caught them. We have the lake about half a mile on our days march. Halt at 7 o'clock 
pitched our tents, and are just going to get some sleep 

Kendaia Sunday 5th Sept 

After a march of about 5 miles we reached this place. The drums beat the March at 
half after 10 o'clock this morning and halt at 3 o'clock for the day. Before the men were 
dismissed Col. Smith ordered me to take two platoons and go to gather corn for the regi- 
ment. I did. I marched about a mile and a half where I found a cornfield, I set 
the men to gathering immediately. When they got as much as they could carry I re- 
returned to the regt or camp. This town is about three hundred yards from the lake, 
the best houses I have seen and about 15 of them, with an orchard of seventy trees, to 
appearance had been planted fifty years. The Indians fled from it with their families 
and effects two days ago. Here a man the Indians had taken at Wyoming came to us. 
He told us that Butler had gone through here two days before us. 

Camp 3 miles from Kendaia Monday Sept 6th. 

The drum beat the usual Signals and the march began at 3 o'clock this afternoon. 
About half an hour before an express arrived with letters from Gen'l. Washington to 
Sullivan and a riumber of letters for the officers of this army. Among which I find the 
disagreeable news of the death of my dear friend Capt. Combs (when living) was pos- 
sessed of everything that constituted a man. How did I feel ? How was the counte- 
nances of all his acquaintances changed ? Its beyond description. In the faces of all 
his friends is seen nothing but sadness, and from the tongues of his acquaintances only 
expressions of sorrow. We cross some bad defiles occasioned by little rivulets that run 
into the lake Halt at Six o'clock on the side of the Lake where there is great plenty of 
pea vines, which is as good as clover for horses with which this part of the country 
abounds. 

Kanadasaga 7th Sept. Tuesday. 

The army marched this morning at 8 o'clock and proceeded with great ease and rapid- 
ity, the marching very good. No defiles to hinder us until 2 o'clock when we arrived at 
the end of the lake, which was a march of 11 miles. After a considerable halt we began 
our march for this place. We cross the ford at the outlet of the lake and march on its 
edge through a bad defile a mile in length. A plan being laid for surrounding the town. 
Genl Maxwells brigade being next to Genl Hands went on the right of the town, GenI 
Poor in front of it. The plan was well executed but have not the pleasure of finding any 



MAJOR JOHN BURROVVES. 47 

of the yellow villains in it. We found a little white child about four or five years old. 
He can understand English and talked Indian. He is very poor and appears to have 
been sick. When he was found he was entirely naked. The officer that has him, has 
got clothes for him which seems to please the little fellow much. The town consists of 
forty dwelling houses and a Council House. It is far superior to any town we have seen. 
We have come a northerly course since we left Tioga, and have had most beautiful 
weather. All the land on the lake very good. Mounted guard this night. Marched 14 
miles to day. 

Kanadasaga 8th Sept Wednesday 

Came off guard this morning at 10 o'clock. The army dont march to day. The brig- 
ade commissary employed in examining into the mens provisions, and provisions not issued, 
for the purpose of knowing whether we can proceed farther. The determination of the 
General came out in orders this afternoon that we march to Genesee which is about eighty 
miles further, and are to march at 6 o'clock to morrow morning, living already hard. 
We eat meat twice in three days, and bread once in four or five days. The country 
abounds with corn and beans which we solely live on. Salt very scarce. 

Camp 8 miles from Kanasadara Thursday Sept qth 1779. 

Got up this morning very early to get ready to march at the time ordered, but the army 
dont march so soon, the delay occasioned by sending off all the sick of the army to Tioga, 
and by Mr. Bloomfield I send a letter to my father, also sent an Indian horse to Tioga by 
Mathew Smith a soldier in my company. Marched at 11 o'clock and continued until we 
reached this place which we did by six o'clock. We had several very bad defiles in our 
way. There was a party of men sent last night to a town called Cashongon the west side 
of the Seneca lake. They returned this evening. By the"officers I am told it was the 
best town we had seen yet. The houses new and built very neat and appeared that they 
were whites that lived there. They got a great many peaches and apples and the only 
place there has been any. The houses all shut, and when they broke them open, on the 
inside of a number of doors was written " He who destroys this house his offspring shall 
suffer for it " a poor satisfaction for the dastardly villains. 

Kanandaigua Friday Sept ioth 

Marched this morning at 8 o'clock and arrived at this place at 5 distance ten miles. 
The town large and prettily situated, the number of houses about 30. and very neat. In 
this place they have two posts fixed, to appearance for the exercise of their cruelty, as 
there was a war mallet at each of them. Corn and beans plenty which is now of great 
consequence to us. The town is within a mile of the northwest end of Kanandaigua lake, 
and 18 miles from Kanadasaga. 

Anyayea iith Sept. Saturday 

Marched at 6 o'clock in the morning, fine march until 12 o'clock, when we make a 
halt to refresh the horses. March again at 2 o'clock and reach this place at 4. The town 
not very agreeably situated, but very good water, which is the first we have had since we 
left Tioga. It is about half a mile from the north west side of the Anyayea lake, and 
consists of 12 houses, large fields of corn and. beans. Genl. Sullivan gave orders to fix 
one of the houses in such a manner as to defend it. as all the stores (except a few that is 
really necessary) are to be left here. Capt. Cummings commands the garrison. 

Observations. — After the tents were pitched Capt. Cox Mr. Kearney and myself went 
to the lake to wash ourselves before we had done, we saw a heavy cloud rising accom- 
panied with thunder, on which we made what haste we could back to camp. We had not 
been in long before it began to rain with some thunder and lightning and continued until 
between eight and nine o'clock at night. 

Camp ii miles from Anyayea in the woods called Younghaugh Sunday i2Th 
Sept. 

The morning rainy and disagreeable until between 10 and 1 1 o'clock, when we begin 
our march and tho: the day not so pleasant as we could wish we made a march of eleven 



48 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

miles and encamp in a piece of open woods. Nothing for horses to eat this night, the 
night very cool and a heavy frost. 

Kasawasahya Monday 13 Sept. 

Marched this morning at 6 o'cloclc and after gaining the distance of two miles we arrive 
at the town of Kanaghsas consisting of II houses. — make a halt and men turned out to 
destroy the corn as also the town. A party of riflemen in number 26 under command of 
Lieut. Boyd with Hanyost an Indian went last night from our last nights encampment to 
this town to make discoveries. He went to the town where he staid all night, sending off 
a man to acquaint the General that the town was deserted and not any body there. In 
the fore part of the day, he for some reason thought fit to return. When he had reached 
within two miles of the army he was attacked by a number of Indians (Seven of the men 
got in one of them was wounded) supposed to be about one hundred. On our march this 
afternoon we found four killed and scalped, the rest supposed to be taken — At the time 
Maj. Parr being about three quarters of a mile from them, as soon as he heard the firing 
immediately went on and came so close on them before he was discovered that they left 
seventy packs on the ground with some arras, but unhappily for Parr they got off. We 
arrived within about half a mile of the town when the General received intelligence that 
they were there paraded ready to fight us. It was now sundown, and when we got 
around the town it was dark, a most disagreeable time for fighting, but getting close into 
the town found they had left it, we encamped in the town and all necessary caution is 
taken by the General for the safety of the army. 

Chenesee 14 Sept Tuesday 

Began our march at 11 o'clock this morning. After we left the town half a mile we 
cross a very bad creek on a log. which makes it very tedious, and the detention of the 
army for two hours. The army being now all crossed the march begins again and pro- 
ceed across a plain about two miles and a half wide (some places wider) and to all appear- 
ance in length about 12 miles. Not a rise of ten feet through the whole, not a stump on 
it. a few acres of timber which stands in small groves make it appear much more beauti- 
ful. The land cant be equalled. I have frequently heard the expression when a person 
has been describing good grass and good pasture that it was knee high, and pasture up 
to the horses eyes, but here it is higher than a mans head when on his horse. When we 
marched through the plain we came to the Chenesee river, which we ford being about 
middle deep and the current very strong. This river empties itself into Lake Ontario 
and makes the falls of Niagara. The armv all cross and proceed to the town where we 
arrive at half after five o'clock and encamp around the town. Here we find Lieut. Boyd 
and one of the men laying on the ground just on the edge of the town, and so inhumanly 
murdered it is almost too much to describe. Their heads were cut off and scalpt. They 
had been whipped horribly. Their bodies speared all over and Lieut. Boyd partly skinned. 
Such is the barbarity of these savage villains. This town is the largest of any we have 
seen, it consists of one hundred houses and most of them good. This night we live 
sumptuously on beefsteak and potatoes, as we have got to our journies end. 

Camp on the Large Flats 6 miles from Chenesee 15TH Sept Wednesday 

MORNING. 

The whole army employed till 11 o'clock destroying corn, there being the greatest 
quantity destroyed at this town than any of the former. It is judged that we have burnt 
and destroyed about Sixty thousand bushel of corn and two and three thousand of beans 
on this expedition. On our return to camp the General assured the army the business of 
the expedition was entirely accomplished, and gave orders to be in immediate readiness to 
march on our return to Tioga, which order gave more general satisfaction than any that 
could have been given. A few hours before our march a woman came in with a young 
child who had been taken by the Indians in 1778. About one o'clock began our march 
and arrived at this place at 7 o'clock. 



MAJOR JOHN BURROWES. 49 

Kanaghsas i6th Sept. Thursday. 

Early this morning a brigade was sent to destroy the corn which was omitted in advanc- 
ing. About lo o'clock began our march for this place, where we arrive at three and 
having more corn to destroy here we encamp for the night. 

Anyayea Friday 17th Septemukr. 

Last night very cold with a white frost. Marched this morning a little after daylight, 
and arrive at this place at one o'clock : The day taken up in preparing the stores for the 
march. This day restored to one pound of flour per man. 

Kanandaigiia Lake i8th Sept. Sat. 

A number of our horses having become lame and unable to carry baggage, were d.;- 
tained in getting the stores mounted until nine o'clock, then began our march, and about 
sunset encamp on the east side of the lake. The road being clear made a march of 16 
miles. This day met by four Oneida Indians who brought the account of the arrival of 
the Marquis de la Fayette. 

Kanadasaga igth Sept. Sunday 

Marched from the lake at eight this morning, reached this place at sunset and encamp. 
One of the field pieces broke down which caused a halt of two hours. This day expresses 
arrive from Tioga confirming former accounts. 

Camp 5 mii.ks from Kanadasaga on the east side of Seneca lake, Monday 
20TH Sept. 

This morning a detachment of two hundred men sent to Fort Schuyler from Genl. Poor 
and Clintons brigades, under command of Colonel Gansevoort for conducting their bag- 
gage by way of Albany. Immediately after a detachment of 500 men under command 
of Col. Butler was sent to the Cayuga lake to destroy the settlements. We march from 
Kanadasaga at 4 o'clock and encamp at half after six. 

Sept. 21st. Camp two miles from Kendaia. 

Marched this morning at six o'clock passed 5 or 6 bad defiles during our march and 
encamped at four in a piece of open woods. 

Camp 5 miles from Appletown Wednesday Sept 22ND. 

The army moved between seven and eight this morning. We passed several bad defiles 
and make a inarch of 15 miles and encamp at 5 o'clock. 

Camp 3 miles from Catharines 

The army marched this morning at eight o'clock and about one arrived at the town of 
Catharines, halt two hours. We find the old squaw that we left when going, gave her a 
quantity of flour and meat a blanket and knife. The young squaw that had come to 
take care of the old one after we passed through, we found shot and thrown into a mud 
hole, supposed to be done by some of the soldiers. Encamp at sunset on the side of a 
large brook, it empties into Seneca lake and affords a great variety of fish. Capt. Read- 
ing caught a Salmon out of it two feet and four inches long. 

Newtown 24th S_ept Friday 

Marched at seven o'clock, the first four miles a very bad swamp, which after we got 
through we are obliged to kill more of our horses. The rest of the way a level open wood. 
On our appearance at this place we were saluted from the garrison with three cannon 
which was returned by our advanced piece of artillery. Encamped at half after six 
o'clock. This day we marched 15 miles. 

Newtown 28th Sept. Tuesday Evening. 

For some days have been waiting for the detachments that went to Cayuga lake, which 
arrived this morning about 10 o'clock. Also parties sent out every day to destroy corn 
and on the 26th we fired sl /cii de joi for our men Alby the King of Spain and the success 



60 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

of our arms over the British at Stony Point, Powers Hook and the taking of Fort De- 
troit — 3 days 26. 27. 28. 

Camp 3 miles from Chemung Wednesday 29 Sep 

March from Newtown at half after nine o'clock. The boats set off at the same time, 
but halt about an hour at Chemung, arrive at this place at three o'clock. The afternoon 
very warm. 

Tioga Thursday 30 Sept. 1779. 

Arrived here at four o'clock P. M. when as soon as our front had almost advanced to the 
ifort. the army was saluted by 13 cannon which was returned by our artillery. As soon as 
the firing ceased in the fort Col. Shreve had dinner prepared for the Generals and field offi- 
cers and the officers of the different regiments that were left with the garrison had pre- 
pared also dinner for the officers of their respective regiments and the whole dined in the 
fort and spent the most part of the afternoon and evening very agreeably. 

Tioga Friday Oct. ist. 

This day is only for a day of rest which we make the most of as such. 

Saturday Tioga October 2nd 1779. 

We spend this day in wishing each other joy for our safe return and convert the evening 
to celebrate as usual wives and sweethearts, which we do in plenty of grog, Heretofore 
have been obliged to keep in plenty of cold water. 

Tioga — Sunday 3d October. 

Yesterdays orders for demolishing the fort is put in operation. A party of 500 fatigue 
men set at it. At eight o'clock this morning the garrison all join their respective regi- 
ments. Six pounds of flour issued to each man this day, is their allowance to Wyoming. 
The sick the lame and men without shoes to go in boats. Make all preparations to march 
in the morning. 

Monday — Meshopping Oct 4th. 1779. , 

March at 8 o'clock this morning. Ford the Cayuga and Susquehanna and pass a very 
bad defile on the side of a mountain. Arrive here at half after six o'clock. 

Wyalusing — Tuesday Oct. 5th. 

This morning the whole army ordered down in boats except a sufficient body to take 
down the horses and cattle. The march began at 10 o'clock and arrived here at sunset. 
The day rainy. 

TUNKHANNOCK WEDNESDAY OCT 6th 

The weather continues rainy and very disagreeable, but not to hinder our march. 
Leave W yalusing at half after eight o'clock. On this days march we leave about 60 horses 
that were not able to come on. we leave them in the different pastures to recruit, so as 
they may be brought down in eight or ten days. Heretofore we have killed all that gave 
out, in number about 200 and lost as many more. 

LACKAWANNA, THURSDAY Oct 7th. 

This day we dont leave many horses. The day cool and cloudy with some rain. We 
reach this place at six o'clock and encamp for the night. 

Wyoming, Friday 8th October. 

This place we see with pleasure, as its getting towards home, but I miss my dear Combs 
whom I left here. Have been looking for his things but find very few, instead of finding 
gentlemen whom I thought would take care of them I met with robbers of the dead. 

Wyoming Saturday 9th Oct. 

Orders arrived here this morning for Genl Sullivan to march his army with all dispatch 
to Head Quarters, and this afternoon we have orders to be ready to march at 6 o'clock to 
morrow morning. Captain Forman and self went a gunning down to Nanticoke and 
Shawnee, but no luck, when we returned found preparations making for the march, such 



MAJOR JOHN BURROWES. 51 

as distributing liorses, wagons, and pack saddles, and other matters that were wanting to 
assist in the march of the army. 

Nanticoke Falls Sunday Oct loth. 

General Sullivan set out this morning for Easton. At g o'clock the army were all ready 
to march, when to my surprise I was ordered to Sunbury after the sick brigade sixty miles 
down the river from Wyoming. — down to this place where we halt for the night. 

FisHiNfi Creek Monday Oct nth. 

Started this morning at sunrise and arrived here at dark and halt for the night. The 
river being very low we grounded several times and the men have to get out and drag the 
boats over the shoals, 

Sunbury Tuesday Oct 12th. 

We arrive here at dusk after a tedious day occasioned by the lowness of the river and 
rain. This river is beautiful the west branch comes in opposite to this town and makes 
the river much wider. Settlements almost all the way on the rivers side. 

Sunbury Wednesday Oct 13th. 

This day was spent chiefly in getting the men that are discharged from the Hospital 
ready to march for Head Quarters. Went over to Northumberland to see Capt. Lodge. 
The two towns are situated much like Burlington and Bristol. This town consists of one 
hundred and fifty houses and Northumberland about 100 houses. The inhabitants Irish 
and German. Houses chiefly of logs. 



JOURNAL OF DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 



Dr. Jabez Campfield, Surgeon in Spencer's Fifth New Jersey Eegi- 
ment, from May 23 to Oct. 2, 1779. He was a resident of New Jersey 
and Las grand children living. One of them resided a few years since 
at Lisbon, St. Lawrence County, N. Y. Published in the Proceedings 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, Vols. 3 and 4, 1873, pp. 115 to 
136, from the original presented to the Society, by Edmund D. Halsey, 
Esq.; also in the Wyoming County (Pa.) Democrat, Dec. 31, 1873, Jan. 
28, 1874. 

DIARY OF DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD, SURGEON IN "SPENCER'S 

REGIMENT," WHILE ATTACHED TO SULLIVAN'S 

EXPEDITION AGAINST THE INDIANS. 

[ From May 2jd to Oct. 2d, I77g.\ 

DIARY. 

May 23d, 1779 — Left Morristown in order to join the Regt. ordered on an expedition 
to the westward against the Indians and Tories who had cruelly destroyed our frontiers. 

May 24th 1779 — I arrived at Easton. Easton from Morristown 51 miles. 

May 25, 1779 — I arrived at Brinker's Mill. 

May 26, 1779 — Joined the regiment at Tunkhanna — The troops imployed in this work 
were the Second New York Regt. cS: Spencer's. Col, Cortlandt having the command — Our 
encampment continued in this place until the 30th, when we marched to Locust Hill. All 
this way the Land very indifferent & rough — the timber mostly pitch pine, and Hemlock, 
some white pine — also birch, mirtle and some beach & elm — Spruce. 

This hill is covered with Small Locust trees. While the detachment remained at 
Locust Hill the first New Hampshire Regt joined us, "but at the same time a detachment 
of near 200 men under Col. Smith were sent to Wyoming so that we gained very little by 
the hampshire meji's coming up. 

June 7, 1779 — The camp remained on I^ocust Hill till June 7th, when we marched and 
encamped upon the borders of the Shades of Death. 

June 12th, 1779 — The detach't passed the Shades of Death and incamped at BuUux's 
farm. All this way the land very indiilerent and rough, however here we found rery large 
white pine in many places— and the hemlock exceedingly large. 

June 14th, 1779 — The Detach't marched into Wyoming, Col. Butler with a detach't 
from the garrison had opened the rhoad. Wyoming is a beautiful place, through which 



DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 53 

runs the Susquahanna, in a swift delightful course. Wyoming is distant from Easton 60 
miles — and is capable of great improvement. 

This settlement did consist of four different Towns, before the cruel Butler destroyed 
them, being inhabited by upwards of one thousand families, who, a few excepted, were 
entirely ruined, and such as he did not kill, were left utterly destitute of every necessary 
of life, and obliged to fly for refuge, into the lower settlements. 

The Lands here are exceedingly good and fertile ; The river abounds with various fish 
in the Spring, it is full of the finest Shad, trout and pickerel are also plenty here. 

In passing the great swamp we cross several fine streams of water, whicb all abound 
with trout. The first is Tunkhanna, second is Tobehanna, the third is Lahi, these are 
all branches of the same river and under the name of I^ahi fall into the Delawar at 
Kaston. 

In this way we passed a second swamp called Bare-swamp, through which runs a con- 
siderable stream of water, called the Ten-mile run, said to fall into the Schuylkill. 

Four miles from Wyoming, we cross a high mountain, which will render the land-car- 
riage allways difficult from Easton to this place, could the other difficulties be removed. 

The long stay of the army at Wyoming, was owing to the infamous conduct of the 
Commissaries and Quartermasters, imployed in furnishing the necessary provisions and 
stores. And finally, when the army did march, it was so scantily supplied, that the suc- 
cess of the expedition is by that means, rendered exceedingly precarious. 

The army was delayed at Wyoming by the above mentioned causes until the 31st day 
of July, when it began its march, and at evening arrived at I.ahawannuck — about 10 miles, 
here a fine stream of water which gives name to the place falls into the Susquehanna from 
the north-eastward. About 3 or four miles be'ack and on the other sid of the river, is the 
place where the Yankes were defeated under Wyoming Butler — This place is a rich bot- 
tom on both sides but of no great extent. At the end of this flat is the Spring fall, a 
brook falling from a high mountain. 

August i, 1779 — The army marched to Quilutimack [7 miles] another bottom of no 
great extent, but rich land — here we rested one day, to give time for the boats to come up. 

Aug. 3d, 1779 — The army marched to Tunkhanna, (12 miles) a fine creek falling into 
ye Susquahanna from the north-east. Here, as almost everywhere else on this river, the 
mountains are exceeding high and generally nigh the river, the flats being narrow, a few 
excepted. The flats all rich land. Timber, white pine, pitch & yelow — several sorts of 
ash, & in the low bottoms, mirtle (of which' sugar is mad) Black & white walnut, elm. 
Beech, ash, hickory & other swamp wood. 

Aug. 4th — The army marched to Vandelips farm, [14 miles] a good plat of Bottom 
land, the mountains high & covered with grass even to the tops in some places. 

In this days march we passed three good brooks of water falling through the moun- 
tains. How hard is the soldier's lott who's least danger is in the field of action ? Fight- 
ing happens seldom, but fatigue, hunger, cold & heat are constantly varying his distress. 

Aug. 5th, 1779 — The army marched to Wybusing, [to miles] Remained there two days, 
on account of the rain — the difficulty of getting up the boats — & Gen. Sullivan's being 
unable through indisposition to proceed on. At this place is a plane covered with Eng- 
lish grass of an extraordinary large growth & beautiful. In the way we passed a very 
high mountain, from which we had an extensive prospect of mountains & the river, a 
most beautiful variety. Coming on this platt we find very large trees, the largest are 
Buttonwood — here are many Black walnuts. This was formerly settled Moravian Indians. 

The army marched to Standingstone bottom, [10 miles] At the end of Wybusing flatt 
we pass Wybusing creek, a beautiful stream of water, falling through the mountains, 
from the north-east into the Susquahanna. 

This day ye army marched sometime by the river, but mostly at some distance over 
mountains. This place takes its name from a long stone standing upright on the oppo- 
site shore, which when it fell from the mountain above, accidentally took'that position. 
Here is a fine soil unimproved. The boats made this place with difficulty. 



64 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS 

Early in the morning of the gth the army marched, by a narrow pass, along ye river. 
Sometimes by the water side, having an high mountain on the right, afterwards, through 
an exceeding fine tract of land, of considerable length in which we passed Weesaucking 
creek falling into Susquahanna from the north-east. After the army passed on the decliv- 
ity of a high mountain, overlooking the river, by a narrow footpath dangerous to be 
passed by a single person, here several of our cattle and pack horses feel and were killed. 

About son set we entered on a fine bottom & continued our march to Sheshequanung, 
six miles from the mountain, a beautiful plane covered with grass ; very necessary for our 
hungry horses and cattle 

In this days march Col. Procktor landed on the other side of the river and burned an. 
Indian town which was built last spring, but now abandoned, consisting of 28 logg houses 
covered and 6 not finished, called Newtychaning — here we had night march of 6 miles 
through thick woods with 900 cattle in our front, our Regt. being the rear guard this day. 
We have here continually rains or fogs in the night, & very hott in the days & cold nights. 

Aug, gth — The army marched to upper Sheshequannunk. [15 miles] The army 
remained her the loth day to give the boats time to come up. Last night one of our 
largest boats was cast away and everything in her lost, coming up a rappid ; this is hard, 
for she was loaded with 7 or 8 tons of flower. 

Aug. II — The army arrived at Tioga, This day [3 miles] At 7 o'clock this morning 
the army marched and crossed the Susquahanna about a mile above our last camp — the 
river wid and rapid, and so deep as to come to the top of my boots on horse back ; after 
crossing we passed a swamp, a small distance through, and then entered a beautiful 
plane. This plane is called Tioga, from the middle of which we crossed over the Tioga 
branch, on to a point of land, which is made by a junction of the Tioga branch, with the 
Susquahanna ; on this point the army incamped, with our rear extending along the Sus- 
quahanna. About a mile further up the two rivers aproach each other, within a little 
more than 100 yards, and, is the place which we expect will be fortified, to cover our boats 
until we return. 

It is remarkable that we have come into this country, by a long and diflficult march, 
where there are but a few miles, in which a small party of our enemy could not, with 
ease, have much impeeded our progress, and are now within twelve miles of one of their 
considerable settlements, cS: as yet have never seen or beared any thing of them, that we 
could, with sertanty depend upon. 

I very heartily wish these rusticks may be'reduced to reason, by the aproach of this 
army, without their suffering the extreems of war ; there is something so cruel, in destroy- 
ing the habitations of any people, (however mean they may be, being their all) that I 
might say the prospect hurts my feelings. 

Aug. 12 — The army, leaving the invalids and baggage at Tioga, in the eavning marched 
for Shemung, an Indian town, situate on the Tioga branch of the Susquahanna. We 
arrived in the morning after a most fatigueing march at night in the dark through the 
woods. This place had been left by the inhabitants the day before. 

Genl. Hand advancing with his brigade about three miles farther on was fired at by a 
few Indians, who killed and wounded 8 or 9 of his officers, and men. 

The town was burned and the corn was destroyed and the army returned to Tioga in 2+ 
hours having performed a march of full 40 miles in 24 hours. 

*,f*A break here in the diary. 

August i6th, 1779 — A detachment from the whole army consisting of 1000 men under 
command of Genls. Poor and Hand marched this day from Tioga along the west side of 
the Susquahanna [10 miles] to meet Genl. Clinton. 

The army incamped this evening in a beautiful forrist of white pine. 

I here observed a plant in abundance which has much the smell of garden balm. 

This whole country abounds in fine forrists of White Pine. 

17. Aug. 1779 — The Detachment marched [12 miles] to an Indian settlement about i 
mile below Owego and incamped on a beautiful plain covered with grass ; just before we 
came on the plane, the detach't crossed a stream of water, on which Owego is situated a 
mile above these places were all deserted last spring, their inhabitants only a few. 



DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 55 

■ Aug. i8, 1779— The detachment marched [18 miles] to an Indian town, deserted, called 
Cokonnuclc, of about 50 or 60 houses mostly on the other side of the river. This is a 
large fine flat of rich land, covered with fine grass, such as clover, spear cS: fowl-meadow 
grass, and the natural grass of the country, which here grows 8 or 10 feet high. 

This days march was rendered very difficult, by the intervention of several hills and 
swamps. The land rough and less of white pine and more of white oak— we passed a 
swamp, resembling the great swamp, only it was small. 

We heard G. Clintons eavning gun. , 

Aug. 19 — This morning 9 o'clock Genl. Clinton joined us with upward of 200 Boats 
and about 700 Infantry, who marched by land — 2 pieces of cannon in ye boats ; his whole 
number it is said consists of 1500 men. 11 o'clock we marched for Owego & arrived there 
at sonset. A party was sent out, who burned the town Owego. The few inhabitants, 
who remained there had gone of the day before we arrived. 

Genl. Clinton has burned all the towns on or near the river in his way down. 

Aug. 20 — A heavy rain came on last night, which prevented our march this day. 

August 21st, 1779 — Marched back to within about six miles of Tioga and incamped. 

Aug. 22d — The army under Genl. Clinton & the Detach't under Genl Poor, joined the 
army at Tioga . 

A remarkable circumstance in our march back to Tioga, is that every morning .S; eavning 
the Detach't countermarched, & on our march every day had our left toward the enemy, & 
our right tpwards the river. 

The Detacht. marched the i6th, at noon and returned the 22d at noon being 5 Days 
out. one of which was very rainy, & performed a march of 80 miles. 

Genl. Clintons march from Lake Otsego to Tioga — 

From the mouth of Tioga to Mackatawando 10 miles, to Owego 12, Lo Cokanuck 18, to 
Chenango 9 miles, to Tuscarora 3, to Anpuaqun 18 miles, to Unadilla 25, to the mouth of 
Lake Otsego 67, to the head of the lake 8 miles [162 miles.] 

The general course N. E. 

During the stay of the army at Tioga, 4 blockhouses were built for the defence of the 
boats, and garrisoned by the invalids under command of Col. Shrieve and the boat mer. 
Here we left all unnecessary baggage, and all the women and children. The General left 
here 2 6-pounders. 

August 26th, 1779 — Thursday — The whole army marched by the garrison of Tioga 
and incamped about three or four miles forward. 

August 27th, 1779 — The army marched about six miles and passed a difficult defile — 
broke two wagons, overset a traveling forge and one of the pieces. 

This shows the difficulty we have to surmount in carrying our cannon forward. Our 
baggage arrived at 12 o'clock at night, here we found much green corn & beans. 

August 28th — The army marched to Shemung, (12 miles from Tioga) In this march 
Maxwell's brigade, the artillery & packhorses forded the Tioga twice to escape a difficult 
defile, while Genls Clinton, Poor & Hand with their brigades passed over the mountains. 
The Genl this day received information that a body of men were fortifying a pass about 
6 miles in front. 

Su.xDAY, Aug. 29, 1779 — The army advanced in its common order of march, until 
about the middle of the day when the advance received a fire from, the enemy, whom they 
found posted advantageously behind a brest work, extending about 2 or 300 yards, built 
on a rising ground, having a brook and very thick brush in front at the distance of small 
musquet shot — they were about 1000 strong, mostly Indians, under Brandt — Butler, how- 
ever, commanded, having with him 3 or 400 rangers and Tories. 

The Rifle men amused them for some time with a scattering fire, while Genl' Clinton 
& Poor could gain their left flank, and the artillery be properly posted. When the cannon 
began to play upon them, they ran immediately, in great disorder ; they, then attempted to 
gain a mountain on the right of the river, which they effected, but Genl Poor immediately 
dislodged them, & their rout became general. 



56 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Two prisoners were taken, a Tory & a Negro ; 17 men were killed on the spot, who 
our people found, one of them an Indian of distinction — their number wounded we dent 
know, they must have been considerable. We had only 3 men killed and 30 wounded, 
among whom were a Major, Captain & Sub'n., all of the Hampshire troops. 

At evening the whole armv arrived and incamped in New Town, the inhabitants of 
which had deserted it two days before. 

Here we found great quantities of corn, beans, pumpkins &c. 

On outright up the brook, where the action was, at some distance, were found a cluster 
of new houses covered with split stuff, supposed to have been built for a magazine as they 
had not been inhabited. From the manner of building the houses here, I think the Tories 
must have built them, and the corn was planted after the manner of the white people. 

Aug. 30, 1779 — The army remained in camp this day, part being detached to destroy 
the corn and other things from which the enemy might hereafter draw subsistance. 

The Com'r-in-Chief proposed to the officers and soldiers of each Brigade, the necessity 
of shortening the alowance of provision ; our stock being too small to last long enough to 
accomplish the design of the expedition ; -when the whole army almost unanimously 
agreed to subsist upon half a pound of Flower & half pound of Beef pr day, a striking 
instance of the virture of the array. 

This night the Genl sent down to Tioga in the boats the wounded, four of our most 
cumberos pieces of cannon, and all the waggons. 

An extract from Genl Orders Aug. 31, 1779 — Head Quarters 10 miles above New Town 
after the Army had agreed to accept of half rations : 

" It is with the higest satisfaction sincere gratitude the Genl rec'd an acct. of the cheer- 
ful compliance of ye officers & soldiers of the army with his proposal of yesterday. This 
pleesing proof of their virtue fortitude & perseverance added to the striking evidence they 
have given of their bravery, gives him the most agreeable sensation, and demands every 
return in his power. He will endeavor to expedite the operations of the campaign, as 
much as possible, and has no doubt, but with the supplies on hand he will soon be able to 
issue full rations. He assures them, that as soon as it can be reduced .to a certainty, that 
the provisions will answer, he will not lose one moment in ordering the full allowance to 
be delt out. 

Least any doubt should arise in the minds of the Troops respecting the money to be 
alowed in lieu of provisions, the Genl assures them, they shall receive, as much as the 
provisions would cost at this time." 

Aug. 31, 1779— The army marched on (10 milfes) and found rough and mountainious 
ground for the first four miles & we saw several fields of corn on the opposite side of the 
river. In this march a considerable number of houses lately built by the Tories were 
destroyed. Here we passed a considerable run of water, falling frcim the N. E. into the 
Cayuga — from this place we left the river and continued our march over a level country 
about a north course — very good marching, it being a wide extended plane, with scatter- 
ing pitch pine trees. 

Col. Dayton was detached to follow the enemy up this branch, he did not ever take 
them, but came to an Indian town which he destroyed — and also the corn. 

Sept, i, 1779— The army marched in the morning over an extensive plane, upwards of 
five miles, when it entered a swamp having first passed by a large marsh, or meadow, on 
our right, and a high & steep mountain on ye left. 

In this swamp, we found much difficulty in passing with our cannon, & pack horses, 
while we had daylight, but when the night came on, it was greatly increased, the army 
marching, as originally ordered. 

It is worthy of observation that in this swamp we first began, about the middle of it, 
to desend towards Cuyuga & Seneka Lakes, down a very sleep & high hill ; and here we 
found a considerable streem of water, which we followed the rest of the day fording it 
continually. We arrived, about g o'clock at the first Seneka settlement, called French 
Catharins. [13 miles]. 

In the morning the men found in the wood an old Indian woman, who informed, that 



DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 57 

Butler here met, two days before, a number of Indians coming to join him, with a view 
of opposing our progress ; but they could not prevail on him to turn about again, and 
face this army, he immediately went off &, they remained, consulting what was best to 
be done. The Old Squaw thought to be above 80 years old, expected to be killed. The 
women were urgent to remain at home, but the men urged that if they should fall into 
our hands we, would make use of them to urge harder terms, so the women and children 
left the Town, son about an hour high ; and the men remained till our troops arrived, 
when they, scampered off without firing a gun. The timber white pine, pitch pine, oak 
and in the swamp much holm Bass wood and maple, after passing half ye swamp we had 
a high mountain on either hand and some small flatts. The land rich in ye valle & stony 
on ye mountain. Here we found plenty af corn and Beans & about 12 houses, a high 
mountain on our left as we enter ye Town. 

This days march was so exceeding difficult, I mean the last part of it, that it will not 
admit of description, it being totally dark & through a thick swamp — and this expecting 
momentarily an attack from the enemy, our army totally unacquainted with the situation 
of the place & knowing the enemy were there. French Catherins is distant 3 miles from 
the Seneka Lake. 

Sept. 2d. 1779. — The army remained in camp this day, our baggage being unable to 
come on in the dark, the night before. 

The Indians, and Torys under Butler, certainly, are destitute of the spirit of soldiers, 
or they would not suffer us to make such a rappid progress, without any resistance. 

I am sure, a few men of spirit, might exceedingly retard our movements. 

Sept. 3d, 1779 — The army marched at 9 o'clock, and incamped before night 12 miles 
below French Catherines in the woods. This days marching was the best since we left 
Wyoming ; but it had its difficulties. Nine miles of this way, we had the Seneka Lake 
on our left, at some distance. No appearance of the enemy, tho it is said by our spys, 
that they are in a settlement within two miles of our camp— a small party under com- 
mand of Col. Smith are gone to beat up their quarters. Timber — Black Walnut, Hick- 
ory, the several oaks, the several pines, much ash, Bass wood, maple, elm, and shag wal- 
nut — & the only chestnut I have seen within 100 miles — very little stone, the land well 
watered & part mountaneous. 

Sept. 4th, 1779 — The army marched at 11 o'clock, being prevented by rain, from 
marching sooner ; however we made 13 miles and incamped in the woods. 

At a place nigh the Lake were a few houses about 4 miles from our last encampment 
which were deserted last night about the time Col. Smith went out. 

At this place called Apple town is one of the finest prospects down the lake that can 
be imagined. The timber of ye same kind as yesterday, and very good, very little stony 
land. 

The land on this side is fine and level, only near the' lake are gullies, made by the 
rain, no springs or brooks of any consequence, & the land generally low, & I think very 
suitable for grass. 

The land on the west sid of the lake rises very gradually. I believe most of this land 
would produce wheet and every kind of grain. 

At the upper end of this Lake, is a large body of marsh, & bogg meadow all the way 
from French Catherines to the water of the Lake. In this days march we passed consid- 
erable tracts of lands, covered with the wild-pea vines, equal to clover for horses. 

Sept. 5th, 1779 — This day the army arrived at the Town of Thendara, [4 miles] near 
the [Seneke] lake, it is the most considerable Indian Town, I have yet seen. It is old, 
having large apple trees, which must have been planted many years ago. Houses cov- 
ered with bark large for Indian houses. They are nasty beyond description. The land 
continues to be very fine and fine timbered. It is said this Peninsula is on an average 
about 12 miles wide, and about 45 miles long, all rich, level land well Timbered. This 
lake is most beautiful, & on the opposite side the land appears very level, and has a grad- 
ual rise — and not very high as far as can be seen. The inhabitants removed themselves 



58 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

from here last Thirsday, as we are informed by a deserter, and that they were very much, 
discoraged. 

Sept. 6, 1779 — At Shendara [three miles] we found some Corn & Beans which was. 
gathered by the troops ; But the cornstalks & grass about the town was not sufficient for 
the horses & cattle. They strayed away and we could not march 'till afternoon when, 
after marching about 3 miles we found nigh to the lake an abundance of Pasture which 
induced ye general to stop. The land and Timber on it equal to the other from French 
Catherines, & equal to any in ye world I believe — very little stony 

Col. Gansevort's servants missed their path and took a path, which led them down to. 
the Cayuga Lake, where they fel in with a town which they burned, it being deserted by 
the inhabitants. 

We are now paying, by short marches, for the former imprudent long marches. 

August (? Sept.) 7, 1779 — The army marched, & having crossed at the mouth of the- 
Senake Lake, the Ford shallow and narrow,. passed on through a narrow defile, made by 
the Lake on one side & a deep swamp on the other, & arrived upon a plane open wood, 
of but small extent, then passed another long defile, made as the former. The land, and 
timber much the same with what we passed over the last three or four days — no hills or 
mountains on either side ye river. 

Afterward we entered a thick wood — Genl Maxwell's brigade went off to the right, &. 
Genl Hand's with the two flanking columns went off to the left. We entered the town of 
Conadasego, (12 miles), a large Indian settlement, one of the principal towns of the 
nation, some time, after son set. 

The Indiaps had deserted the place some short time before our arrival. It seems we 
are not to see any more of these people. It was expected they would have made a great 
stand at this place. Here we find great quantities of Corn & beens, &c. 

It is difficult to account for the conduct of the Indians, who quit their towns, & suffer 
us to destroy them, their corn, their only certain stock of provisions, without offering to 
interrupt us. The land seems to be a good deal worn out, where part of their corn is 
planted. The Indians take no care to have clean water, by diging, they only use to cook„ 
river & Lake water. 

September 8th, 1779 — This day the array remained in camp Col. Smith was detach'd,. 
with a body of men, to destroy a considerable settlement on the west side of the lake, at 
which place the Indians had a great quantities of Indian corn. 

A small number of men started from the camp towards the Cayuga I,ake, and fel in. 
with a considerable settlement, which the inhabitants had abandoned, and destroyed it. 

In this town, Conadasego, are a considerable number of apple trees 20 or 30 years old, 
& about 50 houses. Here was left a child about 2 years old. 

Sept. 9, 1779 — The army marched about noon, and arrived at their Incampment a little- 
before son set — having passed a long swamp about four miles, in the whole 7J^ miles. 

This swamp is the first black ash swamp I have seen, of any consequence since I left 
New Jersey. The Timber in the swamp is oak, black & white ash, Beech, Bass, maple„ 
white wood, little white pine elm & Button wood. 

The swamp was very difficult to pass, here two of the carriages of the artillery were 
broke, which much impeeded our march. They were afterwards mended so that we go on 
well. 

Sept. 10, 1779 — This day the army marched early in the morning, and passed the other 
part of the swamp,. which was not quite so difficult, as the first part. After we were 
out of the swamp we passed a fine open wood with large pieces of high grass. At length 
we came to a beautiful Lake [10 miles] the north end of which, we passed, and at the 
narrowest corner, passed the out Let, which was not very large. I rode into the lake 
about 10 rod and found it about 2 feet or 18 inches deep and beUeve it is mostly that 
depth, haveing a white sandy bottom & the water very clear. 

A small distance from this Lake is the best built Indian Town I have yet seen, the 
houses mostly new, & mostly log houses. The Town is called Shannondaque, the name 
of the lake I cannot learn. 



DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 59 

About a mile beyond this town was many fields of corn nigh to which we incamped 
after burning the houses. These corn fields with the beens in them, amazingly lengthen 
out our rations, & strengthens our hopes. 

Sept. i i — The army marched very early, the first part a thick Brush and difficult, after 
that broken ground, swamps & hills, on the hills much grass and the trees scattering ; the 
swamps thick woods and Brush. Arrived in the afternoon at an Indian town called, 
Angayea, on a fine plane with a small streem of water runing through it. Here was 
many plats of Corn &c. [14 miles] within sight a lake small in extent, said to be one of 
the three lakes called Seneke — and it is said to be the source of the little Seneke river. 
The Land this day rich eaven on the top of the hills 

Sept. 12, 1779. — At Angayea the Gen'l left the greatest part of our stock of provisions 
& the worn out pack horses and men, and 50 good men, i piece of Cannon under com- 
mand of Capt. Cummings. 

The army marched late this day, being impeeded by rain — in our march we passed the 
out-let of a lake of which I could learn no name. 

About sonset the army incamped in the open wood, [ti miles] Our gen'l course seems 
to be near south west. We marched much faster than before, since the heavy baggage 
was left behind. I saw more chestnut timber this day than I have seen in our whole 
march — passed much good land even the hills are good. 

Sept. 13. — The army marched this morning, at sunrise, and in marching about two 
miles came to a settlement, where was plenty of corn, &c. Cannehsawes the name of 
this place. Here the army was impeeded, by a creek, over which it was impossible to 
pass without making a bridge, which took up our time till after lo o'clock. The night 
before Gen'l Sullivan sent, as I have been informed, a party of riflemen to Genesee, who 
were to return before day, under the command of Lt. Boyd. This party proceeded to a 
settlement, and returned part of the way, Lt. Boyd sent in some of his men to inform the 
Gen'l what discoveries were made, and remained on the path himself, with the rest of his 
men, waiting till the army should come up, in this situation a party of the enemy sur- 
rounded them, and killed and took the most of them ; our loss in killed and taken was 16 
& the officer. 

The army marched again at 10 o'clock, and crossed the bridge, beyond which it crossed 
a very high hill covered with open woods — and at eavning, arrived at a small settlement — 
I suppose the first of the Genesees, where is much corn and such things as Indians raise 
to subsist upon. After the Indians had surprised our riflemen they pursued such as had 
made oft and fell in with our Surveyor one of whose men they wounded and took all his 
instruments. 

In this affair our people killed three Indians, We expected this would be the end of 
our labor, but we ware mistaken, we are again to march on, & our destination is beyond 
conjecture. (10 miles). All the land we passed this day is good and the swamps and 
inter vales surpass any I have seen before. Black Walnutts are very large and well 
shaped. The Quantity of Corn in the towns is far beyond what any body has imagined. 
I fear the methods taken will be ineffectual for its distruction. 

Sept. 14, 1779 — After the army had destroyed the corn, which was at this place ; it 
marched for Genessee [5 miles.] 

First we passed up a branch of the river, which was not by any means rapid, but 
muddy, and advanced on to a plane, through a swamp of large trees, Black walnutt, & 
white, maple, popular, ash, Bass &c. — this plane, at first apeared to be about two miles in 
length, and upwards of a mile wide, lying almost east & west, we coming on the east end, 
and the view was obstructed by a hill not very high ; but when we aproched the middle 
of the plane we found it open to the right an amaizing extent, when we came nigh the 
hill mentioned before, our march was obstructed by the Genessee river, which takes its 
course through the hills, and at this place enters this extensive plane, and winds it course 
down, as far as the eye can follow it, in its course it receives the other branches. 

Both these branches being'united the streem obtains the name of Genessee, & in some 
maps little Seneke, it falls into lake Ontario about 30 miles from here, and is said to bo 



60 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

navigable for Battaud which being the case, there may be an easey navigation all the way 
to Montrael. 

The grass on this extensive plain is good, the wild horses are very fond of it, and it 
grows as high as, a man's head in many places. 

Here we had a charming view of our army, which is the first, all moving in our original 
order of march. 

The army here crossed the river and assended the hill — it continued its progress to 
Genesee, over several sudden hills and swamps, which were general miery, if not three 
rods across, at which place it arrived about sonset. This is much the largest Indian Town 
I have yet seen — having about 80 houses, it is built mostly of small logs and covered with 
bark. The town is situate on a very fine plane, higher than the other large plane, which 
has generally obtained the name of flat, or botton. 

The Indian houses might have been very comfortable, had they made any convenience 
for the smoke to be conveyed out, only a hole in the middle of the top of the roof of the 
house. 

The Indians are exceedingly dirty, the rubage of one of their houses, is enough to stink 
a whole country. 

At this place, we found the mangled bodies of two, of the men we lost day before yes- 
terday, one known to be Lt. Boyd's which were immediately entered with the usual hon- 
nours of war. 

These dead bodies had evident signs, of their having suffered the extreemest tortures, 
from the virtuous and faithfuU allies of Great Britian headed by a Butler and Brandt, 
these dastardly reches not having bravery to fight us. wreek their vengeance on a few 
unfortunate men, they never would have dared to meet on equal terms. 

The whole army are now very busy in destroying the corn, which is aboundant in this 
place. Some of their houses were full of it hanging up to dry. 

This is not an old place, many of their houses being new, and the inhabitants had 
deserted it only the day before we arrived, here they left more of their furniture, than at 
any other place. 

A very pretty brook of good water runs through this town. 

The Indians observe no kind of order in their building, and most of their houses have 
a small additional place, built at one end, from which, they have a dore into ye large house 
— they build two tier of births one above the other, on both sides, and have fire in ye 
centre. 

The army must have droped the prosecution of this expedition long ago, had not the 
corn, beens, &c., which it found from place, subsisted it. The first of Sept. we had only 
23 days' provisions, a great quantity of which, must inevitably be lost, from the nature of 
the portage. 

Since we left Tioga we lost 140 cattle, most of which we hear, have since returned to 
that place. 

Much of our flower is carried in bags & often falling of, and striking against trees, some- 
times faling into mud, & sometimes into ye water, as we pass many streems of water. & 
5 horses are committed to the management of one clumsy driver. 

This instance of the virtue of this army must exceea any yet exhibited. It has under- 
taken and performing this tedious march on the bare allowance of ^ lb. Flower & ^Ib. 
Beef a day and 5 gils of salt to 100 lb. of Beef — without any spirit, for, whatever might 
have been at Tioga in store, we could find no way to bring, but very little on with us. 

From French Catherin's to this place, 95 miles at least, is undoubtedly the best land, 
and capable of the greatest improvement, of any part of the possession's of the U. States 

Sept. 15th, 1779 — This day the whole army was imployed in destroying corn at this 
place, until 4 o'clock P. M., when it faced to the right about, set fire to the town, and 
marched back to the fording place & repassed the Genesee river, by son set, & proceeded 
on to the heither end of the plane, where we encamped in the evening. [5 miles.] 

I think the Genesee flatt, what I have seen of it, may be about 6 miles in length, and 
half that in bredth 



DR. JABEZ CAMPFIELD. 61 

Beside this, tliere are large Swamps, covered witli fine timber, almost all round the flatt. 
the soil of which is as rich as can be. 

Sept. l6th, 1779 — This morning the army were detached early to destroy all the corn 
in the neighborhood of this place, it being very considerable, which being effected, the 
whole army crossed the creek, and pursued their old route, inverted, to the place where 
Lieut Boyd and his party had been surrounded by the Indians ; here were found ded and 
scalped so many, as when added to those formerly mentioned, make the number 17 includ- 
ing one Indian. This little party, it is said sustained the action for some minutes after 
they were completely surrounded, and 14 of them were found dead on one spot. 

CoNADESAGO, Sept. 20, 1779 — .Since the i6th, I have been so unwell, that I could not 
attend to anything more than my pains and fatigue. The army encamped here last night 
after marching upwards of 14 miles from a small lake on this side, Yannondaque. 

Yesterday we had a pacquet arrive at camp with the news of Spain taking an active 
part in our difficulties. 

The army marched a little before night (The Gen'l having detached 500 men to move 
across the mouth of the Cuyuga Lake and proceed to the Indian settlements on the east 
side of that lake & destroy them, then join the army at the Tioga brancl). Also detached 
under Col. Gansevort a party to proceed to some other settlements near Albany, which, 
are to be destroyed) and then crossed the water, which flows from the .Seneke Lake at the 
mouth, and incamped about a mile up the east side. 

Sept. 21, 1779 — 2J4 miles past Candara. The army incamped 4 o'clock afternoon. 

Sept. 23, 1779 — The army rested in a deep valle about three miles above French Cath- 
arin's and about 14 miles short of the Susquahanna, 

Sept. 24, 1779 — This afternoon the army arrived at Koniawa holla on the Tioga 
Branch of Susquahanna — here we found a garrison of our people consisting of 200 men, 
who, had with boats, brot up a considerable supply of provisions. This place is about 
23 miles above Tioga. In this days march the army passed the Allegane mountains, 
which is the highest land we have passed, the water descending both ways ; and what is 
very remarkable, this mountain, at the place where we passed it, is a swamp of white pine 
and hemlock. & is very wet, altho there has not fallen any rain of consequence these 30 
days past. 

Sept. 28, 1779 — Last night about 7 o'clock, I arrived at Wyoming after a tedious pas- 
sage by water from ConnawahhoUa which I left the 25th, a little before night, having 
obtained permition to come down on account of my bad state of health. By water the 
way is computed to be 130 miles. 

I arrived at Tioga the 26, 3 o'clock in the morning, where I was very kindly entertained 
by Col. Shrevee, who furnished Col. Smith with a boat, and necessary assistance, my horses 
were brought down by land. 

Sept. 30, 1779 — I reached Easton. 

Oct. 2, 1779 — Arrived at my house Morristown having traveled continually on the 
way every day since the 15th Sept. from Genesee. 



JOURNAL OF LIEIJT.-COL HENRY DEARBORN. 



Henry Dearbobn, Lieutenant Colonel commanding the Third New- 
Hampshire (Scammel's) Regiment. The following sketch is by Grenl 
John S. Clark, Auburn, N. Y. : 

Colonel Dearborn was born in Hampton, N. H, in March, 1751. He 
was a captain at Bunker Hill, and accompanied Arnold in the march 
through the woods against Quebec, in which expedition he was captured. 
He was exchanged in 1777, and soon after was appointed Major of 
Scammel's regiment. At Saratoga he commanded a separate battahon 
under General Gates, and was afterwards at Monmouth, where he dis- 
tinguished himself and the regiment by a gallant charge. In 1779 Col- 
onel Scammel was acting as Adjutant General of the army, leaving 
Lieut. Colonel Dearborn in command of the regiment during Sullivan's 
campaign. He was ,at the siege of Yorktown in 1781, and afterward on 
garrison duty at Saratoga and West Point until 1784. He served two 
terms in Congress, was for eight years secretary of war under Jefferson, 
and in the war of 1812 was senior Major General of the army. In 1822 
he was minister to Portugal, from whence he returned after two years' 
service, and died in Roxbury, Mass., June 6, 1829. After his death, 
his son, Henry Alexander Scammel Dearborn, collected and arranged 
the vabiable papers of his father, transcribed the journals, which 
extended through the entire period of the revolution, and added impor- 
tant historical sketches, the whole making forty-live large volumes hand- 
somely bound in morocco, the exterior approximating in elegance to the 
inestimable value of the material within. On the death of the son. all 
of these, excepting seven volumes, were taken apart, and the contents, 
made up of valuable autograph letters <:>{ the revolutionary period, scat- 
tered to the four winds by a sale at public auction. The seven volumes, 
containing no autographs, were reserved at the sale and remain intact 
In one of these is the Journal kejjt during Sullivan's campaign, as 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 63 

arranged by the son, but this copy differs from the original in many par- 
ticulars, and includes much matter evidently obtained from other sources. 
The original- manuscript Journal of Sullivan's campaign, together 
Tvith many other valuable original documents, are now in the possession 
•of Charles P. Grreenough, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts, who intends 
to present them, through his brother William Greenough, Esq., of JSTew 
York city, to the Waterloo Library and Historical Society, of Waterloo, 
.Seneca county, N. Y. With the consent and approbation of that Soci- 
ety, a literal copy of the original journal has been obtained through the 
kindness and courtesy of Mr. Greenough, who has taken great pains to 
make the copy accurate, and sincere acknowledgments are due to him 
and also to the AVaterloo Library and Historical Society, for the great 
favors so cheerfully bestowed. 

JOURNAL. 

Easton June 17 1779 

Genls Maxwells & Poors Brigades with Cols Procters Regt of Artillery ware order'd to 
march this day for Wyoming under the Command of the Honble Majr Genl Sullivan on 
■an Expedition against the Savages between Wyoming & Niagara 

i8th The Army march'd at Sunrise proceeded 12 miles to Hilliers tavern & encamp'd 
Kjur course to day about north 

igth March'd at 4 o'c'oci A M proceeded 7 miles to Brinker's Mills where there is a 
Magazine of Provisions kept Here we halted & drew provisions We passed this morning 
■what is Call'd the Wind Gap of the blue mountains a narrow pass that appears as if Nature 

■ design'd it for a road into the country as it is the only place that this ridge of mountains 
-can be passed for a very great distence After drawing provisions we march'd 9 miles to 

Learns tavern & encamp'd Our course to day about north 

2oth March'd at 9 o'clock pass'd the end of a mountain call'd Dogon point proceeded 
•-about 5 miles & encamp The hous we left this morning is the last we shall see until we 
.git to Wyoming 

2ist Enter'd what is Call'd the Great Swamp proceeded 20 miles thro' a horrid rough 
: gloomey country the land cover'd with pine Spruce lawrel bushes c& hemlock We eat 
breakfast at a streem call'd Tunkhannah we pass'd another call'd Tobehannah & an 
• other the Leahigh We likewise pass'd what is called the Shades of Death a very gloomy 

■ thick part of the Swamp 

22'nd. We March'd but 5 miles to a dessolate farm 7 miles from Wyoming 
23'd We March'd to the Fort at Wyoming 7 miles where we found several reg'ts 
incamp'd which are part of our army our course the 2 last days has been about N. West 
The whole Country from Easton to Wyoming is very poor & barren & I think Such as will 
never be Inhabited it abounds with dear & Rattle Snakes The land at Wyoming on both 
: sides the river is very fine & was very thickly Inhabited before they ware cut off by the 
savages 20 miles up & down the river after the Battle at this place last year in which more 
than 200 of the Inhabitants were Kill'd the Savages burnt & destroyed the whole country 

■ & drove off the cattle & horses & strip'ed the women & children of every comfort of life 
we are now incamp'd on the bank of the Susquehannah river this river is at this place 

-about 50 rods wide & abounds with fish of various kinds Such as Shad Bass, pike, trout 
■&C &c &c 

24th We are laying still some skattering Indians are-skulking about us 

25th Nothing New 26th as yesterday 



64 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

■: i-\ the 2n'd & 3'd N. Hampshire regt cross'd the river & mov'd 3 miles up to a place 
call d Forty Fort on Abrahams plains & incamp'd here in the remains of a stockhead fort 
about 3 miles above this Fort the Battle was fought between the 2 Butlers viz Col Butler 

Wyoming & the inhuman savage Butler that corhmanded the Indians & Tories in which 
^50 men were Killed & Skelp'd on our side & about 40 or 50 on the Enimies side The 
next day after the battle the Enimy contrary to their ingagements at the Capitulation of 
Forty Fort (in which was about 500 women & Children) burnt and destroyed the whole 
settlement. 

28th We are erecting some small works for the security of our guards 

29th as yesterday 

30th nothing new 

July ist the two Tories who ware condemn'd at Easton ware orderd to be executed 
to day I of them was hung the other was pardon'd under the Gallows A number of us 
discover'd a fine buck to day on an Island which we surrounded & killed The army is 
waiting for provisions that are coming up the River. 

2nd I went with Gen 1 Poor and several other Gentlemen to day to vew the feild of 
action where the Battle between the 2 Butlers was fought: We found a great number of 
bones at & near the field of battle Among a number of skul bones that we found none 
was without the mark of the tommahok I saw one Grave where 73 of our men ware bur- 
ied & was shewn a place wher 17 of our men after being taken ware made to set down in 
a ring 16 of whom they Immediately tommahawk'd the other leap'd over the ring and 
made his escape 

3'd This is anniversary of the Battle of the two Butlers mentioned above. 

4th This is the Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence but as it is 
Sunday we take no other notice of it than that of having a Sermon adapt to the Occasion 
Col Cilley's & Courtlandt's reg'ts cross'd the river and Join'd us to day Several dear & 
wild turkeys have been kill'd within a day or two with which this Country abounds 

Monday July 5th Genl Poor made an Entertainment for all the Officers of his Bri- 
gade to celebrate the Anniversary of the declaration of American Independence 87 Gen- 
tleman ware present at dinner after which the 13 following toasts ware drank i — 4th of 
July 76 the ever Memorable Patriotick Eara ol American Independence 2nd The 
United States 3d The Grand Counsel of America 4th Gen'l Washington & the Army 
5th The King & Queen of France 6th Genl Lincoln & the Southern Army 7th Genl 
Sullivan & the Western Army 8th May the Counsellors of America be wise and her Sol- 
diers Invincible gth A Successful & decisive Campaign loth Civilization or death to all 
American Savages nth the Immortal Memory of those heroes that have fallen in defence 
of American Liberty 12th May this New World be the last Asylum for freedom and the 
Arts. 13th May the Husbandman's house be bless'd with peace & his fields with plenty. 

The whole was conducted with such Joy & festivity as demonstrated an Independent 
Elevation of Spirit on this Important & enteresting Occasion. 

6th One Winslow a Soldier in the 3d N. Hampshire regt was drown'd this morning by 
going into bathe a very severe shower of thunder hail rain & wind came on at abt i ?. 
M. many peices of the hail ware as large as hens Eggs but of a very erregular form 

1 7th I eat part of a fryed Rattle Snake to day which would have tasted very well had it 
not been sn^ke 

8th Nothing extraordinary 

loth A detachment of 150 men was sent from the 2nd & 3'd N Hampshire regt under 
the command of Col Reid towards Easton to repare the rode & to help forward some wag- 
gons with provisions. 

nth. we receiv'd our New Commissions upon the new Arrangement to day which we 
have been expecting for Eighteen Months I rec'd several letters from N Hampshire to 
day in one of which I am inform'd of being married but have not learnt to whome 

1 2th nothing new 

13 Col. Butler Misses Butler and a number of the ladies honour'd us with a visit from 
town this afternoon with whom we spent a very agreeable afternoon 

14th nothing new 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 65 

15 we hear the Main body of the Enimy have retir'd from Kings ferry on the Hudson 
river but have left a post there. 

i6th I went with Generals Sullivan Maxwell & Poor together with a number of other 
Gentlemen to vew the ground where the Battle of the Butlers was fought 

17th we hear the enimy are pursueing their savage plan of burning plundering & des- 
troying defenceless towns that they have burnt fairfield Norwalk & a part of New Haven 
in Connecticut & Bedford in N York State These things we may thank our good friends 
the tories for what will not those hell hounds doo us There was a very striking instance of 
their more than savage barbarity in the battle of the 2 Butlers One Henry Pencel of 
Wyoming who was fortunate enough to make his escape from the field of Battle on to an 
Islarid in the river with one or two more without their arms near night a small party of the 
enimy came on to the Island the foremost of which was John Pencel brother to s'd Henry 
who upon discovering his brother call'd him a damned rebel & threten'd to kill him. 
Henry fell on his knees & begged for his life saying brother John I am in your hands I'll 
be your slave I'll go with you but pray spare my life we have differ'd in sentiment & have 
met on the field of Battle but as I am now fully in your power for God's sake don't kill 
me but his unatural & more than savage brother Cain like deef to all his cries & Intreaties 
damn'd him for a rebel deliberately charg'd his gun & shot his brother then tommahawk'd 
and skelped him Immediately some savages cam up and ask'd him what he had done he 
told them he had kill'd his brother Henry a dam'd Rebel These savages curs'd his unnat- 
ural behaveyer & threten'd to serve him the same way The above account I have from one 
Mr. Slocum a young fellow belonging to Wyoming who lay in the bushes so near Pencel as 
to hear all that passed 

i8th nothing extraordinary igth do 20th Do 

2ist We are informed by a letter from one of Genl Washington's Aids that GenI Wain 
with a body of Light Infantry on the night of the 15th Inst surprised & took a small 
Garrison near Kings ferry on Hudsons River call'd Stoney Point the particulars have not 
come to hand but it is said the number of men kill'd and taken is about 600 & a quantity 
of Artillery & .Stores &c. 

22nd we h:ive a confirmation of the news of yesterday 

23d I went with several other Gentlemen S miles up the River to an old Settlement 
call'd Lackawane to fish and hunt dear where we stayed over night. 

24th (Jame home with but few fish 70 boats ariv'd from Sunsbury with provisions and 
stores to day. 

25th Seven men belonging to what is call'd the German regt ware sentenced by a Gen- 
eral Court Martial to suffer death for desertion 

26th we are Informed that Genl Parsons has had an Ingagement with a body of the 
Enimy near Wilton 7 miles from Norwalk in Connecticut and finally repuls'd them. 

27th Genl Poors Brigade moov'd down the river & Join'd the Main army at what is 
called the town The above mentioned deserters that ware order'd to be executed to dav 
are pardoned by the Genl who has declar'd he never will pardon another man in like cir- 
cumstances 

28th Col Reid arriv'd with 80 waggons with provisions and Stores from Easton, The 
pack Horses are destributed in the several Brigades & mark'd 

29th we are inform'd that a party of Savages with some british troops have taken a 
small fort on the west branch of the Susquehannah near Sunsbury have plunder'd the 
Inhabitents of their cattle, horses & every other thing they could carry off and another 
party has been down to a place call'd the Minnisinks on the deleware river and have had 
an action with a party of our Millitia in which the Millitia were rather worsted & and lost 
a number of men but the Millitia being reinfors'd the enimy ware oblig'd to retreet we 
likewise are inform'd that Genl Clinton has moov'd up from New York & taken possession 
of Kings ferry again with his main body 

30th the army under Genl Sullivan is order'd to March to Morrow Morning towards 
the Indian Settlements A very severe campaign I expect we shall have 

Genl Sullivan's army at Wyoming consists of the Troops following viz Maxwells 



66 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Brigade consisting of Ogdens Datens Shreefes and Spencers regts — Poors Brigade con- 
sisting of Cilleys Reids Scammel's & Courtlands regts — Hands Brigade consisting of the 
German regt Shot's Corps Spoldens Independant Ccmpany & Hubley's regt from Pensel- 
vania 

Wyoming July 31st 1779 This day the army Marches for Teoga in the following 
order 



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Note— The foregoing sketches of Order of March and Order of Battle are just as found iu the 
journal and are as originally issued ; 1 y Genl, Sullivan's order of the 24th August the Brigades of 
Poor and Maxwell changed places in conformity to a previous arrangement. 



68 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Head Quarters Easton May 24, 1779 
When the army shall be fully assembled the following Arrangements are to take place 
Light corps commanded by Genl Hand consisting of Armandts corps Sholts Do 6 com- 
panies of Rangers Wm. Butlers regt Morgans Corps and all volunteers that may Join the 
army 

Maxwells Brigade ( Ogdens Daytons ( „ 

to consist of ( Shreeves & Spencers f *■ 

and form the left of the front line 

Poors Brigade ( Cilleys Reids ) „ 

to consist of ( Scammels & Cortlandts ) * 

to form the right of the front line 



Clintons Brigade S late Livingstons Dubois i 
to consist of i Ganseworths & Oldens ' 



Regts 



to form the 2nd line or Reserve 

The right of the first line to be cqver'd by 100 men draughted from Maxwells Brigade 
the left to be covered by 100 men draughted from Poors Brigade Each flank of the 2nd 
line to be cover'd by 50 men draughted from Clinton's Brigade The Flanking divi- 
sion on the right to consist of Hartlies & Dattens regt with a draught from the line of 
100 men The flanking division on the left to consist of the German Batln & 100 men 
draughted from the line. The order of Battle & the Order of March are represented On 
the Annexed plan and are to be adher'd to at all, times when the situation of the Country 
will possibly admit & where a deviation takes place it must be carried no further than the 
necessity of that time requires 

The Order of March the light corps will advance by the right of Companies in files & 
keep at least one mile in front Maxwells Brigade will advance by its right in files sections 
or platoons as the country will admit Poors Brigade will advance by its left in the same 
manner Clintons Brigade will advance by the right of regts by platoons, sections or files 
as the Country will admit. All the covering parties and flanking divisions on the right 
will advance by the left & those on the left by the right. The Artillery & pack horses 
will March in the Center Should the Army be attacked in front while on its march the 
light Corps will Immediately form and repulse the Enimy. The flanking divisions will 
Indeavor to gain the flank & rear of the Enimy while the line is forming The pack 
horses will in all cases fall into the position represented on the annexed plan Should the 
Enimy attack on either flank the flanking division attacked will form a front and sustain 
the attack til reinforced in which case a part of the light troops is to be Immediately 
delach'd to gain the Enimies flank & rear the covering parties of the 2'nd line will moove 
to gain the other flank Should the Enimy attack our rear the 2nd line will face & form a 
front to the Enimy the covering parties of the ist. line will moove to sustain it while the 
flanking Divisions face about and Endeavour to gain their flanks & rear Shoould the light 
troops be driven back they will pass thro the Intervals of the main Army & form in the 
rear Should the Enimy in an Ingagement with the army when form'd endeavour to turn 
either flank the covering parties will moove up to lengthen the line and so much as may 
be found necessary from the flanking divisions will display outwards to prevent the attempt 
of the Enimy from succeeding the light Corps will have their advance & flank guards at 
a good distance from the Main body the Flanking Divisions will furnish flank guards & 
the 2'nd Hne a Rear Guard for the Main Army When we find the light Corps engag'd 
with the Enimy in front the front of the pack horses will halt and the rear close up while 
the coUumns moove in a small distance Close & display Columns which will bring the 
horses in the position represented in the plan for order of Battle Should the attack be 
made on either flank or Rear the horses rnust be kept in the position they are in at the 
commencement of the attack unless other orders are then given 

July 31 1779 After passing the forenoon at very severe fatigue in loading the boats 
& pack horses the army movd from Wyoming at 2 o'clock p. M with 120 boats about 1200 
pack horses & 700 beef cattle We proceeded to l.achawanea 10 miles & Encamp'd here 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 69 

has been a very pleasant settlement the land is very fertile & level the Inhabitants being 
drove off & the place dessolated by the Savages last year it is now uninhabited We have 
had a remarkable rainey time for lo days past & still continues 

August ist Sunday As the boats didnt get up last night the army did not march till 4 
o clock p M Proceeded 7 miles the way most horribly rough we found great difficulty in 
getting forward the pack horses it was late in the evening before we arriv'd at our In- 
camping ground Our rear Cuard did not arive til near day brak? We incamp'd on a 
fine peice of Intervale which has been Inhabited but shared the fate of Wyoming last 
year This place was Formaly Inhabited by savages was called Quilutimack 

2nd The army lay still to repair the pack sadles &c &c We took a number of fine fish 
with a sean to day Such as bass pike chubbs &c &c 

3'd The army march'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 12 miles to some dessolated fields at the 
mouth of a creek called Tunkhannunk we had much better marching to day 

4th Marched at 6 o'clock proceeded 17 miles to a dessolated farm call'd Vanderlips 
which is an excellent tract of land we passed several dessolated farms to day one of which 
was on a Streem 5 miles from where we incamp'd last night call'd Meshoping the land 
we have marched over to day is very Mountainous 

5th Marched at 10 o'clock proceeded to Wyolusing 10 miles This has been an old 
Indian Town Situate on an Excellant tract of Intervale land about 80 families of this 
town were christianis'd by a Moravian parson & form'd into a regular town in the center 
of which they had a chappel The land on this River being purchas'd by the Connecticut 
Company in the year 1770 or 71 the savages moov'd off further westward & left this 
place in possession of a few Americans who sence the commencement of this war have 
left it & Join'd the Enimy. This Town stood on a point of land round which the river 
makes a very large bow or turn above the town a large streem emties into the river called 
Wyolusing The land here is covered with a very large burthen of English Grass on the 
Intervale near this place are much the largest trees I ever saw the growth is Black walnut 
& buttenwood. 

6th we remain at Wyolusing to day to recruit our horses and cattle 

7th The weather being rainey we lay still 

8th The Army march'd at 6 o'clock I had the flank Guard passed Several high moun- 
tains & several dessolate farms proceeded to what is call'd the Standing Stone bottom 
where there is a learge body of excellent land that has been Improv'd Genl Sullivan is so 
unwell that he is not able to command the army and is oblig'd to proceed by water 

gth March'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 3 miles to a dessolate farm on the mouth of a 
streem call'd Wesawking here we halted an hour then proceeded 12 miles to a large body 
of clear Intervale cover'd with high Grass & incamp'd This place is within 4 miles of 
Tiogea & has been inhabited by both white People & Savages & is Call'd Sheshekonunk 
The land we march'd over this day is very fine indeed Genl Sullivan is not so unwell as 
he has been & has resumed the command of the army again The weather being very 
warm & our march very severe many of our men falter'd to day 

lOth The army lay still The Genl & a number of field Officers are reconnoitering the 
country and endeavoring to find a place where the army can ford the river. The General 
Course from Wyoming to Tiogea is near North 

nth The Army forded the river where the water was so deep and rappid that we 
found great difficulty in fording After fording the river proceeded 3 miles & crossing the 
west branch of the river called the Tiogea branch ariv'd at Tiogea Setuate on the point 
where the west branch forms a Junction with the Susquehannah On both sides of the 
Teogea branch are very large bodies of clear Intervale cover'd with high-grass where 
there has been a learge Indian Settlement and where Queen Hester (Queen of the Six 
Nations) resided until last autumn Col Hartley with a party of troops burn'd her palace 
Genl Sullivan has been fortunate enough to reach this place with his Army without any 
considerable accident happening. 

I2th We are beginning to erect works for the security of the troops & Stores to be left 
at this place The Genl receiv'd intelligence this afternoon by a Small party that had been 



70 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

sent to make discoveries that the Enimy appeer to be in great confusion & about mooving- 
from Chemong an Indian town I2 m up the Tiogea branch in consequence of which the 
whole army fit for duty march'd at 8 o clock P M in order to Surprise the enimy at Che- 
mong On our march we pass'd several very difficult defiles & as the night was very dark 
& the path but little us'd we found great difficulty in proceeding Genl Hand with his 
Brigade was to go round & fall into the rode that leads from the town up the river while 
Genl Poor moov'd directly to the town & made the attack if he found the enimy in posses- 
sion of the town at day brake we ariv'd at the Town but found it deserted only two or 
three Indians were seen running from the town The Town consisted of about 30 houses 
situate on the bank of the Tiogea Their houses ware biult with split and hew'd timber 
cover'd with bark There were 2 large buildings which ware said to be Publick houses 
There was very little left in the houses except baskets buckets & skins the houses had no 
chimney or flooers & ware very dirty & smookey about sun rise all the buildings ware set 
on fire On examination we found that a party of the enimy incamp'd about 60 rods from 
the town last night and from all appeerence the enemy left the town last evening Genl 
Hand with his brigade pursu'd the enimy about 2 miles & was fired on by a party of 
Indians from the top of a hill who run off as soon as the fire was return'd Genl Hand 
had 6 men kill'd & seven wounded three of the latter ware ofilicers The^ enimy ware pur- 
sued by our troops but not overtaken We found a number of very large fields of 
corn in the whole about 40 acres about fit to roast which we cut down and destroy'd in 
doing which a party of our men ware fir'd on by a party of tories & Indians across the 
river who kill'd one man & wounded 4 After complecting the distruction of the corn 
Town &c we return'd to Tiogea where we ariv'd at dark very much fategue'd having 
march'd not less than 30 miles & the weather very warm Chemong; lays about N West 
from Tiogea 

14th Nothing new 

15th 1000 chosen men under the command of Gen'l Poor ar order'd to march to mor- 
row morning up the river to meet Genl Clinton who is in his way to Join us with his Bri- 
gade & is in danger of being attackt by the Enimy before he can form a Junction with our 
main army I am order'd on this Command This afternoon a small party of Indians fir'd 
on some men who were without our guards after horses & cattle kill'd & Scalp'd one man 
and wounded another A party was sent out in pursute of them but could not come up with 
them 

i6th Genl Poor march'd with his detachment at 10 o'clock A M proceeded in 2 col- 
lumns 13 miles up the Susquehanna over very rough ground We encamp'd near the 
ruins of an old Indian Town call'd Macktowanunk The land near the river is generally 
good. 

17th We march'd early this morning proceeded 12 miles to Owagea an Indian Town- 
which was deserted last Spring after planting About the town is a numbar of fruit trees 
& many plants & hearbs that are common in our part of the country here is alearge body 
of clear Intervale cover'd with Grass Our march to day has been very severe & fategueng 
especially for the left Column (to which I belong) as we had to pass several diflScult steep 
hills & bad Morasses 

1 8th We march'd early this morning proceeded 14 miles to Chaconnut the remains of 
a learge Indian town which has been likewise abandoned this summer Here we found plenty 
of cucumbers squashes turnips &c we found about twenty houses which we burnt Our 
days March has been more severe than yesterday as we had besides hills & common 
swamps one swamp of about 2 miles so covered with learge pines standing & lying which 
appeared as tho several hurricanes had been very busey among them since which a tremen- 
dious groath of bushes about 20 feet high has sprung up so very thick as to render pass- 
ing thro' them Impracticable by any troops but such as nothing but death can stop 
At sunset we ware very agreably allarm'd by the report of a Cannon up the river which 
we suppos'd to be Genl Clintons Evining Gun. 

19th Our troops ware put in motion very early this morning after marching about one 
mile Genl Poorreceiv'd an express from Genl Clinton informing him that the latter expect'd 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 71 

to be here by lo o'clock a M in consequence of which we return'd to our old incamp- 
ment where Genl Clinton Joined us at lo o'clock with 2000 men Including Officers boat- 
men &c He has 208 batteaux with provisions Ammunition etc after mutuil congratula- 
tions & Complyments the whole proceeded down the river to Owagea & incamp'd This 
evining the town of Owagea was made a bone fire of to grace our meeting Our general 
course from Tiogea to Choconut is about N East 

20th We have a very heavy rain to day & no tents but we are obliged to ride it out 

2ist We marched early proceeded within 10 miles of Tiogea 

22nd March'd at 6 oclock & at 11 ariv'd in Camp where we were Saluted with 13 
Cannon & a tune on Col Proctor's band of Musick. 

23d We are prepareing to march with all possible expedition about 5 oclock this after- 
noon a very shocking accident happened in our Brigade A Soldier very accidentally dis- 
charg'd a musket charged with a ball & several buckshot 3 of which unfortunately struck 
Capt Kimbal of Col Cilley's regt who wasstanding at some distence in a tent with several 
other officers in such a manner that he expired within 10 or 15 minutes as universelly 
lamented as he was esteem'd by all who knew him One of the shot wounded a soldier 
in the leg who was setting at some distence from the tent Capt Kimbal was in 

24th The remains of the unfortunate Capt Kimbal was Inter'd at II Oclock A M with 
the honours of war attended by Genl Poor & almost all the Officers of the Brigade with 
Col Proctors Band of Musick The Army is very busey in prepareing to march 

25th We find great difficulty in getting ready to moove for want of a sufficiant number 
of horses to Carry our provisions Ammunitions Stores &c however we are to morrow with- 
out fail with 27 days flower & live beef Our whole force that will march from here is 
about 5000 men Officers included with nine peices of Artillery Three of the Anyda 
Warriers ariv'd in camp this afternoon who going on with us as guides two runners ariv'd 
from Col. Broadhead at Fort Pitt Informing that Col Broadhead is on his way with about 
800 men against the western Indians. 

26th Our Army March'd at 12 oclock in the order laid down in the plan of order of 
March & Battle A garrison of about 300 men is left at this place under the Command of 
Col Shreeve The army proceeded about 4 miles & incamp'd Mr. Lodge a Gentleman 
who survay'd and Measur'd the rode from Easton to this place goes on with in order lo 
take an actual survay of the country who measures the rode as we go on 

27th The Army March'd at 8 o'clock Our march were very much Impeeded by the 
Artillery & Ammunition wagons which we have to clear a rode for thro the thick woods 
and difficult defiles The army was obliged to halt 7 hours at one defile to day for the 
artillery and baggage at 10 p M we ariv'd our incarriping ground a learge body of clear 
Intervale where we found about 70 or 80 acres of fine corn our march has not been more 
than 5 miles to day 

28th As we had the corn to destroy before we could march it was 2 oclock p M before 
we moov'd off the ground By reason of a high mountain that shuts down to the river so 
as render passing with the artillery impractacable we ware oblig'd to ford the river twice 
before we got to Cheraong with the artillery pack horses and i Brigade The water was 
so high as render'd fording very difficult & dangerous A considerable quantity of flower 
Ammunition & baggage was lost in the river at 10 in the eveaiing the rear of the army 
ariv'd at Chemong where we incamp'd Our march to day has not been more than 3 miles 
A small scout of ours return'd to day which informs that they discover'd a learge incamp- 
ment about 6 miles from Chemong A small party of Indians fired on a party of our men 
to day that ware setting fire to some houses over the river but did no dammage 

2gth The army march'd at g o clock A 11 proceeded about 5 miles when our light 
troops discover'd a line of brestworks about 80 rods in their front which after reconnoy- 
tering ware found to extend about half a mile in length on very advantageous ground 
with a learge brook in front the river on their right a high mountain on their left & a learge 
settlement in their rear called New Town Their works ware very artfully mask'd with 
green bushes so that the discovering them was as accidental as it was fortunate to us 
Skirmishing on both sides commenc'd soon after we discover'd their works which con- 



72 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

tinued until our Disposition was made whicli was as foliowetli viz The Artillery to form 
in front of their works cover'd by Genl Hands Brigade Genl Poors Brigade and riflemen 
to turn the Enimies left & fall in their rear supported by Genl Clintons Brigade Gen'l 
Maxwells Brigade to form a Corps de reserve the left flanking division & light Infantry 
to pursue the Enimy when they left their works At 3 P M Genl J^oor began his rout by 
CoUums from the right of Regts by iiles we pass'd a very thick swamp so cover'd 
with bushes for near a mile that the CoUnmns found great difficulty in keeping their 
order but by Genl Poors great prudence & goqd conduct we proceeded in much better 
order than I expected we possibly could have done After passing this swamp we 
inclin'd to the left crossed the creek that runs in front of the enimies works On both 
sides of this creek was a learge number of new houses but no land cleared soon 
after we pass'd this creek we began to assend the mountain that cover'd the Enimies 
left Immediately after we began to Assend the Mountain We ware saluted by a brisk 
fire from a body of Indians who ware posted on this mountain for the purpos of pre- 
venting any troops turning the left of their works at the same Instant that they began 
their fire on us they raised the Indian yell or war whoop The riflemen kept up a 
scattering fire while vi^e form'd the line of Battle which was done exceeding quick 
we then advanced rappedly with fix'd bayonets without fireing a shot altho they kept 
up a steady fire on us until we gain'd the summet of the Mountain which is about half 
a mile We then gave them a full volley which oblig'd them to take to their wheels 
Col Reids Regt was on the left of the Brigade was more severely attackt than any 
other part of the Brigade which prevented his advancing as far as the rest After we 
had scower'd the top of the mountain (in doing which Lt Cass of our regt tommohawked 
an Indian with the Indians own tommahawk that was slightly wounded) I being 
next to Col Reid on the left finding he still was very severely ingag'd nearly on the 
same ground he was first attackt on thought proper to reverse the front of the Regt & 
moove to his assistence I soon discover'd a body of Indians turning his right which I 
turn'd about by a full fire from the regt This was a very seasonable releaf to Col Reid 
"who at the very moment I fir'd on those that ware turning his right found himself so 
surrounded that he w^s reduc'd to the nessessaty of retreeting or making a desparate push 
^'ith the bayonet the latter of which he had began to put in executien the moment I gave 
him releaf The Enimy now all left the field of action with precepitation & in great con- 
fusion pursued by our light Infantry about 3 miles They left n number of their packs 
tlankets &c on the ground Half an hour before the action became serious with Genl 
Poors Brigade the Artillery open'd upon their works which soon made them works too 
-warm for them We found of the Enimy on the field of action 11 Indian warders dead 
■& one Squaw took one white man & one negro prisoners from whom we learnt that Butler 
Commanded here that Brandt had all the Indians that could be mustered in the five 
Nations that there was about 200 whites a few of which were British regular troops It 
seems their whole force was not far from 1000 These prisoners inform us their loss in 
killed & wounded was very great the most of which they according to custom carried off 
•Our loss in Genl Poors Brigade kill'd and wounded is 

Kill'd Wounded 

I Major Titcomb' 

I Capt Clays 

I I.t. McCawley died the same night. 
29 

Our loss in Kill'd & wounded in the whole Army except Genl Poors Brigade was 
J<iird Wounded 4 

At sunset the army Incamp'd on the ground lately occupied by the Enimy 
30th The Army remain'd on the ground to day destroy'd a vast quantity of corn & 
about 40 houses The Army by a request of Genl SuUivans agree'd to live on half a 
pound of beef & half a pound of flower pr day for the future as long as it may be found 
xiessessary our provisions being very short This night our sick and wouhded together 
with the Ammunition waggons & 4 of our heaviest peaces of .\rtillery are sent back to 



Major 





•Capt 





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-Non commissioned & privates 


3 



LIEUT. COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 73 

Tiogea by water which will enable the Army to proceed with much greater ease & rappid- 
ity Our course from Chemong to here is about N West 

31st We march'd at 10 o'clocli The right Column march'd on the hills some distence 
from tlie river the left coUumn & Artillery march'd by the river The land we march'd 
over fine Found and Destroy'd several fields of corn & houses Proceeded 45^ miles to 
where the AUigaher & Kaiyugea branches of the river unite On the point between these 
two streems was a very pritty town call'd KannawalohoUa which from appearance was 
deserted this morning Some boats ware seen by our advanced parties going up the Alla- 
ganer branch. A number of feather beds ware emtied in the houses our soldiers found 
several learge chests buried which ware fiU'd with a great variety of household furniture & 
many other articles After halting here an hour we proceeded between the two rivers on 
a fine plain about 5 miles & incamp'd. A detachment was sent up the AUegana branch in 
pursute of the Enimy 

September ist The detachment that was sent up the river in pursute of the Enimy 
return'd this m.orning. They could not overtake the Enimy but they found & destroy'd 
several learge fields of corn 

The Army march'd at 10 oclock proceeded about 3 miles on a plain then came to what 
is call'd bair Swamp which extends to French Katareens g miles The growth is pine 
Spruce & hemlock exceeding thick A small river run thro it which we had to cross 
about 20 times On both sides of this Swamp is a ridg of tremendous hills, which the 
coUums ware oblig'd to march on having a rode to open for the artillery proceeded very 
slowly At dark when we had got within about 3 miles of Katareens Town we found our- 
selves in a most horrid thick Mirey Swamp which render'd our proceeding so difficult that 
it was 10 oclock in the Evining before we ariv'd at the town where we found fires burning 
& every other appeerence of the Enimies having left the town this afternoon This Town 
consists of above 30 houses There is a number fruit trees in this town The streem that 
we cross'd so often to day runs thro this Town & into the Seneca or Kannadasegea Lake 
the south end of which is but 3 miles from this Town 

2nd The Army lay still to day to recrute and to destroy the Town corn &c A very 
old Squaw was found in the bushes who was not able to go off with the rest who informs 
us that Butler with the Tories went from this place with all the boats the day before yes- 
terday the Indians warriers mooved off their families & -Effects yesterday morning & then 
return'd here and stay'd till Sunset She says the Squaws & young Indians ware very 
loth to quit the town but ware for giving themselves up but the warriors would not agree 
to it Several horses & cattle ware found at & about this place A party of light troops 
ware sent this morning to indeavor to overtake some of the Indians who left this place 
last evining but return'd without being able to afect it object 

3d The Army march'd at 8 oclock after proceeding about 3 miles over rough ground 
came oposite to the end of the Lake & then found good marching the land very fine 
Proceeded 9 miles & incamp'd at 4 ocloCk P M near the east side of the lake This Lake is 
40 miles in length & from 2 to 5 in wedth & runs nearly North & South. 

4. The army march'd at 10 oclock proceeded 4 miles to a small village where we found 
several fine fields of corn after destroying the village and corn march'd on 8 miles further 
and incamp'd The land we passed over this day is very fine 

5th the Army march'd at 10 oclock and proceeded 5 miles to an old Indian town call'd V 
Candaia or Apple Town where there is a very old orchard of 60 trees & many other fruit 
trees The town consists of 15 or 20 houses very beautifully situated near the Lake In 
the Town are 3 Sepulchers which are very Indian fine where I suppose some of their chiefs 
are deposited At this town we found a man by the name of Luke Sweatland who was 
taken by the Savages at Wyoming last summer and was adopted into an Indian family in 
this town where he has liv'd or rether stay'd about 12 months He appeer'd quite over- 
joy'd at meeting some of his acquaintence from Wyoming who are in our army He said 
the savages were very much straiten'd for food from April until corn was fit to roast that 
his being kepirso starved prevented him from attempting to desert altho he had frequent 
opportunities by being sent 20 miles to the salt springs to make salt which springs he 

10 



74 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

says affords salt for all the Savages in this part of. the country He says the Indians ware 
much alarm'd and dejected at being beat at New Town They told him they had a great: 
many wounded which they sent off by water We destroy'd learge quantities of corn here. 
An express ariv'd thas afternoon from Tyogea by which I receiv'd a letter that inform'd 
me that Abner Dearborn a nephew of mine about i6 years old, who was wounded in the 
Battle of New town died of his wounds the 2d inst 

5th The horses & cattle ware so scattered this morning that the army could not git redy 
to march until 3PM proceeded 3 miles & incamp'd Oposite to where we incamped on the 
other side of the Lake we discovered a settlement & where we could see some Indians, 
driving horses 

7th Took up our line of march at 7 oclock proceeded 8 miles and came to the end of 
the Lake where we expected the Enimy would give us another battle as they might have 
a very great advantage over us as we forded the outlet of the Lake. When we ariv'd in 
sight of the ford we halted & several scouts were sent out to reconnoyter the adjacent 
woods when we found the coast was clear the army pass'd the ford proceeded three 
miles by the end of the Lake & found a small settlement which we destroy'd & then pro- 
ceeded 2 miles from the Lake a learge town call'd Kannadasegea which is consider'd as. 
the Cappital of the Senecas and is call'd the Seneca Castle It consists of about 4& 
houses very erregularly situated in the senter of which is the ruins of a Stockade fort & 
block house Here is a conciderable number of apple & other fruit trees & a few acres of 
land clear cover'd with English grass Their cornfields which are very large are at some 
considerable distence from the Town we found In this town a white child about 3 years, 
old which we suppose was a captive In the house was left a number of Skins some corn 
& many of their curiosities 

8th The Army lay still to day The riflemen ware sent to destroy a town about S 
miles from hence on the west side of the lake Call'd Gaghsonghgwa We found a number 
of stacks of hay not far from this town which we set fire to A Scout, of ours burnt a 
town to day about 10 miles N East from hence on the rode to the Kayugea Settlement 
call'd Skaigees or long falls 

gth By reason of a rain last night the Army could not march till 12 o'clock All our 
sick & Invaleeds ware sent back this morning to Tiaogea under an escort of 50 men We 
proceeded about 3 miles thro old fields cover'd with grass then enter'd a thick swamp 
calld the 10 mile swamp we proceeded 4 miles in this swamp with great difficulty crossed 
a considerable streem of water & Incamp'd 

loth the Army March'd at 8 o'clock Proceeded thro the swamy & passed a learge 
body of clear land covered with grass after leaving the clear land march'd one mile & 
Came to a small lake called Konnoadaiguah we forded the outlet of this lake proceeded 
about half a mile & came to a very prety town call'd Kannandaguah consisting of about 
30 houses much better built then any I have seen before Near the town we discover'd 
very large fields of corn Near which the Army incamp'd several parties were orderd out 
this afternoon to destroy the corn &c 

nth The Army Moov'd at 6 clock march'd 14 miles to an Indian town called Any- 
ayea situate on a body of clear intervale near a small lake of the same name. This town 
consists of 10 or 11 houses. Near it was several large cornfields The land we march'd 
over to day is very good & a great part of it very thinly wooded & cover'd with grass It 
appeers as if it has been cultivated heretofore 

I2th The weather being foul the army did not march till 12 olclock A, small post is 
establish'd here where we leave our provisions & Ammunition except what will be neses- 
sary to carry us to Chenesee (25 miles) & back again One peice of artillery is left at this 
post the Army march'd 11 miles this afternoon over a body of excellent land. 

13 March'd at 7 oclock Proceeded i'/2 miles to a town call'd Kanegsas or Quicksea 
consisting of 18 houses situate on an excellent Intervale near a small lake we found a 
learge quantity of corn, beans Squashes potatoes water Mellons cucumbers &c &c in & 
about this town The army halted here 4 hours to destroy the Town & com & to build a. 
bridge over a creek At this town liv'd a very noted warrier called the Great Tree who 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 75 

has made great pretensions of friendship to us & has been to Phyladelphia & to Genl 
Washingtons head Quarters since the war commenced & has received a number of Presents 
from Genl Washington & from Congress yet we suppose he is with Butler against us 

A party of Riflemen & some others 26 in the whole under the command of Lt Boyd of 
the Rifle corps was sent last night to a town 7 miles' from here to make what discoveries 
he could & return at day brake Four of his men went into the town found it abandoned 
but found 3 or 4 scattering Indians one of which they kill'd and Skelp'd & then returnd 
to Lt Boyd after sunrise who lay at some distence from the town He then sent 4 men to 
report to Genl Sullivan what he had discover'd and moov'd on slowly with the remainder 
toward camp. After he had proceeded about halfway to camp he halted some time expect- 
ing the Army along he after halting some time sent two more men to Camp who discov- 
er'd some Scattering Indians & returned to Lt Boyd again he then march'd on his party 
towards camp ik discover'd some Scattering Indians one of which one of his men kill'd 
He soon found himself nearly surrounded & attackt by two or three hundred savages and 
tories he after fighting them some time attempt to retreet but found it impracticable 6 or 
7 of his men did make their escape the remainder finding themselves completely surrounded 
ware determin'd to sell themselves as deer as possible & bravely fought until every man 
was killed but two whch ware Taken one of which was Lt Boyd Some of the men that 
made their escape came to camp & inform'd the Genl of the matter upon which Genl Hand 
with the light troops was order'd to march to the place of action but too late they left all 
their packs hats baggage &c where the action began which Genl Hand found. 

After we had finish'd the bridge the army march'd on proceeded 7 miles to the before 
mentioned Town & incamp'd This town consists of 22 houses situate on a small river 
which falls into the Chenesse river about 2 miles below here and is call'd Gaghchegwa- 
lahale 

14th. The Genl expected to have found the great Chennesee town within i j4 miles of 
here on this side the river but upon reconoytering found that the town is 6 miles from here 
& on the other side of the river The army was imploy'd until 11 o clock in destroying 
corn which was found in great plenty at 12 Marched after fording the small river that 
the town stood on and passing thro a small grove we enter'd on what is called the Great 
Chenesee flats which is a vast body of clear Intervale extending 12 or 14 miles up & down 
the river & several miles back from the river cover'd with grass from 5 to 8 feet high & so 
thick that a man can git thro it but very slowly. Our army appeered there to very great 
advantage mooving in the exact order of March laid down in the plan but very often we 
that ware on horse back could see nothing but the mens guns above the grass After march- 
ing about 2 miles on this flat we came to the Chenesee River which we forded pa,ssed 
over a body of flats on the other side & assended on to q^k land proceeded 3 miles 6t 
ariv'd at the town which we found deserted Here we found the bodies of Lt. Boyd & 
one other man Mangled in a most horred manner From appeerances it seems they ware 
tyed to two trees near which they lay & first severely whipp'd them their tongues were 
cut out their finger nails, plucked off their eyes plucked out then speer'd & cut in many 
places & after they had vented their hellish spite & rage cut off their heads and left them. 
This was a most horrid specticle to behold & from which we are taught the necessity of 
,fighting those more than devels to the -last moment rather then fall into their hands alive 

This is much the leargest Town we have met with it consists of more than 100 houses 
is situate on an excellent piece of land in a learge bow of the river. It appears the sava- 
ges left this place in a great hurry & confusion as they left learge quantities of corn 
husk'd & some in heeps not husk'd & many other signs of confusion 

15th At six o'clock the whole Army ware turn'd out to destroy the corn in & about 
this town which we found in great abundance we ware from 6 o clock to 2 p M in 
destroying the corn & houses It is generally thought we have destroy'd 15,000 bushels 
of corn at this place The meathod we took to destroy it was to make large fires with 
parts of houses & other wood & then piling the corn on to the fire adingwood as we piled 
on the corn which Effectually destroyd the whole of it a woman with her child came to 
us to day who was taken at Wyoming when that place was cut off Her husband and one 



76 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

■child ware Kill'd & Skelp'd in her sight when she was taken She inform'd us that Butler 
& Brant with the tories & Indians left this place in a great hurry the 13 inst & are gone 
to Niagara which is 80 nailes from hence where they expect we are going She says the 
Indians are very uneasey with Butler and their other leaders & are in great distress 

We have now got to the end of our route & are turning our face homeward At 3 
o clock we fac'd to the right about & march'd in high spirits recross'd the Chenesee river 
& incamp'd on the Chenesee fiats This place lays about west from teogea 

l6th A number of fields of corn were discover'd this morning at different places 
which employ'd the army until 10 o clock in destroying At i o clock P. M we recross'd 
the streem at Gaghchegwalahale & at 4 ariv'd at Kanigsas or Chockset & incamp'd 14 of 
I.t Boyd's party ware found this afternoon near together skelp'd Honyose an Onyda 
Indian of considerable note that was with Lt Boyds party was among the dead 

17th The army march'd at sunrise & at 12 o clock ariv'd at Anyaye where we left 
our stores & found all safe 

1 8th the Army March'd at 8 o clock proceeded to Kaunandaguah & incamp'd Four 
Onyda Indians one of which is a Sachem met us to day who say that 100 of the Onydas 
& Tuskaroras set out with them to join us but meeting an Indian that left us sick at 
Kannadasagea when we ware advancing who told them we march'd on so rappedly that 
they could not overtake us so as to be of any service they all returned but these four 

igth The Army march'd to Kannadasegea An Express ariv'd from Genl Washington 
to day by which we are assured that Spain has declared War against f'ngland & that the 
Grand Fleets of France and Spain have form'd a Junction at Sea 

At several towns that our army has destroy'd we found dogs hung up on poles about 
12 or 15 feet high which we are told is done by way of sacralice When they are unfor- 
tunat in war they sacrafice two dogs in the manner above mentioned to appease their 
Imaginery god One of these dogs skins they suppose is converted into a Jacket & the 
other into a tobacko pouch for their god The woman who came to us at Chenesee says 
the Savages hung up dogs immediately after the Battle of New Town 

20th 500 men are detach'd under the command of Col..ButJer who is to march round 
Kaiyugea lake & destroy the Kaiyugea settlements at the East side of the_ Lake 100 
■ men under the Command of Col Ganseworth are order'd to go and destroy the Mohawk 
j castle on the Mohawk river & to proceed from thence to Albany 

The Army march'd this afternoon cross'd the outlet of the Seneca Lake & incamp'd 

2ist J was order'd with 203 men to proceed to the west_sid,s of 'he Kaiyugea Lake 
from thepce by the side of the lake to the south end to burn and destroy what Settlements 
corn &c I might fiud At 8 o clock I march'd proceeded an East course about 8 miles 
and found 2 or 3 wigwams in the jvood* with some small paches 6f corn Squashes water 
mallons and cucumbers and about 14 or 15 fine houses which we could not take after 
Destroying this little village proceeded 4 miles to the lake where I found a very pretty 
town of 10 housesf and a conciderable quantity of corn all which we burnt We dis- 
cover'd another sm_all Town about a mile above this which we likewise destroyed. This 
place is call'd Skannayutenate.:j: After destroying this Town I march'd on one mile and 
came to a new town § consisting of nine houses which we destroy'd and proceeded I mile 

Note. ^The notes with initials J. S. C, were made by Gen. .Tohn S. Clark, 1879. 

* This hamlet appears to have been located on the farm of Thomas Shankwiler near the south- 
east corner of lot 15 in the town of Fayette, Seneca Co , probably on Sucker brook. — J. S. C. 

t A town of ten houses, located on the west bank of Cayuga lake at the north-east corner of the 
town of Fayette, in Seneca County, about a mile and a half from present Canoga village. De- 
stroyed Sept. 21, 177!).— J. S. C. 

t Skannayutbnatk, a small village located about forty rods from the shore of the lake, on the 
south bank of Canoga creek, about half a mile north-east of the present Canoga village. On the 
north bank of the creek, between the site of the old Indian town antl the north and south road 
passing through Canoga. is said to be the birth-place of the renowned Seneca orator, Sagoyewatha 
or Red Jacket. Destroyed Sept. 21, 1770.— J. S. C. 

§ Newtown.— An Indian village of nine houses, located on the west bank of Cayuga lake, on the 
Disinger farm, & mile south of present Canoga village, and directly opposite the village of Union 
Springs on the east side of the lake. Destroyed .Sept. 81, 1779.— J. S C. 



LIEUT.-COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 77 

& found one learge house which we set fire to and march'd on two miles further & 
incamp'd The land we March'd over this day is exceeding fine. 

22nd I march'd half an hour before sunrise proceeded about 5 miles and came to the 
ruins of a Town that a party of our men burnt when tne army was advancing who mis'd 
their way and happen'd to fall in at this Town about half a mile from the town I found a 
large field of corn and 3 houses We gathered the corn & burnt it in the houses This 
Town is called Swahyawanah *we march'd from this place about 5 miles & found a wig- 
wam with 3 Squaws and one young Indian who was a cripple, I took z of the Squaws 
who ware about 40 or 50 years old and march'd on about 3 miles and found one hut and 
a field of corn which I burnt & proceeded about 4 miles & incamp'd 

23d March'd at Sunrise proceeded without any path or track or any parson who was 
ever in this part of the country before to guide us and the land so horred rough and 
brushey that it was hardly possible for us to advance however with great difficulty & 
fatigue we proceeded about 8 or g miles to the end of a long cape f which I expected was 
the end of the lake but found was not From here We marched off 2 or 3 miles from the 
Lake and then proceeded by a point of compass about 8 miles & come to the end of the 
lake and incamp'd This lake is about 40 miles in length & from 2 to 5 miles in wedth 
and runs nearly N and S parralel with the Seneca Lake & they are from 8 to 10 miles 
apart. 

24th March'd at Sunrise proceeded about 3 miles on the high land and came to an old 
path which led us to two huts and some corn fields which ware about one mile from where 
we first found the old path after burning these two houses & corn I sent several small 
parties different ways to loock for a large Town that 1 had been inform'd was not many 
miles from the end of the lake The parties found 10 or 12 scattering houses and a num- 
ber of learge cornfields on and near a streem that falls into the Lake After burning & 
destroying several houses & cornfields a small party that I had sent out discover'd the 
Town about 3 miles from the lake on the above mentioned Streem this town & its sub- 
urbs consists of about 25 houses & is called Coreorgonel :j: & is the cappital of a Small 
nation or tribe called the My party was imploy'd from 9 oclock A M till sun- 
set I expected to have met Col Butler with his party at this town 

* SwAHYAWANA, was On the farm of Edward E. Dean, in the north-east corner of the town of 
Romulus, Seneca county, on the north bank of Sinclair Hollow creek, near the shore of the lake, 
and almost exactly opposite the important town of Chonodote, on the east side, the site of present 
Aurora. Was burned September 6. by a party that wandered from ■ the track of the main army 
when they passed up on the east side of the lake. — J. S. C. 

tTAQHANic Point, formerly known as Gocdwin's Point. The bank of the lake both north and 
south of this, is very much out up with ravines, and the lake shore is too rocky and precipitous 
for an Indian path. For several miles the trail was back two miles from ths lake, along the heads 
of the ravines, probably passing through Hayt's corners and Ovid Centre. From this high ground 
the lake appears to end at Taghanic Point.— J. S. C. 

t OoBEOBGONEL. Called De-ho-riss-kanadia by George Grant, was located on th'5 west side of Cay- 
uga inlet, about three miles from the end of the lake and two miles south of Ithaca. The main 
village was on a high ground south of the school-house on the farm of .Tames Fleming, nearly 
opposite Buttermilk Falls. Several skeletons havebeen exhumed here within a few years, and the 
usual variety of relics found, such as hatchets, wampum, beads, &c. A'solitary apple tree still 
remains, a fit memento to represent the race b'y which it was planted. When first known to the 
whites there were five boles starting from the ground, but these are now reduced to two, and are 
probably shoots from the original tree cut down or girdled by Dearborn. The town was destroyed 
1 September 24, 1779. At this time it contained twenty -five houses, besides ten or twelve scattered 
between the main village and the lake. Colonel ButleP after passing up on the east side of Cay- 
uga Lake halted hei'e on the 25th, and found Rev. Dr. Kirkland's horse in the vicinity of the smok- 
l V Ing ruins. 

A peculiar interest is attached to this locality and village, from the fact that here the represen- 
tatives of a once powerful people, sought to preserve for a brief period, t'ae last remaining spark 
of a council fire that from time immemorial had burned brilliantly in the presence of assembled 
nations, numbering their warriors by thousands They were called by the Ii'oquois Todertch- 
RooNEs, one of the tribes known to the English as Catawbas, some'times called Saponies. They 
formerly resided between the Potomac and Roanoke rivers, east of the AUeghanies. A most 
inveterate hostile feeling existed between them and the Iroquois, which reached back to near- the 
middle of the seventeenth century. A peace was arranged as early as 1685, though negotiations 
with the government of Virginia, and again what was expected to be a " lasting peace" and fii-m 



78 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

25th I march'd at sunrise for Katareens Town where I was order'd to join the main 
Army I proceeded a due west point over a terible rough mountainous country about 18 
miles and at 4 o clock ariv'd at Katareens but the army was gone forward I proceeded 6 
miles in what iS' called the bair Swamp and incamp'd 

26th March'd at Sunrise at 12 o clock joined the army at Kannawalohala which is 4 
miles from where we fought the Enimy the 29 of August The army had a day of Rejoy- 
cing here yesterday in Consequence of the News from Spain. 

27th Some detachments ware sent up the AUegana river to destroy what houses and 
corn fields they might find 

28th The same parties that Went yesterday were .sent again to day further up the river 
to destroy a tory Settlement that a small party discovered yesterday and a learge detach- 
ment was sent off to compleet the destruction of the corn &c at and about Newtown At 
12 o clock Col Butler with his party ariv'd in Camp on their route round the Lake they 
burnt & destroy'd several towns and a vast -Quantity of corn. 

2gth The Army march'd to Chemong 

30th ariv'd at Tiogea where we were Saluted with 13 Cannon which we answer'd with 
the same number Col Shreeve who commanded the Garrison made an entertainment for 
the Genl & Field Officers this afternoon was spent in festevity and mirth Joy appear'd in 
every countinence We now have finish'd our campaign & gloriously too 

OcTODER 1st We are begining to prepare to march for Wyoming 

2nd Genl Sullivan made an entertainment for all the Genl & Field officers to day this 
evening we had an Indian war dance at Head Quarters The Onyda Sachem was Master 
of cerimonies 

3d The army is prepareing to march for Wyoming 

4th The Army march'd 15 miles down the River 

5th The whole Array Imbark'd on board boats except what was nesessary to drive the 
pack horses & cattle & the 

7th Ariv'd at Wyoming in high spirits During the whole of this Severe Cainpaign 
our loss in kill'd died of wounds & Sickness did not exceed 60 men 



alliance, was concluded in 1714, but in the night after the close of the council, the Iroquois depu- 
ties, while reposing in fancied security were treacherously murdered while asleep. This aroused 
the Iroquoi-s to vpngeanoe, and the war was renewed with unexampled ferocity, with a determina- 
tion to totally extirpate the base, faithless and treacherous people. In 1717 through the interces- 
sion of Governor Hunter, at the request of Governor Spottswood of Virginia, a truce was arranged, 
and in 172^ delegates from the Five Nations met Governor Spottswood at Albany to conclude what 
was to be an " everlasting peace," in which ttie Iroquois bound themselves not to cross the Poto- 
mac or go over the Alleghanies, without a passport from the Governor of New York, Governor 
Spottswood engaging that the tiibes in his locality should not pass to the north or west of sarae 
lines. The tribes mentioned by the Governor were the ''Nottoways, Meherins, Nansemonds, 
Pamunkeys, Chicohominyi, and the Chbistanna Indians whom you call Todekicheoones," and 
others— in all, ten nations. This council was conducted with great formality, and valuable pres- 
ents were presented, among which were a ^^jine coroneV^ and a '' gold horse sfioe^^ with an inscrip- 
tion. In 1738 they were again at war, and in 1742 at peace. In 1751 Governor Clinton says '' the 
Governor of South Carolina sent six chiefs of the Catawbas. to make peace with the Five Na- 
tions," and says that "they had been at war as long as any one in this country can remember." 
In 1753 Sir William Johnson mentions the fact that the Cayugas " are about to strengthen their 
castle by taking in the Todariqhroones." In the same year they are mentioned as attending a 
conference at Mt. Johnson, and are described as " one of the nine confederate nations." The 
town is indicated at the head of Cayuga lake on the.Guy Johnson map of 1 171, in the same position 
where it was found by Colonel Dearborn in 1779, under the name of Todkvighrono, the name of the 
people. In 1750 Zeisberger, the Moravian missionary, passed through this valley while on his way 
to visit the Cayugas, but makes no mention of an Indian village in the vicinity. Undoubtedly 
they settled there in the summer of 1753. Their cleared fields were found on the present site of 
Ithaca on the first settlement of the country by the whites and were the fli-st lands occupied in 
the county. The town is indicated but not named on the map of Mr. Lodge, the surveyor who 
accompanied Colonel Butler's detachment. To stand on the identical spot from which this peo- 
ple sunk into oblivion, appeared like standing on the grave of a nation. Their history, the begin- 
ning of which extends far back into the unknown and unattainable; ends where that of civiliza- 
tion begins, and adds another name to the long list of extinguished nationalities that preceded us 
in sovereignty. Here their council Are, fanuc'd by the last expiring breath of a once brave and 
numerous people, was extinguished forever.— J. S. C. 



LIEUT.. COL. HENRY DEARBORN. 79 

8th Genl Sullivan receiv'd an express this evining from Genl Washington informing 
Tiim that Count De Staing is on the coast near New York with a fleet & Army in conse- 
•quence of which Genl SuUivans army is order'd to march the loth inst for Head Quarters. 

loth The Army March'd for Easton & the 15th ariv'd there this army has marchd 
from Tiogea to Easton (150 miles thro a mountainous rough Wilderness) in 8 days with 
their artillery and baggage an extreordinery march indeed 

i6th 17th & i8th Remain at Easton 

we are inform'd that Count Destang has taken several ships of war together with all 
"<he transports & troops the Enimy had at & near Georgia he is expected dayly at New York 

25th our army is to march the 27 Inst towards Head Quarters 

an express ariv'd this day from Head Quarters which informs that the Enimy had 
avacuated their posts at Kings ferry & have retired to N. York. 



JOURNAL OF DR. EBENEZER ELMER. 



Db. Ebenkzer Elmer, Sargeoii in second New Jersey EegimenL 
The following is a Uleral copy of his journal, made by Eev. David Craft, 
from a verbatim copy in the hands of Lyman C. Draper, Esq., Corres- 
ponding Secretary of Historical Society, Madison, Wis., printed in the 
" Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society," Vol. IL pp. 43-50. 

Memoirs of an expedition undertaken against the Savages to the westward, commenced 
by the Hon. Major General John Sullivan, began at Easton on the Delaware (by Lieut. 
Ebenezer Elmer), from whence I shall reckon our distances affixing it as my meridian. 

June i8th. 1779. Having pack-Horses purchased! Saddles & other Qr Masters Stores 
provided for the Expedition, We left Easton with the 2nd & 3d Jersey Regts of Genl 
Poor's Brigade, vizt. Scammel's & Scilly's & Cols Proctors Artillery, with 6-6 & 4 pdr & 
two Howitzers taking with us the pack-horses & we marched 12 miles and encamped. 

19th. Proceeded on — crossed thro, a Gap of the Blue mountain & So on by Brinkers 
Mills where a Commissary's .Store is kept. Drew 4 days provision — Marched on thro, a 
barren country to Larnards log tavern where we encamped, 28 miles from Easton. 

20th. Marched at 8 o'clock over hills from our last nights encampment, being at the 
foot of Pokono Mountain, a very beautiful prospect & thro, vales & dessarts to a stream 
thro, the barrens called Rum Brook, here we encamped letting our Horses Brouse in the 
woods. The Stoniness & Hilliness of the country prevented our going farther, the team- 
horses being very tired. Mr Kirkland Missionary among the Indians Joined us to-day — 
distance 33 miles — "" 

2ist. Marched at .Sunrise & about 6 o'clock Came to the great Swamp, which is inter- 
spersed & barren piney Spots throughout very Stony. There is three or four Brooks 
which run thro, it being branches of the Leehigh — In some places the timber is very tall 
& thick, mostly white pine & Hemlock with some Birch, maple & Locust trees, many of 
the white pines are 150 foot clear of any limbs. At Locust Hill near the centre was pro- 
posed for our encampment, but for want of water we were obliged to proceed an clear 
through 53 miles, from the meridian course, on a line about N. W. tho. the road bares 
various courses. The last vale of this swamp is called the Shadow of Death. 

Having come so great a distance in such bad roads the waggons did not get in till late 
in the evening & several broke, some left behind, many horses tired some & died & others 
lost — lay all night on a bushy spot among the pine knots by ye edge of the Swamp called 
the Fatigue Camp. 

22nd. By reason of the disaster of yesterday among the teams & Horses we were 
obliged to lay still to bring them up this day until 2 o'clock P. M. when we decamped & 
marched on thro a country very Similar from that we had passed over before we came 
into the Swamp to the 58 mile post : Here we were encamped at the deserted house of 
one Bullock by the side of a cripple called Sullivan's Camp ; Good large pasturage of 
wild grass in it surrounded by pine land. — The tracts of some Indians were said to be 
observed just on our flanks tho it is a doubt with me whether they were real. This road 



DR. EBENEZER ELMER. . 81 

to Wyoming from I'okono mountain is entirely new, but will undoubtedly become public 
should that place flourish. 

23d. — Marched at 6 o'clock thro, the woods some distance when we came to ye summit 
of a mountain which Showed Pokono, the Blue mountain & the Hills over Wyoming ; 
We descended this Summit near 4 miles & reached the foot among the Oak & Hickory on 
the fiats About 12 o'clock we came to our encamping ground on ye banks of the Susque- 
hannah at Wyoming 65 miles from Easton. The place does by no means answer my 
Expectation, yet it must be acknowledged that the points & in some places a depth of 
better than a mile is exceeding good bottom, yielding excellent grain or grass & having 
such a beautiful river running thro, it navigable for boats makes it much more agreeable 
— On the ea^t side of the river is a great deal of pine land. The inhabitants are mostly 
killed or driven away & their habitations destroyed. The devastations- of war are not less 
conspicuous here than in any place in America. 

24th.^Rec'd some flying intelligence that ye enemy were in force of 3 or 400 at Che- 
mong & likewise that the Indians were in Counsil. Probably on finding that we are com- 
ing upon them Strong they are a mind to bring us to terms — We are well assured that 
some enemy (numbers unknown) have been reconnoitering our strength & sulking in the 
woods, — Wrote a letter to Dr. Burnet & Mr. Neils. Spent chief part of the day in fish- 
ing — Salmon trout, Succers, Bass & common trout are pretty plenty in the river We 
catched a number with a Seine — -The first Regt marches down the river to guard up pro- 
vision boats, they expect to go down as far as Sandbury in Shemoking 60 miles from here 
— Genl Hand we found at this place Colo Courtlands & Butlers & Hartley's Regt with the 
German Corps besides Spencers & Ogdens 

25th. Very warm in ye afternoon a Smart shower of rain — Five miles from this place 
on the road we came, Capt. Davis & Lieut. Jones of this state were murdered by the* 
Savages, the 23'd of April last & their scalpts taken off, with five men who were out with 
them a hunting A monument is erected on the Spot to commemorate the bloody trag- 
edy & the blood of Lieut. Jones Exhibited on a board crying for vengeance. 

What renders the action peculiarly inhuman was that the Scalps were all taken off by a 
Squaw, consort to a Sachem & that of, some while they were alive ; enough methiriks any 
of the sex possessed with natural Sensibility shudder at the thought, and even ye hardy 
made to reprobate it with horror. 

25. Being Saturday continued at this place 

27 — Being .Sunday Mr. Hunter gave us a Sermon from the first Psalm in the woods. 

28. \'ery warm — Spent the day as usual in the duties of my Station, walking abroad 
&c A dance on ye green in the evening. 

29th. This morning 34 boats arrived at this place from Sunbury with Flour beef & 
military Stores. This was very fortunate as there was not one days provision in the Stores 
after all their great Spunk in furnishing the army with provision for the Campaign. Thro, 
negl't & carelessness in the Commissaries great quantities of Beef was so damaged that 
the men could not possbly eat it ; Such rascally conduct ought to meet with the severest 
punishment. The horses purchased for this expedition for want of care in the Conduct- 
tors are many of ym lost. In July last Butler with his savage brood made a visit to this 
place. The inhabitants under command of Colo. Butler went forth to oppose them : A 
Battle ensued in wc. many fell. The enemy however superior in force soon surrounded 
our people took & murdered all of them to abt. 50 who were in number 500. They then 
proceeded down the flats to the fort wc. Capitulated with a promise of no lives being 
taken away but those in the Continental service who were conveyed away. Yet they did 
not keep their word but slew many — After this they killed & distroyed all Kattle, grain & 
everything wc. fell in their way. After continuing thus long they retired on hearing a 
party was coming out to oppose them. 

30th Nothing new. *■' 

1st July. Michael Rosborough of Sussex County New Jersey having been sentenced 
to suffer death by a Court martial, whereof Gen'l Maxwell was President held at Easton 
for enticing Soldiers to desert to ye Enemy & offering his aid to conduct them away was 

11 



«2 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

•executed at this place to day. Lawrence Miller of the Same place Sentenced by ye Court 
to suffer likewise was reprieved under the Gallows & Expresses every token of repentance 
& true thankfuUness afterwards. But the poor wretch who was executed appeared to 
leave the world with that careless stupidity of his future State which had before marked 
his life — dreadful thought ; 

2nd Colo. Armands Independent Corps being directed by his Excy. Genl Washington 
to repair to Head Quarters, left this place for that purpose this morning — with whom went 
Colo. Hrearley who is going to ofificiate as Chief Justice in ye State of New Jersey — Sent 
^ letter to T. Elmer, P. Stretch & Dr. Burnet. 

3d. In the afternoon most of the Subalterns met at ye Colo. Marque to take a drink. 
After Several toasts had gone round being : Saturday night they agreed to drink Sweet- 
iearts & wives on Honor. The following I^adies were toasted 
Miss H. Burnet by Lieu Jno. Peck 
" S. Burnet by Lt. Danl Lane 
•' Abby Wheeler by Mr Wm Shute 

Minney Baldwin by Lt. Osman 
' ' P. Weaver by Lt. Weyman 
' ' Phebe Atwood by Lt. S. Shute 
■" N. Shreeve by Lt. Shreve 
" P. Johnson by Lt. Appleton 
" N. McWhorter by Dr. M. Elmer 
Mrs. Jelph by Dr. E. Elmer 

'• Foster by Lt. Halsey 
4th. At 10 o'clock the troops went to attend divine Service Mr Hunter preached a 

-very good Sermon from Heb. xil, 13 (?) verse— Dined with Dr. Hogan 5 o'clock 

Mr. Kirkland preached to ye Inhabitants & some gentlemen who attended from vi Mathew 
13 verse — This morning near 30 boats went down the river after provisions. The hands 
•enlisted for the purpose of navigating the boats having mostly deserted & left them we 
-were obliged to turn out a Command for that purpose — The Flats here are very fertile, 
imost of .the hills are inhabitable & not arable on account of the rocks — The river Susque- 
hanna runs thro, being a beautiful winding rivulet, mostly near 60 perches wide. In 
some places the current is very easy, in others considerable descending & rapid. The 
freshes frequently in the Spring rise to 10 feet & overflow some of the low flats. It 
.abounds with a variety of good fish as rock Shad, Sucurs, Chubb &c— The Shawnee Flats 
which lie about 3 miles below here are some of the best here known producing every kind 
■of food in the greatest abundance. Fort Jenkins lies on the river 30 miles below, 
jth. Pleasant weather. Capt. B. set out for Philada. wrote to Dr. I. Elmer. 
'6th. A very Smart thunder Shower from the eastward in the P. M. — Colo. Proctor hav- 
ing made an entertainment for a number of officers, a truly merry Career was the conse- 
quence. 

7th One of our Soldiers being about 3 miles from Camp was fired on by an Indian 
who shot a hole through the sleeve of his coat, but did no damage — The Indian as he 
says was accompanied by two more which he saw. They did not pursue, being so nigh 
Camp I suppose were afraid of being detected. 

8th, Two Scouts of two officers & 25 men each, went out from this Brigade this morn- 
ing in pursuit of the Indians discovered yesterday but returned P. M. without effecting 
anything A kind of thoughtful melancholy possessed my mind this evening wc. pre- 
vented my taking any rest untill the latter part of the night, constantly ruminating on the 
past transactions of life & my future prospects therein 

July gth. — This day 43 boats loaded with stores, provisions &c, arrived at this place, 
•with them came up Colo Hubley's Regt. of foot being the one formerly Commanded by 
Calo Hartley— These stores however were found insufficient for the Expedition wherefore 
Capt. Cummings was ordered out with a party to go down to Coxes Town after flour, who 
set out just before night — Col. Dayton, Capt. Mitchell & Some others arrived here to day 
by whom we reed, the Jersey papers of the 23d & 30th ult ; with some private letters &. 
intelligence, that ye Ecienny had desisted from t-he attempt on Fort Clinton. 



DR. EBENEZRR ELMER. 83 

loth. Rainy in P. M. 

nth. Showery all day which prevented Sermon or Assembly 

I2th July — Information being reed that 300 Indians are down in this quarter, a com- 
mand was ordered out this morning thro, the Swamp with i field piece, to endeavor to 
bring em to action & protect the' stores which are coming up. Yesterday Sergt. Barum 
(or Borum) arrived with letters from Newark, he came with Some continental waggons 
loaded with provision &c. A command to set out to-morrow morning down the river to 
fall in with the Indians from that way if they be thither 

13th. — From Middletown on the river to Harris's Ferry is 10 miles, from thence to 
tsther or Coxes Town is 7 miles, from thence to Shomoking is about 53 miles, from 
Shocnoking which includes lower Paxton to Fort Jenkins is 30 miles. From thence to 
the centre of Schawne flats which are 3 miles long is 26 miles, & 4 more to ye Town of 
Wyoming which stood on the East side of the River^ — The command ordered out last eve- 
ning set off this morning — Major Conway commanded it — From this place to Wyalusing 
is 60 miles, from thence to Tyoga 40, from thence to Chemong the first present inhabited 
Indian Settlement is 12 miles. 

14th. — Nothing new. 

15th. — Played Shinney with Genl. Maxwell, Colo Dayton & a number of Gentlemen. 

i6th, — Played as yesterday. Genl. Sullivan attended & was much pleased with our 
activity in the performance. 

17th. — Dined with Genl. Sullivan, a very considerable number of Genu, were present 
& we were entertained with a great plenty of good punch. 

, i8th. Being Sunday Mr. Hunter gave us a Sermon from John VI — 68 — In ye Eve- 
ning wrote Letters to send to Newark in the morning. 

igth. — Despatched ye Letters wrote yesterday The party who went after the desert- 
ers which left the German Regt. Some days ago returned this evening with 25 of them 
which they took abt. the gap of the mountain. 

20th. Capt. Bowman Arrived to day from his command at Brinkers Mill's & brought 
with him 270 head of cattle for the army here. A number of horses also arrived. Sergt. 
Jones with the party which accompanied him to 'Wyalusing returned without discovering 
any parties at all. They returned in 26 hours. 

2ist. — 'We received at this place the following agreeable intelligence viz. That Genl. 
'Wayne with a party of Light Infantry on the night of the 15th instant surprised & took 
the Garrison at Stoney point consisting of British, Scotch and New Levies commanded by 
Colo. Johnson consisting of about 500 with 16 pieces of artillery, Baggage, Stores &c. 
'We had only 5 killed — Maj'r. Ogden arrived from Elizabeth Town with a number of let- 
ters — At evening the Jersey Stores arrived here — 

22nd. Set out on Command with the Regt. to meet the Boats at the falls 4 miles below 
the Schawne Flats — Arrived there with all the boats & continued at the place all night. 

24th. — After seeing the boats all safe over the falls in the morning we set out for camp. 
Halted & dined at the flats & then after fording the river went into Camp. The Genl. 
returned his thanks in Genl. orders to the officers & soldiers who were employed in for- 
warding up the Stores, and gave orders for preparing to march on 'Wednesday next. 

25th^Stormy day— nothing done. 

26th. — Drisly weather in the forenoon, the afternoon of the day more fair — All hands 
dined at the Colonels to day & after dinner we took a hearty game of Bandy wicket. 

27th Five men belonging to the German Bat. being sentenced by General Court Mar- 
tial to be Shot lo death for desertion & approved by the Genl. were ordered to be executed 
this day but were reprieved —unwell with an Intermitt Fever. 

28th. — Went down to the flats to dress a man who was wounded by the Indians. He 
was hunting 16 miles from home & setting by ye root of a tree Reed, a Ball through his 
side from a person very near him & upon rising reed, another in his thigh from a dis- 
tance : Notwithstanding his two wounds he got clear, they fearing to follow him. He 
supposed there was 4 or 5. 

29th. Nothing material 



84 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS/ 

30th. This day was employed in preparing for our march which is to commence to- 
morrow. 

31st. Left Wyoming abt. 12 o'cloclc & marched 10 miles to Lacanawanunk river which 
we crossed & encamped on the upper banks. The boats were not able to get up with us 
on account of the falls rainy night. 

1st. August 1779— Lords day— after waiting till 2 o'clock p. m. for the Boats to get up 
& the Tents to dry we decamped & travelled on, passed by a very grand and curious Cat- 
aract wc. proceeded from a spring on the top of a mountain ; It is divided into three dis- 
tinct falls not less than twenty feet each — We passed very difficult rocky way, thro, one 
old farm & on the second flat encamped 7 miles from our old station — The place is called 
Quilutimac. 

2nd. Tarryed all day for the boats and pack horses to come us. 

3d. Left Quilutimac at 7 o'clock & marched over hills & dales, rocks & mountains 
thro, a country diversified with almost every appearance but that of cultivation, but small 
places indeed will admit thereof. We marched 12 miles to Tunkanunch river which we 
crossed & encamped on a level on the upper side. 

4th Marched at 7 o'clock A. M. Country much as yesterday. Precipices to rise very 
steep, exceeding stony & dangerous. Several horses have fallen & broke everything at 
these places in the course of our march — After some time we came to a long fiat the lower 
part of which is well timbered. Particularly famous for walnut trees, hence called Wal- 
nut Swamp. Many of them are four feet over & 30 & 40 feet clear of limbs. The 
upper part of the flat is an old farm where we halted. The land in all these places is 
fully equal to any I ever saw, but they are in general small, many of them not consisting 
of more than twenty acres. The inhabitants are all gone, not one from Wyoming 
upwards to be seen ; many went to the enemy, the others were killed by the Savages. 
We marched 14 miles to Vanderlips Farm. 

5th — Left Vanderlips Farm at 10 o'clock & proceeded on our march, at 12 we passed 
Tuscarora river & So on thro, an open woody country on the top of the mountain. The 
day we were alarmed on our march by some people on head discovering ye flank guards 
& supposing them to be Indians. The Troops was beat & a solid column forme'd, soon 
after however the mistake was found out & we went on. After descending the high pre- 
cipice we reached the lower part of Wyalusing flats. Remarkable large timber in the 
wilds — Button trees 6 feet over & others very large, about 6 o'clock we came to our 
encamping ground at Wyalusing. The Boats arrived at evening. Most extraordinary 
clover & spear grass throughout the cleared land. Soon after we arrived Sergt Martin 
Johnson died after marching all day. He was a very hard drinker. Frequently got quite 
intoxicated therewith & had complained for two nights of being unwell but having a 
great Spirit proceeded to march till quite overcome with heat and fatigue, having his 
vitals decayed by Spirituous liquors readily accounts for his sudden death. This place 
is but about 53 miles from Wyoming. Lodged pretty quietly all night with a hungry 
belly. 

6th In order to refresh the men & cook provision we remained this day on our ground. 
The flat at this place contains abt. 1000 acres part of wc. is cleared & the most of it full 
of spear & other EngUsh grass -rainy night. 

7th. On account of the wetness of the morning ye army remained on the former quar- 
ters all this 

8th — set out on our nxarch at 6 o'clock, at the upper end of the flat, crossed a creek 
called Wyalusing creek, passed this day over one very large mountain, the rest of the 
road was tolerably level — We marched abt. 12 miles to a flat which was however far from 
being equal to former one, little pasture, mostly weeds & bushes. The place is called 
the Standing Stone Genl Sullivan by reason of Indisposition went on board the boats 
Genl Maxwell commanding ye army. It is 55 measured miles from Wyoming to Wya- 
lusing. 

gth — Drisly morning. Marched from the Standing Stone at 7 o'clock & proceeded up 
ye river till we came to Sheshecununk plains, marched on to the upper part on a flat of 



DR. EBENEZER ELMER. 85 

about 1000 acres, with very large wild grass, three miles from the mouth of Tioga Creek. 
This day we passed thro, a plain mostly wild known by the name of Rush or Long Bot- 
tom. Having marched nearly 15 miles we arrived late & much fatigued, but the Boats 
remained 4 miles in our rear all night being unable to reach us. No enemy to be seen 
tho. some huts was observed. Rainy in the night. 

loth Boats arrived at 9 o'clock A. M. Provision was drawn — 3. 'Regts set out for 
Tioga the remainder of ye army continued on the former ground. The (lenerals went 
up with ye party to reconnoiter the place. The whole returned P. M. They found a 
cow over the river & brought her oft. Some fresh tracts were observed but no Indians to 
be seen. 

nth. — Crossed the River & sending our Regt. & 2nd. N. York do. tocover the crossing 
of the army they all got safe over — We marched up to Tioga Branch forded that & en- 
camped a little above on the main Branch called the North Branch — Queen Esthers 
Palace stood on the lower side of the Tioga Branch, where is a large plain Smilar in 
appearance to that we came from on the other side of the river — Here I inquired of the 
Surveyor & found that the distance from Wyoming to be 80 miles consequently 145 from 
the Meridian Course N. N W by W — Our camp is on a pine ridge between the main & 
Tioga Branch but near the former. In the flat below near the forks & on the other branch 
is excellent grass, Some English but mostly wild Opposite on the other side of each 
branch is considerable of a mountain wc. overlooks all the plains. The buildings here 
are mostly destroyed by Colo. Hartly last fall & the place has been but little frequented 
by the Indians since, only being crossed on their tours down the country. Two old brush 
encampments were found below and burned. Probably they were made by the party 
which was down at Wyoming last April, The horrors of a wilderness with the beauties 
of a fertile nature are blended in our prospects at this place. 

I2th — Capt. Cummings who went out with Lieut. Jenkins of Hand's Brigade & 6 men 
of our Regt who went out last evening to reconnoitre Chemong returned about 3 o'clock 
p. M. & by the report which they brought of the moveing situation of the Indians, it was 
thought proper to move after them this evening accordingly at dark all the well & hearty 
meh of the army with one days provision cooked & otherwise light paraded, leaving the 
invalids & some officers Genl. Maxwell to command with the Guards standing — Colo. Proc- 
tar with a Cohorn went likewise leaving the rest of his Regt. behind — at 10 o'clock we 
marched in the following order, Genl. Hand in front, Genl. Poor with his Brigade followed 
by the right, & Genl. Maxwell's commanded by Colo. Dayton followed in the rear by the 
left. By reason of the dark defiles which were to pass the day appeared by the time we 
had got 7 miles on our way. After which we proceeded with all possible rapidity & arrived 
at their Castle abt. 14 miles at abt. 7 o'clock A. M. We found them forsaken, but by the 
Scattered Situation of their effects which were left we had reason to suppose they went off 
very precipitately 

Burning their dwellings & destroying their patches of corn iS' garden stuff was imme- 
diately fallen upon : Genl. Hand in the mean time proceeding on with intent to catch 
them if possible — After marching about 2 miles he was fired upon from a very secure 
ambuscade, he immediately rushed up & dispossessed them of their fortress but by their 
rapid & scattered retreat he was able only to wound one before they were entirely out of 
reach. In this scirmish Colo.' Hubley's Regt. which was in front had 6 killed & 9 wounded 
among the latter was one Capt. & one adjt The army moved on to the place, but could 
effect nothing — ^The Bells of the Cattle were heard ahead but we could get none. After 
this one Regt & three others were sent over the river to destroy some corn ; while they 
were doing this all hands carelessly at work, they were fired on across the river. The 
men in confusion, all they do was to ,get off — Finding it impossible to catch them after 
destroying all we could, we marched off for Tioga — On this side was a large patch of 
cornwc. we left Standing till we should go up again. The whole of their corn, beans & 
potatoes I judge was near 200 acres — The number of Indians which harassed us was 
about 50. wc. served to afford them time for their cattle to get off. We arrived in Camp 
at dark much fatigued on the 14th. 



JOURNAL OF SERGEANT MOSES FELLOWS. 



Moses Fellows, of Salisbury, Vt., was Orderly Sergeant in Oapt 
James Gray's Company of Scammel's, 3d N. H. Eegiment. This com- 
pany was of Salisbury men. He has worthy descendants, grandsons, 
residing in that vicinity. The original journal is in possession of A. 
Tiffany Norton Esq., Lima, N. Y. The following is a literal copy, the 
first thirteen pages are missing. 

Chouder Camp : our Course To Day about Northerly. No house from where we 
marched this morning to wioming. 

June the 2ist marched 2o miles through a rough Country and a new Rode, the Land 
Coverd with Pine Hemlock Spruce &c : we Eat Breakfirst at a Small river Cald Tunkhan- 
nah. Passd another Stream Cald Tobehannunk and another the.Leahigh; we passed 
what is Cald the Shades of Death a Glomey thick Part of The Swamp. 

22d we marched but 5 miles to Day to a Disolate house where one Mr. Bullock once 
Livd But was Drove off by the Savages. 

23d we marched to the fort at Wyoming 7 miles where Sevral Regt are Encamped : 
Our General Course to day we Past north w. , the whole Country from Eastown to Wyo- 
ming is very poor & Barren and I think as never will Be Settled ; it abounds Chiefly 
in Deer and Rattle Snake ; the Land At Wyoming on Both Sides the river is Good, But 
the Good Land Extends But a Small Distance from the river ; the inhabitance have been 
very much Distresed by the * 

The next Day being the First of august & in the afternoon we marched About 8 
miles & came to a place called tunkhannak & their we tarrid all night and the Next Day it 
being the 2st Day of august we Drew Five Days allowance & on the — Day we marched 
at 7 o'clock and marched 12 miles to a Place Calld whywomick on Susquehanah River ; 
the Path was Very Good Considering Such a rough Country but a vast sight of hills 
Exceding Steep : the forth Day we marched Fourteen miles & Came to a Place Calld Dis- 
olate farmes. This way was No road but an old foot Path & high hills, never was known, 
for their was mountains Seven miles Long & Exceding Steep, after we Left these moun- 
tains We Came on a trackt of Land Such I never Saw before : the 5th Day.we marched 
10 miles and Came to a place Calld Wildlucit ; know Person would Have thout of Seein 
Such Lands as here was for such a Groth I beleive never Was known, for button wood 
Trees was Eight or nine feet Though ; & the- Land was all Intervail ; the next Day being 
rainy & our troops Could not march 

7th We marched at 7 o'clock, Proceeded 3 miles to a Disolate farm upon the mouth of 
a Small River Calld Wesuking, where our Light troops Encampt last night ; Halted an 
Hour & then Proceeded to a Large Tract of Beautiful Cleard Intervail Covered with very 
High Grass, this is with in 4 miles of Tioga and is Called .Shesheamunk : it has Ben 
Inhabited By Bbth Indians & white People ; we marched over a Large Body of Excellent 
Land this Day, the weather Being very warm and our men Gave Out With fatigue Espe- 
cially those on the Right flank Who were obliged to Cross Several High mountains. 

♦ Several pages missing. 



SERGEANT MOSES FELLOWS. ST 

l]lh we march'd at 8 o'clock In the morning: & marched one mile & Came to the Maim 
River & their we all forded across & a tedious time we had for the warter was up to our 
Brest & the Current run very swift Indeed and we had Exceding Hevy packs at the Same- 
Time & after we waided a cross we marched one mile further & Came to Place where 
Queen Easter had her Palace : But it was Burnt Down we marched one mile Further 
and Came to another Large River but Not Equal to the other ■ we forded that With Lit- 
tle or No harme & marched one mile further and Came to tyoga ; this days march was. 
only four miles : the Next Day being the 12 Day of august we Lay Still: Likewise- 
the 13 day : this Day we had intelligence of the Enemy were about moving of, in Conse- 
quence of which the main Body of our army Marched at 8 o'clock this Evening in order 
to suprise the enemy at Chemong By Day Brakes ; on our march We Passed Several 
Defiles and thick Swamps and Arrived near the town by Brake of Day : and marched into- 
the town with fixt Bayonets and our Peaces charged ; this Town Consisted of about thirty 
or forty houses ; these houses was Considerable Convenient But they had know Chime) s. 
or no flores Except the Earth : and about Sunrise found the town abandoned two or three- 
Indians only to Be Seen and they making their Escape ; about sun rise the Whole town 
was Burnt ; on Examination we found that a part of the Enemy Had Encamp'd about 
50 or 60 rods from the town Last Night : and from all appearance the Inhabitance Had 
Left the town But a Fue hours Before we Arrived : Genl. Hands With Some Lite- 
Troops Persued them about a mile, When they were fired on from the top of a hill by 
about 30 Indians Who Run off as soon as the fire was Returned ; they unfortunately for- 
us wounded three officers killed Six Privates and wounded Seven ; The Enemy were- 
persued But Escaped . Distroyed 40 acres of Indian Corn ; when a Small Party of Indi- 
ans and tores Fired upon our men across the River & kild one man and wounded five more- 
of our N. Hampshire troops ; after Compleation of The Distruction of the town and 
Corn we Returned to tioga where we arive at Dark very much fatigued : Having marchd! 
24 miles within 24 houers ; the Weather Exeding Hot. 

i6th Day' 1000 Chosen men under the Comand of Genl. Poor were ordered up the; 
River to meet Genl. Clinton who is on his Way to Join us with his Brigade & is in some: 
Danger of Being attacked By the Enemy Before he can form a Junction With our maiiu 
armey, and on the 21 Day they riv'ad to'ouv, Camp where we Received them with Great: 
Joy and Saluted them with 13 Canon fired and a tune on Col. Proctors Band of musick.. 

The 26, our armey marched at 12 o'clock acording to the order of march Heretofore 
Laid Down, Col Procters artilery in' Senter, Genl. Hand Brigade in front, Genl toor 
Brigade on the Rite of Col Procter, and a rite flanking Division on the rite of Genl Poor ; 
and on the Left of Colo Procter Genl. Maxwil Brigade and another flanking Partey ort 
theire left, and Genl. Clintons Brigade In the rear of the whole armey, and the Pack 
horses & Cattle marched in Betwixt the Coloms within the two flanking Divisions. 

We marched the 26th at 12 oclock. Proceeded 5 miles and Encamped. 

27th we marched, much Impeded by the Artilery and amunition Waggons threw thick 
wood and Dificult Defiles, Such Cursing, Cutting and Diging, over seting Wagons, Can- 
non and Pack Horses into the river &c is not to Be Seen Every Day — the army obliged to. 
Halt 7 houers at one Place, for what we Should have Been Beter without the heavy artil- 
ery, at 10 o'clock we arived at a large Place of Corn Containing about 80 Acres as Good 
as I ever beheld, with Great Quantities of Squashes Beenes &c. As Genl. Clinton Brigade 
dii not Git up last night and Having all the Corn to Cut down this afternoon we did not 
march until 2 o'clock, our Brigade & Part of another & the artilery Baggage & Pack horses 
& Cattle forded the River twice this afternoon, the warter was waist Deep and Very rapid. 
Some of our Baggage & flower and ammuntion Was Lost In the ford. Our march to 
Day not More than three mile, at 10 o'clock in the Evening the rear of the baggage Past 
the last ford ; the armey Encamped at Chemung. By a Small Scout of ours that Came 
in the afternoon we are Informed that their is a Large Encampment of the Enemy About 
4 miles from Chemong a Small Party of them fired on a Party of ours that was Setting 
fire to Some Houses But no Damage. — 

29 the army marched at 9 o'clock, Proced 5 miles Where our light Troops Discovered 



88 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

a Line of Breastwork about 80 Rods In their front, Which upon Reconnoetering we 
found to Extend about Half a Mile with a Large Brook in front of the Breastwork on 
their right a mountaing on their Left a Large Settlement In their rear Cald new town, 
their workes were very Seasonabley artfully maskd With Green Bushes, that I think our 
Discovering of them was very accidentaly as well as fortunate, the Ground they ocupied 
was well chosen ; Scurmishing on Both Sides was Commanded mmediately after our first 
Discovering their Work which Held until our disp osion was made, Which is as folowes ; 
the artilery to form in front of the works, While Genl. Poors Brigade with the Right 
flanking Devision and the rifle men turned The Enemy Left, By ascending the moun- 
taing and fell in with the Enemy Rear, Supported By Genl Clinton Brigade ; Genl Max- 
well Brigade formd a Corps Reserved ; Genl. Hands Brigade and the Left flank Covered 
the artilery to Persue the Enemey when they Began to Retreat ; at 3 o'clock Genl Poor 
Brigade Began their rout By Colums from the Right of the Regt, Passd a very thick 
Swamp Secured with Bushes for Near a mile that the Column found Great Dificulty In 
keeping their order But By Genl. Poor Good Conduct we Proceeded in much Better order 
than we Expected we Posibely Could Have Done, after Passing, the Swamp we forded a 
Large Creek on Both Sides of which there was a Considerable Number of Houses which 
Apred to Be lately Built and no Land Cleard about them, after Passing this Crick We 
Soon Began to asend the mountain where we Were Soon Salluted By a Brisk fire and an 
Indian Yell or a war Hoop, the Riflemen keept up a Scattering firing which we formed 
the Line of Battle, then we advanced with Fixed Bayonets without Firing a Shot altho 
they kept up a Steady fire upon the whole of the way up the Hill, Which is about Half a 
mile ; Col Reeds Regt which was on the Left of the Brigade was more Severely atacked 
Which Prevented His Being able to advance as fast as the rest of the Brigade ; after the 
Brigade Expected Col Reed Regt. Had Gained tbe Submit of the Hill We Commenced a 
heavey fire upon the Enemy which they were not able to with stand But Were oblige to 
take to there Heels ; — Colo. Reed Still Sustaining a heavy fire from a Large Body of the 
Enemy which Prevented His asending the Hill, Induced Colo Derbon, as he was next to 
Him, to reverse the front of the regt and move to his asistance, as Genl Poor was on the 
right of the Line and at such a Distance as Rendered it Imposible for Colo. Derbon to 
obtain Seasonable Orders Whether to go to the asistance of Colo. Reed or not, but he 
moved With out, found a body of the Enemy turning Colo. Reed Right which upon 
Receiving a full fire from our Regt Left the field of action with Precepiation, Which 
Proved a very Seasonably relief to Colo, Reed, who had at the very moment that Colo. 
Derbon Commanded the fire on those that were turning His Right, Being Reduced 
Extremely of Retreating or Charging Bayonets upon Double his numbers that had formed 
a Semicircle Round Elim, He put the Latter in Practice, the Enemy finding themselves So 
Severely Handled Quit the field of action and made the Best of their way off about 5 
o'clock, our troops that were in action Discovered Greatest Bravery and (3ood order ; 
Half a hour Befor the action became Serious With us the artilery Began a very heavy fire 
which obliged them to Retire and being Persued By our Lite troops about 3 miles so as to 
oblige Enemy to Leave a Great Part of their Packs ic. ; our Whole Loss killed and 
wounded in Genl, Poor Brigade was 

I majr. wounded. 

I Capt. Do 

I Lt. Do Died the Same night 

non Commisond / . .,, , , 

Privates \ ^ Wd 29 wounded. 

The number of the Killd & wounded in the whole armey Exept Genl. Poor Brigade 
was 4 wounded ; The Enemey Loss found on the Ground 1 1 Indians Wariers Dead & one 
Squah, i tory Prisoners one negro from Which prisoners we Learns that the Enemy 
Strength was 200 whites and 600 Indians and that they Had a Great many Kild and 
wounded and the Remainder most Horridly Pannic Struck ; at Sun Set the army En- 
camped on the Ground Lately occupied By the Enemy where we found a number of new 
Blankets Inserted with many Packs trinkets. 



SERGEANT MOSES FELLOWS. 89 

30th Remained on the Ground this Day Distroyed a vast number of acres of Corn & 
Burnt about four houses ; the army By a Request of Gen. Sulivans have agreed to Live 
on Half alowance of meat and flower When vie Can Get Corn ; this Night all our 
wounded With 4 of our Heaviest Pieces of artilery and all the amunition Waggons were 
sent off by Warter to tioga which Will Enable the armey to march With much greater 
Ease and Rappidity ; our Course from Chemong about North w. 

31 we marched at 10 o'clock, the Right Colum on the Hill, the Left By the River, 
the Land Very Good Several Large Fields of Corn ; we Proceeded g miles to where 
there was a Very prity town Calld Kannawahalla Which from appearance was abandand 
this morning. Some Boats Was Seen Going of by our advance Gard, a Large number of 
feather Beds were emtied In the houses, our Soldiers found Several Chest Buried filld 
with varity of Household furniture and other things ; after halted Here about an Hour 
we Proceeded up Between the two Rivers on a fine Plain about 5 miles and encampd, 
the whole armey forming a Holow Square which Enclosed our Horses and Cattle ; a De- 
tachment of our army persued a partey of the Enemy up the allegany River about g 
miles ; Could not overtake them But found & Distroyed Several Very Large Cornfields. 

Sepr. 1st. We marched at g o'clock, after the Detachment Before mentioned Joind 
and Proceded 3 miles on a plain, then Passd a narrow Defile Between a high mountain 
and a Deep marsh, then Proceeded one mile & Entered What is Cald the g mile Swamp 
and a most horrid Road for the artilery Between and Pack Horses were obliged to ford 
thirty times, the rite hand Hand Colom were obliged to march over the mountains the 
whole way, our advance guard Arived at a Town Cald French Cathrene at Dusk, found 
fires Burning and Every appearance of the Enemy Having Left the Place but a fue 
minits, the main army at dark Was 2 miles from the town, In one of the thickest & 
Most Miry Swamps I ever Saw, it was with the Greatest Difculty we Got through the 
mire to the town where we arived all But Genl Clinton Brigade at lo o'clock Very much 
fatigued ; this town Contains about 30 Houses Some of Which were Very Good for Indians 
Houses, there is a number of fruit trees in the town, the Streame we forded So often 
runs through the town and into Connadaga or Sineca Lake the South End of which is 
But 3 miles from this Town. 

2d we found an old Squaw In the Bushes that was not able to go off. By whome we 
learn that Butler with the tories Went from this Place with All the Boats the Day Before 
yesterday, the Indians Warriors moved off their famelies & Efects yesterday morning 
and then Returned to the Town where they Staid till Sun Set. She Says that the Squaws 
and Indians were Loth to Leave the town and were for giving themselves up. But the 
warriors would not agree to it. She likewise Says that Butler met a reinforcement of 
Indians here who would 

* * * (pages 50 & 51 missing) ♦ * * 

!^attle their and was adopted into a family in this town Where he Has Lived or rather 
Stayed uritil Now ; he appeared Quite overjoyed at meating Some of His old acquain- 
tance of Wyoming Who are Volonteers In .this army ; he Says the Savages were very 
much Distressed for Provision from april tilTCorn was fit to F.at, that their Whole Depen- 
dance was Hunting . he Say the Indians Were Very much alarmed & Dejected at their 
Being Beat at new town, they say they had 7 warriors killd And a Great many Wounded 
which were [sent] To Conadasaga By water ; Distroyed the town orchard Cornfield &c. 

6 Day we marched & Proceded 5 miles and Encamped ; Opposite to the Shore the 
Ground we Encamped on we Discovered a Settlement Where we Could See a number of 
Indians JDriving Horses ; pased the ford march about 3 miles by the Side or rather the 
north End of the Lake and to a Small Settlement which We Distroyed & Proceeded 2 
miles further to the Capital of the Sineca Cald Connadasaga Where we Rived at Sun Set ; 
here We Expected to have taken Some Prisoners, two Brigades Being ordered to march 
round the town, one on the right the other on the Left but found no Persen in or about it 
Exept one White Child about 3 years old Which we Suppose is a Captive ; this town is 
Cald the Sineca Castle ; in the Center of the town has Been a Stockade fort & a Block 
Hous Which are gone to ruin ; their was left in the Houses a Great number of Skins, 
Some Corn and Many of their Curiosities. 

12 



90 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

8th the armey Lay Still to Day, the Rifle men were Sent to Distroy a town about S 
miles from here on the Side of the Lake, Gaghasieanhgwe ; we found a Very large fields of 
Corn and Grass about this town, A Considerable Quantity of Hay In Stacks which We St 
o^ fire ; one of our Scouts Burnt a town yesterday Cald Long falls lo miles N. E of this, 
town on the way to Cayyuga. 

gth By Reason of the Heavy Rain last night we were Not able to move this Morning 
till 12 o'clock for Geneses ; what Corn, Beans, peas. Squashes Potatoes, Inions, turnips, 
Cabage, Cowcumbers, watermilions, Carrots, pasnips &c. our men and horses Cattle &c: 

could not Eat was Distroyed this Morning Before we march ; all the Sick and Invalids. 

were Sent Back this morning under an Escort of 50 men to tioga ; we Preceded about 
3 miles, the Great Part of the way through Old fields that are Grone up with Grass. 
Trees & Bushes, then Entred a thick Swamp through which we Proceeded with Great 
Dificulty 4 miles, then Crosst a Stream & Encamped in an old field. Before we marched 
this We totally Distroyed the town & orchard. 

loth the armey marched at 8 o'clock. Preceded 3 miles through a thick Swamp, then 
Came to Large fields that have Been Cultivated formerly But are Grone over with Grass, 
and trees, these field Continued about 5 Miles with Intervail ; after Leaving the fields, 
one mile we Came to a Very Pleasant Pond or I^ake Cald Connondaguah, We forded 
the outlet of the Lake, marched About Half a mile and Came to an Indian town Cald 
Connondaguah Consisting of about 30 Houses Which were much Better Built and Situated 
than any I have Seen Before ; the army would Have marched Six miles further to day 
after Burning the town, finding at Some Distance from the town Several Large fields of 
Corn we were ordered to march to the fields and Encamp, Which we did at 3 o'clock p. 
m. Several Parties Were ordered out this afternoon to Distroy the Corn. 

nth the army marched this morning at Sun rise to an Indian town Cald anyayea or 
Honneyayeu, Consisting of about 8 or 10 Houses, as Situated on a Large Body of 
Cleared Land, a Small Lake around it Several Large Corn fields ; the Greatest Part of 
which We have marched to Day is Covered over With Grass and Some Scattering trees, 
it had Been the appearance of being formerly Cultivated 

1 2th the weather being foule the army did not march until 12 o'clock ; a Small Post is. 
Established Here at Which the Provision, Pack Horses &c will Be Left until we Return ; 
What is nesseray for to Cary With us to Geneses (25 miles and Back Here) ; Piece of 
artilery Will Be Left also ; the armey marched n miles- this afternoon over an Exelent 
Body of Land and Encamped at Sun .Set. 

13th marched at 7 o'clock proceeded 1% miles and Came to a town Cald Kagnegasas. 
Consisting of about 18 Houses Situated on a fine Piece of Intervail where we found Large 
field of Exelent Corn with a Great Plenty of Beans & Squashes, Potatoes, mush milions ; 
Here the armey Halted 4 Houres to Build a Bridge over a very bad Crick & destroy the 
corn and at this town Lived a very noted Warior Cald the Great tree who Has Pretended 
to be very friendly to us and to His Exellency Genl, Washington and from Congress ;* a 
Party of Rifle men & some others 26 in number under the Command of Lt. Boyd of the 
Rifle men was Sent Larst night to reconnoiter a town 7 miles from this and was ordered to 
return at Day Break, they killed and Scalped an Indian of the town in the morning and 
Returnd about Half way to Camp where they Imprudently halted and Sent 4 men To. 
report to the Genl what they Had Discoverd ; after Laying Still Some time they Had 
Discoverd Some Small Indian Scouts Between them and Camp Which they Persued until 
they Had Killd one of them, they were then attackd By a Body of two or three Hundred 
and Indians, Lt Boyd Sustaind the fire for Some time But Being nearly Surounded 
attempted to make His "Escape But was So Closely Presued that himself & ig men were 
taken and kild ; the enemy left all their Packs, Hats and many other things Where the 
action Commenced, which we found ; Immediately after the army marched on, we Pro- 
ceded to the above Mentioned town and Encamped ; this town is Cald Gaghehewarahare 
it Consists of above 22 Houses and is situated on a Small River the Falls into the Gen- 
eses River 2 miles from the Town. 

* So in original. 



SERGEANT MOSES FELLOWS. 91 

14th we marched at 12 o'clock ; after fording Small river Which this Town Stands on 
and Passing a Small Grove we Enterd upon the Great Geneses flats which is a vast Body 
of Cleard Intervail Covered With Grass that was from 4 to 8 feet High, these flats 
Extend 12 or 14 miles on the River, oui- army moveittg in the order of march Laid Do\yn 
appeard to great advantage, after marching about 2 miles we came to what Is Cald Gen- 
ese Lake or River the Largest we Have Pased Since we have Left Sisquehannah, after 
fording the River and Pased over a Body of flats we asending a hill marched 3 miles and 
Came to the Great town Chenese ; this town is Situated on a Beautiful Tract of Land in 
a Bow of the River and Consists of about 130 Houses the Greatest Part of Which are 
Verry Compact. When we Entered the Town We found Lt. Boyd & one man Dead and 
most Horribly mangled, they were Laying near a tree which we Suposed they were tyed 
To While they were massacred as their was Blood & other Signs near the tree ; it appeared 
they first whipt them and Very Severely, then Cut Out their tongues & Plucked out their 
Eyes and nails, then Stabd them With Spears and after Venting all their Hellish Spite 
Cut off their Heads and Left them, this was a Horrid Spectacle to Behold Indeed, and 
from which we are taught nesesity of fighting those more then Devil as Long as we have 
Life Rather then to Surender Ourselves prisoners ; it appears that the Savages I^eft this 
Place in a Great Hurry as they Left a Quantity of Corn Gathered and Some Husked hung 
up to Dry and Some Laying in Heaps husked and unhusked 

15th at 6 o'clock the whole Army was turned out to destroy the Corn one Regt. from 
Each Brigade With the rifle men and artilery to guard the army while the Corn was 
Destroyed. We were from 6 to 2 o'clock Very Bussy until we Compleated our Work ; it 
is thought we have Destroyed 15,000 Bushels of Corn, Besides Beans, Squashes, Potatoes 
in abundance, a great Part of this Corn was Planted By the tories under Butler and 
Intend's for a magasine to aid them to Carry On their war against our P'ronteers as we are 
informed By Some Prisoners ; the method we took to Gather it into the Houses Puting 
wood and Bark with it then set fire to the Houses ; thus it was effectually Destroyed. 
Some we hove into the River ; this is the End of our journey we are now turning of our 
face homeward ; a woman With her Child came to us this day who was Brought a captive 
from Wyoming. 

* * * pages 74, 75 of journal missing * * * 

At Diferent Places This morning which Employed the armey till 11 o'clock to Distroy. 
We Crossed the Crick at Gaghehegwarahare and at 4 arived at Kanaghsas and Encamped 
— 13 of Lt. Boyd Party Were found to Day dead and scalpd near to gether and as they 
were all shot it appears they Bravely fought till Every man was kild and of Consequence 
kild a number of the Enemy ; Honyose oneida Indian who was one of the Party among 
the Dead and Very much mangld 

17th we Marched at Sun rise Proceded to anyaye where We Left our Stores and found 
all Safe to our Great Joy as we were much afraid that the Party that Cut off Lt. Boyd 
would have found out the Cituation of our Small Garrison and make an atempt to Suprise 
it Which Would have been a fatal affair to our army ; our Soldiers in High Spirits and 
are Willing to make great marches ; the Reason is obvious we are Going Homeward. 

1 8th the armey march at 8 o'clock, Proceded to Kanandaguah & in camped. 

19th. we marched to Kannadasagea the 13th in this town we found hung up about 10 
or 12 feet from the Ground on a Pole Set up we Suposed, two dogs Which is their method 
of Sacrafisi-ng to their Imaganary Gods of war in time of Danger. 

the following to Be added to the 15th. this woman informs us that the Dogs spoke of 
yesterday were Sacrifised on hearing of the Battle of Newton and of Desolation of their 
Country as we march thrue it. 



JOURNAL OF MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. 



Major Jeeemiah Fogg, the oldest son of Eev. Jeremiali Fogg, of 
Kensington, was born in 17-1:9, graduated at Harvard College in 1768 ; 
spent several years as a teacher, in Newburyport, where he commenced 
the study of law with Theophilus Parsons, the most eminent jurist of 
the time. At the commencement of hostilities, in 1775, he entered Col. 
Poor's regiment as one of the staif officers and continued in the service 
through the whole war. At the close of the revolution, he returned to 
Kensington, took a prominent part in the political movements of the 
country, was for several years a member of the New Hampshire Senate, 
and died in 1808, at the age of 59. He married Lydia Hill of Cam- 
bridge. 

The following is from a printed copy of his journal, 150 copies of 
which were published, Exeter, N. H., from the News Letter Press, 1879. 
He held the position on the roster as captain in the second New Hamp- 
shire regiment. 

JOURNAL OF 

Major Jeremiah Fogg, of Col Poor's Regiment N. H. during the expedition of Gen. 
SuIUyan in 1779, against the western Indians. 

August 13. 1779. — Col. Cilley's regiment with several others were afterwards sent to 
destroy a field of corn near that place and were fired upon from the same hill. One man 
was killed and several wounded, but it is uncertain whether by the enemy or our own men, 
as the fire was very irregular. At two o'clock we set off for Tioga, after burning the 
town and destroying all the corn on our way. Several colts were taken here. Arrived at 
Tioga at 8 o'clock, much fatigued, having marched nearly 40 miles and had no sleep for 36 
hours. 

14th. Very warm. This being the place assigned for Gen. Clinton to join the army, 
and Gen. Sullivan being apprehensive of his being in danger, detached Gen. Poor, with 
900 men and 8 days' provisions, with orders to proceed up the river, as a reinforcement in 
case of an attack. Gen Clinton had, previous to this, received orders not to move from 
the head of the river, until Sullivan had marched 9 days from Wyoming, a reasonable time 
to reach Tioga. 

15th. This day a party of Indians appeared near Gen. Hand's encampment, scalped 
one of our drivers and tvounded one more. Parties were sent off in pursuit of them, but 
ineffectually. 

i6th. After making a proper disposition of the troops, the General marched at 10 
o'clock and encamped at Mawkuatowouguh (alias Red Brook) 12 miles from Tioga sit- 
uated on that river, where there is some good interval. 

17th. Marched, at 6 o'clock, passed through exceedingly good land, and at 2 o'clock 
arrived at Owegy, lately inhabited by the savages, but on the destruction of Onondaga it 



MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. 93 

was abandoned, as were all the settlements on the river above Tioga. This is a pretty 
piece of land through which runs a creek about three rods wide. A small party were sent 
up to explore, and about a mile up the creek found 12 horses, but no Indians. 

18th. Marched at half past 6, passed through good land, but badly watered, arrived in 
season at Choconut Flats, formerly a pretty settlement of fifty houses, seven of which, 
only, were standing. Three miles short of this, is Choconut Creek about three rods wide. 
Several parties having been sent with information of our march to Gen. Clinton, we began 
to fear he had not decamped from the head of the river, as we had arrived nearly at the 
place where we should probably meet him without any account from him, but to our great 
joy at sunset we heard his evening gun, about 8 miles distant, which we answered with a 
Cohorn. From this place is a path across the mountains to Wialusing distant 2 day- 
march, 14 miles. 

19th. Marched at eight o'clock, but soon met a sergeant from Gen. Clinton, with a 
letter informing us that his army would be at Choconut brook by five o'clock. Conse- 
quently we countermarched, and before night, arrived at Owegy, and burnt 19 houses. 
Gen. Clinton had about 1800 men, 208 boats and one month's salt provision, with two 
Oneida Indiana. 

20th. Rained violently, which rendered it exceedingly bad for men without tents. 
Remained on the ground all day, 

2ist. Encamped at Mawkuhtowonguh. 

22nd. Very pleasant, arrived at Tioga about one o'clock to the great joy of our sol- 
diery, as by bad economy they had consumed eight days' bread in five. On the arrival of 
the boats 13 cannon were fired. The prospects of affairs at this period, seems to promise 
a speedy movement. Hitherto nothing has appeared, but a suspicion of embarassments 
and, even now, no great things are expected. Gen. Clinton proceeded from Albany, with 
1800 men and three months provisions, reckoning from the middle of June, transported 
the whole, together, with 208 boats by land to Schenectady, from thence by water to Can- 
najoharie on the Mohawk river, then by land to lake Otsego 18 or 20 miles of very bad 
road, where he continued six weeks, waiting for Gen. Sullivan's orders. On the ninth of 
August he marched about half his troops, the rest embarked on board the boats, and pro- 
ceeded down the river, those by land keeping pace with them as a guard. The water in 
the river by this time had become so low as to render the navigation totally impracticable 
without having to resort to artifice. Therefore, previous to his quitting the lake, he built 
a dam at its mouth till the water was raised three feet higher than was natural. The night 
before embarkation he hoisted his gates, which afforded a sufficiency of water for his pur- 
pose. Four of Col Cilley's regiijient sent express on the 15th to Gen. Clinton, with five 
days provision, are not yet heard of, and are supposed to have taken a wrong branch. 
A fine jaunt. Every department is busy in preparing for the march. In our absence up 
the river a party of savages fired on four men, near Gen. Hand's encampment scalped 
one and wounded another. 

23d. Unfortunate day — a hapless youth, as he was carelessly handling a musket 
charged with a ball and five buckshot, discharge it and the whole passed through a tent in 
which were several, officers. Three of the shot struck Capt. Kimball, Paymaster of the 
First Regiment ; one passing through the centre of his body immediately put an end to 
his life. He was possessed of every qualification to render him dear, useful and agree- 
able to his friends, and his integrity, capacity, good temper and strict attention to duty were 
such, that all must mourn his loss. Man knoweth not his time. Capt. Kimball had served 
in five campaigns, and though his duty seldom called him into danger, yet at a time, when 
there appeared the least danger, his life was required, while others exposed to ten thous- 
and angry balls are spared. 

24th. Capt. Kimball was buried with the honors of war. A soldier in the York Bri- 
gade, was badly wounded by the accidental discharge of a musket. Misfortunes, accord- 
ing to the ancient whim, seldom come single. Our army paraded and the baggage was 
out, but we found a great want of bags and horses, and spent the chief of the night in 
cutting up tents and making bags. 



94 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

25th. Three Oneidas came from their castle — men of integrity and sobriety. One, 
who was before with us being a worthless fellow, introduced himself to them, but was 
received with a most peculiar air of coldness and silent contempt. Want of horses pre- 
vents our marching this day, and parties are sent out to collect those astray. Received 
intelligence that Count D'Estaing had been engaged with Byron, to the advantage of the 
Count ; and that Lt. Vincents, Grenada and Tobago were taken by our allies. Two run- 
ners came in from Col. Broadhead informing us that he had marched five hundred men 
towards the Genessee. 

26th. After much difficulty, by the middle of the day, the army got in motion towards 
Kanasadaga, with nine pieces of artillery and their appendages ; the transportation of 
which, to Genesee, appears to the army in general, as impracticable and absurd as an 
attempt to level the Alleghany mountains. Our army is supplied (at least nominally) with 
thirty days' provisions and encamped three miles from Tioga, where appeared to have 
been a body of fifty Indians in 'ambush, with a view to fall on men that might be sent to 
mow grass. After the encampment, we were alarmed by unusual cry of the army, caused 
by the appearance of a doe, running through the lines ; she happening to run near our 
quarters, we attempted to seize and confine her, but found her too full of springs ! The 
first salutation I met with was her head against my forehead, which knocked me down, 
stunned me and prevented my further pursuit. She ran over me treading on me in several 
places. This days' march must have been attended with very little difficulty, as the ground 
was level and dry, admitting the army to march, exactly, on the order on paper. 

27th. Marched about 8 o'clock, and kept our order until arriving at a mountain, where 
we were obliged to deviate. The right column commanded by Gen. Poor passing over it ; 
from the top we had a most romantic prospect. Unfortunately the river rose this day four 
feet, and prevented our crossing it, so that the wagons were obliged to go through the 
narrows, where was a bank twenty feet high, almost perpendicular, the ascending of which 
delayed us till dark. After seven hours' digging, with the assistance of a regiment with 
drag-robes, the artillery and pack-horses ascended the bank. The rear did not move from 
its yesterdays encampment. Several other defiles retarded the movement of the artillery, 
and we had not got three miles at 10 o'clock at night — the most disagreeable day's march 
since we left Wyoming. A universal cry against the artillery. Encamped in the most 
beautiful piece of land seen in this country, resembling the flats of the Raritan. Here 
was an immense quantity of corn, some of whose stalks measured fifteen feet. Beans 
and squashes were in abundance, and a greater quantity of which was never eaten in 
twenty four hours by the same number of men. 

28th. This morning we had a dainty repast on the fruits of the savages. Our friends 
at home cannot be happier amid their variety of superfluities, than we were while sitting 
at a dish of tea, toast, corn, squash, smoked tongue, &c. After destroying sixty or eighty 
acres of corn, the army marched. Three brigades went over the mountain on the east 
side of the river, while Maxwell crossed, with the artillery, and baggage, and re-crossed 
near Chemung. Two Indians were discovered and fired on by soldiers on our flanks, but 
thev missed them. Crossing the river was attended with some difficulty, horses, drivers, 
and bags of flour were carried off in the current, but the water was not deep enough to 
drown them. Our Indian scouts returned, informing us, that a number of fires were dis- 
covered within ten miles of Chemung. Capt. Wait was sent to the top of a high mountain 
to lay during the night and to make discoveries of the fires, but could discern nothing 
but smoke which appeared to be half as great as the smoke of our encampment. Arrived 
at Chemung about six o'clock. 

29th. After collecting our horses and cattle, which had gone astray, we marched 
towards the enemy, whom we expected to fight before night, and, in two miles discovered 
a fortification. The riflemen advanced and began a fire on them, while the artillery was 
carried to an advantageous piece of ground. At the same time. Gen. Poor's and CUn- 
ton's brigades attempted to gain their left and rear, by a circuitous march in which we 
passed through a new town of about forty houses, and, with difiiculty crossed a brook 
and ascended a tedious mountain ; but previous to this our artillery had begun a heavj' 



MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. 95 

<;annonade on their works. Just as we were beginning to ascend the mountain, the enemy 
began a scattering fire from the top. The troops immediately formed a line and pushed 
forward, reserving their fire till they arrived at the summit of the mountain, when the 
■enemy gave way in the centre and at the same time attempted to gain our left. Col 
Reids regiment, by misfortune, had separated nearly a gun shot from the main body and 
received the chief of the fire but returned it with equal fury, charging them at the same 
time. Col. Dearborn, being informed of Reid's detached situation, wheeled his regiment 
"to his assistance and at the critical moment gave a full volley on the enemy's flank, which 
"Completed their rout. 

Killed Wounded 

Col. Cilley's Reg. i Lieut. l.ieut. McCally and t private 

" Reid's " I Corp. 6 private 

" Scammell's " 2 Corp. 6 

" Alden " i private 7 " 

Covering party i " several 

In the action, six Indians were left on the ground dead. One Tory was taken pris- 
oner who told us, that their whole force was 6oo Indians commanded by Brant and 200 
"whites commanded by Butler ; among which were a British sergeant, corporal and 12 pri- 
"vates. A negro was afterwards taken, who gave nearly the same account, except the 
the number of Indians, which he thought to be only 400. Indeed the affair of the day 
was conducted with much propriety and forebode a full execution of our plan. The New 
Hampshire Brigade may at least add a new feather to their caps. Although the enemy 
galled us, killing three and wounding forty ; yet we convinced them that they may in vain 
attempt to withstand an army like ours. 

In the circuitous march to gain their rear, my horse stumbled under me and broke his 
neck. 

30th. Reconnoitered the ground and lines of the enemy. They had chosen an advan- 
tageous piece of ground and with logs and some digging extended their works from a 
■small eminence on their right, looking the river and intervals to another on their left, near 
a swamp. Thewhole work was blinded by a body of green bushes, placed artfully in 
front. This morning died Lt. McCally of Col. Cilley's regiment, in consequence of an 
amputation performed yesterday. He was a brave, ambitious and worthy officer. 

In the evening our wounded, together with all the wagons and four pieces of the heav- 
iest artillery, were sent back to Tioga by water, to the great satisfaction of the army. 

Went over the field of battle to view the slain. No army can have higher spirits than 
■ours resulting from victory and a consciousness of superiority, while our enemy are flee- 
ing from their country. 

Scarcity of provisions and the extensive plan before us, induced the General to address 
the army, requesting them to comply with half allowance, while corn and vegetables 
■could be obtained. So great and noble was their spirit, that scarce a dissenting voice 
was heard in camp ; while manifesting their consent by aii universal hurrah ! A "wag 
■observed, that he had seen men shout for joy in a time of plenty but not for half allow- 
ance. 
N^ Present prospects forebode success, although hitherto, nothing but a succession of 
■clogs and embarrassments have attended us. Eight days' flour was this day dealt, which 
relieved a number of horses for Gen. Clinton's brigade. 

31st. Very cool and clear. Having now disencumbered ourselves of the wounded, 
■wagons and heavy'artillery (equally agreeable) we proceeded with four light three pounders 
and a small howitzer ; burning Newton on our way, which consisted of fifteen or twenty 
houses. Our wing passed over hideous mountains and ravines ; some of the banks of 
the latter were thirty feet, almost perpendicular. After we had passed the mountain, we 
•came on to a platt of fine land, at the crotch of the river five miles from Chemung. 

Some of our light corps discovered a party of the enemy in boats, going up the main 
branch, but could not overtake them. A'number of arms, hats and trinkets were found 
«cattered on the way, which indicated the confusion and hurry in which they decamped. 



96 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

This day's march of ten miles was performed with little difficulty ; four of the last being 
in an open pitch pine plain covered with good' grass, in which we encamped. 

Sept. ist. This morning frost was found in our camp. The army marched about 8 
o'clock. The plain continued several miles and then we passed through a defile having 
an extensive morass and creek on our right and a high mountain on our left which is said 
to be a part of the Alleghany range. We then entered a swamp, which continued six or 
eight miles, full of morasses, ravines, windfalls and almost every obstacle to impede artil- 
lery, while there was a chain of mountains on either side, on which the fianks marched. 
The right column likewise marched on the mountain with great fatigue ; passing a num- 
ber of prodigious gullies. The land in general this day was as uneven as the sea in a 
tempest. After night came on, the army had several miles of woods and bogs to pass, 
which employed many of us five hours. Gen. Clinton's brigade, with the cattle, did not 
arrive until the next day. The whole night was a disagreeable scene of confusion ; and 
darkness was almost perfect. Fires were built in many of the most difficult places, to 
build bridges and facilitate the passage. Many horses and bags of flour were lost in the 
bogs. 

When the infantry arrived at Katharine's town fires were burning in the wigwarms and 
kettles of broth were on the fire. This town consists of twenty houses, took its name 
from a French woman of great interest named Katharine, who settled' here and carried on 
merchandise. She owned a number of horses and cattle. 

2d. Early this morning we found in a bark hut an awful object and upon examination 
it appeared to be Madam Sacho, one of the Tuscawora tribe, whose silver locks, wrinkled 
face, dim eyes and curvitude of body denoted her to be a full blooded antideluvian hag ! 
Her language was very little understood by our interpreters. However, one of our Onei- 
das could understand her and communicated to them in his own language. She gave the 
• following account viz : That she was left by necessity, and expected to have been killed 
and seemed thankful, that the good spirit had influenced our great chief to save her ; that 
Butler and his whites had gone off two days before ; that a reinforcement of Indians met 
him at this place, prepared for war ; but those who had been defeated told them that we 
were too numerous, the woods were full of men, &c , that the squaws and the little ones 
were anxious for peace, but that Butler had told them that all would be put to death. 

The fatigue of yesterday prevented our marching this day, which was spent in eating 
and destroying corn and squashes. The grandeur of this town is by no means equal to 
its fame. Through it runs a pretty rivulet which enters Seneca lake, three miles from the 
town. 

This day we passed through a good tract of land on the east side of Seneca lake. The 
right wing marched on the top and edge of a mountain from whence is a fine prospect of 
the lake for several miles. This lake is about thirty-seven miles long from two to six 
wide, running north nearly straight ; and in it are no islands. It is a most beautiful body 
of water. 

This day's march was very pleasant, but at night we. encamped without forage. Col. 
Smith was sent forward with a party, who discovered a man on horseback and four 
Indians ; but they escaped him. 

4th. Rain in the morning, which prevented our marching till eleven o'clock. Within 
four miles of this place, we passed a small settlement and a few acres of corn. Night 
coming on, we were obliged again to encamp without forage ; excepting wild beans, of 
which our horses were very fond, and kind nature has been very bountiful in dispensing 
them throughout this country. Many horses have fallen this day under burdens. 

One of the Oneidas was sent off this morning to rouse his brethren to take up the 
hatchet and join us at Kanadasaga. 

We marched eleven miles this day and found exceedingly good land and marching. 

5th. With much difficulty we collected our horses and cattle and marched at lo o'clock. 
We passed one difficult ravine, but found the rest of the way good. Came once in sight 
or the lake near a house and small field of corn and arrived at Kindaia or Appletown at 
2 o'clock. The village has twenty houses and eighty large apple trees, but only six fami- 



MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. 97 

lies have lived here since the destruction of Onondaga. From a captive whom we retook 
at this place, we learned that the enemy were in great confusion after the. action at New- 
town. Two of them had run from thence, in less than twenty four hours, proclaiming their 
defeat in the death hall,o ; being almost spent with fatigue, wh ile their voices were scarcely 
audible by their continual vociferation. Some were for revenge, but the more timid and 
prudent were for escaping with their liltle ones, as they believed us to be lo ooo going to 
Niagara. Kindaia is pleasantly situated near the lake which is here about five miles 
across. 

6th Our army by a general order the preceding day, discharged their pieces which ter- 
rified and dispersed our cattle and horses, and eighteen of the latter were never found. 
This accident detained us until 2 o'clock, so that this day's march has been only two 
miles. Encamped amidst a great plenty of pea-vines. 

A party that had been sent in search of three servants who by mistake had gone to Cay- 
uga lake, found there a small town, which they destroyed and brought ofif a horse. 

7th. Between seven and eight, the army marched, had good level land all day, and 
about two arrived at the outlet of the lake, where we expected violent opposition ; but 
were agreeably disappointed, notwithstanding which the greatest caution was used, in 
crossing the river, which is about three or four rods wide. Nature could not have formed 
a better place for an ambuscade, as the lake was on our left and an impervious swamp on 
our right for half a mile. Having passed the ford and defile, we marched to K'anadasaga, 
two and a half miles from the Iak«, an Indian settlement of about thirty houses, .called 
the Seneca Castle. Here the English in the course of the last war, attempted to estab- 
lish a post beginning a piclcet fort, but were compelled to desist, as the savages declined 
having any civilized people get a foothold in their territories lest in process of time, they 
should deviate from the hues and customs of their predecessors, by degenerating into a 
regular system of government, agriculture and mode of^life, whereby they would cease to 
be Indians. To avoid such evils, every precaution has been taken to prevent a survey of 
the country, whil^ maps of it hitherto taken, seem rather to blind than enlighten a traveller. 

Notwithstanding the occult and evasive qualities of the Savages with which our general 
must before this time have been acquainted he made a disposition of his troops, thinking 
to surround and surprise the .town, after having been five hours within three miles of it. 
Genl. Hand's infantry and Col. De Bois' flank men were to begin the investigation on the 
west, while the main body encircled them from each wing. But oh ! sad mishap ! When 
our commander advanced to complete his part, to his great mortification, he found the 
detachments either misled by their guides or else had mistaken a field of pompions for the 
town. But whatever might have been the cause, the whole party from the monkey to the 
rat, had armed themselves with almost every species of the vegetable creation, each man 
with three pompions on his bayonet and staggering under the weight of a bosom filled 
with cbrn and beans, when in accents more sonorous than those of an injured husband, 

he broke out "You d d unmilitary set of rascals ! what, are you going to storm a 

town with pompions ! Turn aside, open to the rigiit and left, that men unaccostomed to 
plundering, and such scandalous conduct may Ciecute the design ! Ye officers, never 
more show your heads with military characters." In an instant the whole band was dis- 
robed of their vegetable accoutrements and armour, and pompions, squashes, melons and 
mandrakes rolled down the hill like hail-stones in a tempest. 

No person was found in the town, save a child about three years old, emaciated almost 
to a skeleton, sitting on the green and playing with a young chicken. It is generally sup- 
posed to be a prisoner left by the savages, as a mother cannot forget her sucking child,, 
besides it could speak and understand only Indian. A milch cow was found near it, which 
was probably left for his support. „ 

The land between the Seneca and Cayuga lakes appears good, level and well timbered - 
affording a sufficiency for twenty elegant townships, which in process of time will doubt- 
less add to the importance of America. The communication of the Seneca with Cayuga 
is passable with boats and is about twenty miles. 

13 



98 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Whether the God of nature ever designed that so noble a part of his creation should 
remain uncultivated, in consequence of an unprincipled and brutal part of it, is one of 
those arcana, yet hidden from human intelligence. However, had I any influence in the 
■councils of America, I should not think it an affront to the Divine will, to lay some effect- 
ual plan, either to civilize, or totally extirpate the race. Counting their friendship, is not 
only a disagreeable task, but impracticable ; and if obtained it is of no longer duration 
than while we are in prosperity and the impending rod threatens their destruction. To 
. starve them is equally impracticable for they feed on air and drink the morning dew. 

8th. The army remained on the ground, feeding on the produce of the country. A 
•detachment under Col. Smith, was sent down the south side of the lake to destroy a smaU 
settlement, where were found a great quantity of fruit and some swine and fowls. 

A council was held, on the expediency of proceeding to Genesee — a march necessary 
but 10 appearance, almost impracticable and, by many thought to be imprudent. Pimps 
and tale bearers were brought from every brigade, to ascertain the minds of the general 
officers, and some attempted to argue them into the propriety of an immediate return. 
How incompetent are men of, inferior stations to judge in matters of such a nature, espe- 
cially when they are not availed of any of the principles on which to form their judge- 
ment. One instance of this kind happened, in which the subject had well nigh been sent 
without the sentries, with orders for them to fire in case of his return. 

" Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cantum." It was determined to go on the other 
sixty miles, notwithstanding we had only provisions (full allowance) to carry us back. 

gth. After sending back Capt. Reid, with the invalid men and horses, the army 
marched at 12 o'clock ; passed through many cleared lands and swamps and encamped 
seven miles from Kanadasaga. Col. Smith's party joined us. 

loth. Marched at 8 o'clock, and in about seven miles, passed the outlet of a lake on 
our left, which to appearance was two miles wide and five long, near which was a town 
of thirty houses, called Kandaigua, which we immediately burned, intending to proceed 
further ; but finding a large quantity of corn, about half a mile distant, we were obliged 
to decamp. From the structure ^of many of the buildings it appeared that some tories 
Tiad lived here. When our advanced parties arrived three Indians were discovered in the 
town, and some fires were burning near by. Marched nine miles to day. 

nth. The General beat at five, and the army marched at half past six. Passed 
through many fields of grass very high ; and over hills, ravines and morasses, and en- 
camped at Annaquayen thirteen and a half miles, consisting of eight houses, near which 
is a lake, half a mile wide and five long. This town took its name from a misfortune 
which befel an Indian here, viz : — the loss of a finger, which the word signifies. 

Having now so nearly performed our march and many of our horses being unfit for 
service the General detached a Captain and fifty men, who took charge of the greatest 
part of our flour and ammunition stores in and near an Indian house. The bags of flour 
served as a defense against the enemy, by way of pallisade. The feeble horses and two 
pieces of artillery were Hkewise left. 

I2th. Rained in the morning which prevented our marching until I2 o'clock. The 
land through which we passed this day, was very hilly but not difficult. Encamped near 
Adyutro, a town of twenty five houses, a great quantity of corn, &c. Here, once lived 
the famous Seneca chief, called in English the Big tree, whose house was entirely built of 
cedar, Marched eleven miles. 

13th. Very early this morning the army marched to the above town and halted for 
breakfast. We were detained here some time in making bridges over a rivulet and swamp. 

The preceding evening a party of four riflemen and Honniose, an Oneida Indian, were 
ordered to reconnoitre the next castle and return by day-break. But by mistake twenty 
nine went, four of whom discovering four Indians in the town, killed and scalped one 
and wounded the second. The officer (Lt. Boyd) instead of returning, as was expected, 
sent four of his men to inform the General, detaining the remainder until the army should 
arrive ; but, hearing some Indians had been discovered near by, marched down and was 
drawn into an ambuscade wherein Boyd, and about twenty men were cut off. Soon after 



MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. 99 

a party fired on Mr. Lodge, the surveyor and party, and mortally wounded one man ; but 
by the timely firing of a sentry all the party got in. 

The army then marched to the castle, called Gohseolahulee (which signifies spear laid 
•up), of about twenty houses. From some appearances, we apprehended that the enemy 
would oppose us at this town and proper caution was taken ; but we were once more agreea- 
bly disappointed. Here appeared the heathenish custom of offering sacrifices. Two 
dogs were found suspended on a pole, which signified that evil spirit was to be pacified 
by their skins, which would serve to make him a tobacco pouch and waistcoat. Marched 
seven miles. 

14th. This morning the army crossed a creek about one rod wide, and soon entered 
upon a large flat of intervale, containing about twenty thousand acres, with not a stump 
nor a tree upon 'the whole, but grass from six to ten feet high. Here our whole army 
was seen in the same accurate order as on paper. 

The Genesee river is about half a mile from our last encampment and is four or five rods 
wide and very rapid. The army forded the river in platoons and locked arms to guard 
against the rapidity of its current.^ A soldier who was on this extensive plat twenty eight 
years ago (1751) said that it had then the same appearance. After crossing the river we 
ascended an eminence, perhaps one hundred feet higher than the river, on the top of 
which is a plain of considerable extent and from which is a gradual descent each way. 
This tableland overlooks the country and intervale around it for many miles, and is I 
think, best calculated for n county seat, town or city, as to situation, of any place in 
America. Before sunset we arrived at Genesee, the grand capital and extent of our route, 
■where were a hundred and twenty houses and as many acres of corn. 

The remains of Lt. Boyd and one rifleman, taken the preceding day, were found with 
their heads cutoff, and eyes and tongues out and every species of barbarity committed, 
that the united malice of all the infernal devils could dictate. The savages had the day 
before burned a house in the ashes of which were the bones of several men, which were 
doubtless savages killed by the riflemen. Burning with them is frequently a substitute 
for interment. 

15th. This morning a captive woman and child at her breast came in from the woods 
having escaped from the savages. Can any greater transition happen to a human being 
except a pardon at the gallows ? She was taken at Wyoming last spring with five children, 
where her husband was killed, and child was scalped before her eyes. This day was spent 
in destroying corn which had become so ripe that we were obliged to burn it in the kilns. 
■Some corn-stalks were seventeen feet long. The whole army was employed, but at 3 
o'clock we faced to the i-ti;/iJ about. A most joyful day ! Marched back to the east end 
of the great flat and encamped. Marched five miles. 

i6th. Encamped at Adjutso, where we completed the destruction of a large quantity 
of corn. About a mile distant we found the bodies of thirteen men and the Indian killed 
on the 13th inst., so that of the twenty-nine that went out, eleven returned ; sixteen were 
killed, and two are now missing. Marched seven miles. 

17th. At day break cur tents were struck and the army arrived at Annaquayen, at half 
past twelve and found our stores and little garrison safe ; for which we had much con- 
cern. Marched twelve miles. 

i8th. Marched to Kanadaigue, passed the outlet of the lake and encamped on its side. 

Bluback, the Oneida Indian, who had been sent home for purposes before mentioned, 
returned with a young sachem and a warrior, giving the following account: That he 1 
delivered the message of Gen. Sullivan to his brethren at Oneida, the requisition therein 
named was fully complied with, and the nation to a man turned out to join our army and 
marched to Cayuga ; but meeting an impertinent Indian going from our enemy, inform- 
ing them that our work was done and their services not wanted, they turned back ; that 
the nation congratulated our chief on the success of his arms in this quarter, and begged 
that Cayuga settlement might be spared for the sake of the few righteous among them ; 
that the corn would greatly alleviate 'the distresses of the friendly Onondagas, but the 
matrimonial connections of these tribes rendering the requisition suspicious, it was not 



100 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

granted. He likewise informed them that Marquis I.aFayette had arrived ; that New 
York was burned ; with a number of stories calculated to gain their point ; but all are 
supposed to be Indian tales. Marched ten miles. 

19th. Marched to Kanadasaga, sixteen miles, and arrived about sunset. On our 
march we met an express with letters from Gen. Washington, together with newspapers 
informing us of Spain's declaring war with England and many other pieces of agreeable 
intelligence. 
V 20th. Two detachments, one of six hundred men commanded by Col. Butler was sent 
on the east side of the Cayuga, to destroy the settlements, and the other under Col. Gans- 
voort of one hundred men to the Mohawk country for the same purpose. .Soon after the 
array crossed the outlet of Seneca lake, aind encamped four miles from Kanadasaga. 

We now suppose ourselves at home and quite out of danger from the savages. Col. 
Smith was again sent out with a party on the west side of the lake, to accomplish the 
burning of the corn before cut down. 

2ist. Col Dearborn with two hundred men, was sent down on the west side of Cayuga 
lake to conclude the destruction, of the country. Our army marched thirteen miles and 
encamped. 

22d. This morning there was great appearance of a storm. Marched sixteen miles. 
A sore mortality among old horses, twenty died this day besides about sixty were shot by 
the rear guard. 

23d. This morning the most able horses were selected to carry the ammunition, which 
moved with very little obstruction. 
— *~" Dined at Katherinestcwn, where we found the old squaw just as we left her, twenty 
days t>efore in her bark hut, with a quart of corn by her. It appears that there had been 
a young squaw with her, whom we found dead forty rods distant ; supposed to have been 
shot by some of our expresses, a few days before. The old one, from her appearance 
must have been ninety years old. Such is the enmity of our soldiery against the savages, 
that they would readily have murdered this helpless impotent wretch. But the common 
dictates of humanity, a veneration for old age and a regard for the female world of any 
age or denomination induced our General to spare her, giving her the choice of going 
with the army, or remaining in her wigwam, with a month's provisions ; and she preferred 
the latter. 

The army proceeded three miles further and then encamped. Marched twelve miles. 

24, This day we passed through the swamp with little difficulty, and arrived at Fort 
Keid before night, where were one hundred head of jcattle, a plenty of flour, spirits &c. 
Captain Reid had been ordered to this place (before known by Ae name of Konnawolla- 
hollah) with two hundred men and one piece of cannon, where he had thrown up some 
lines, being the point of confluence of the Tioga and Cayuga rivers. 

On our march this'day, we received intelligence that Col. Clark had taken Detroit with 
two hundred and fifty prisoners. 

25th. A Feu de Joie for Spain's declaring warwjth England. 

26th. Col Dearborn and party returned, who left us on the 21st near outlet of Seneca 
lake. His course was about east, twelve, or fifteen miles whei) he struck Cayuga lake, ten 
miles from its mouth. From thence he proceeded on the west side, to the south end ; 
in which route he burned five towns, containing fifty houses, destroyed aquantity of corn, 
took four prisoners two of whom he brought off, both females, the other two being super- 
annuated and infirm were left. That lake extends nearly as far south as the Seneca, and 
ten miles further north, while the land is broken and the shore very irregular 

27th. A large party under Col. Cortlandt was sent up the Tioga river to destroy corn. 

28th. Col. ,Butler and p.arty arrived from his expedition around the Cayuga. After 
leaving Kanadasaga, they marched twenty three miles nearly north east, keeping in sight 
of the stream that runs from Seneca lake, which is generally shallow and rapid, runnirxg- 
into the Cayuga half a mile from its mouth. They forded the neck of the lake where it 
was four hundred yards across and three feet deep with a muddy bottom. From thence 
they proceeded on the, eastern shore, destroyed one hundred houses, five hundred fruit 



MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG. ^ 101 

trees and an immense quantity of corn. The land was good and much like that between 
the lakes. 

Large detachments this day were employed in destroying corn. 

29th. The army marched eleven miles and encamped on the Flatt below Chemung. 

30th. Arrived ^t Tioga about 3 o'clock, where we were saluted by thirteen cannon 
from the fort. From hence we have water carriage to Wyoming, a most fortunate affair 
as our horses are worn down and our men are naked. 

Although we are, now, one hundred and twenty miles from peaceful inhabitants, yet 
we consider ourselves at home, and the expedition ended ; having fulfilled the expecta- 
tions of our country, by beating the enemies and penetrating and destroying their whole 
country. The undertaking was great and .the task arduous. The multiplicity of disap- 
pointments, occasioning a long delay at the beginning, fgreboded a, partial, if nol; a total 
frustration of otir design ; but' the unbounded ambition and perseverance of our com- 
mander and army led him to the' full execution contrary to ourmost'sanguine expectations. 

The army marched from Tioga, \vith twenty pounds of beej and twenty sevep pounds 
of flour, per man, with which they marched twenty days out through an enemy's country 
yet unexplored with five pieces of artillery ; havihgf a road to clear, through swamps and 
over mountains a hundred and fifty miles ; after having marched, three hundr,ed from their 
winter quarters ; a cruel, subtle and desultory foe to contend with ; void of hospital stores 
and conveniencies for the sick a*id wounded ; scarcely able to 'move for want of means of 
transportation, one battle, at the e.Ktent of out route, must ha've been attended with con- 
sequences, such as nothing but the event itself could ascertain ; yet a march of three 
hundred miles was performed, a battle was fought and a whole tbuhtry'd'es'olated in thirty 
days. , ; 

But let us not arrogate too much, for " The battle is not to the strong," is a proverb 
fully verified in this expedition ; the special hand and smiles of Providence being so appa- 
rently manifested, that he who views the scene, with indifference, is worse than an infidel. 
The dimest eye must observe through the whole a successiori of most fortunate events. 
The very evils that at first predicted a defeat, were a chain of causes in our favor. (I 
mean our delay). Had we 'marched when we wished we could not have had a general 
engagement ; for a great scarcity amounting almost to a famine, the preceding year had 
prevented their embodying, until the'growth of the present crop and We must therefore, 
have been harassed, daily by small parties much to our disadvantage. The artillery, 
which at fii-st, seemed a clog and totally useless, served a noble purpose the action being 
general, their total rout together with the thunder of our artillery impressed them, with 
such a terrific idea of our importance that a universal panic struck both' the sachem and 
the warrior ; each finding full employment in removing his httle ones from threatening 
danger. The place of action was likewise remarkable having water carriage for our 
wounded. Not a single' gun was fired for eighty miles, on our march' out or an Indian 
seen on our return. Then when we expected the greatest harassnient a hundred might 
have saved half their country by retarding us until our provisions were spent ; and a like 
number hanging on- our rear in the return, would have occasioned the loss of much bag- 
gage and taught us an Indian dance Their corn and vegetables were half our support, 
which we should have been deprived of hsd our march been earlier. And to say no more, 
the extraordinary continuance of fair weather has- infinitely facilitated our expectations ; 
having never been detained a single day ; nor has there been an hour's rain since the, 
the thirtieth day of August. 

The question will naturally arise, -n-hat have you to show for your exploits ? Where 
are your prisoners? To which I reply, that the ragB and emaciated bodies of our soldiers 
mu.st speak for our fatigue, and when the Querist will point out a mode to tame a part- 
ridge, or the expediency of hunting wild turkeys, with light hotse, I will show them our 
prisoners. The nests are destroyed, but the birds are still on the wing. 



JOURNAL OF ENSIGN DANIEL GOOKIN. 



Daniel Gookin, Ensign in Second New Hampshire Eegiment. He 
was the son of Rev. Nathaniel Gookin of Northampton N. H., bom 
March 2, 1756 ; was commissioned as Captain after the war from Oct 
20, 1786. In 1809 was appointed a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and in Dec. 1815, Judge of Probate, which of&ce he held until 
constitutionally disqualified by age. He was an active member of the 
county Agricultural Society and of the New Hampshire Cincinnati. He 
died Sept 4, 1831. A portion of his Journal, from May 4 to September 
5, 1779, was published in Vol XVI, No 1, New England Hist and Gen '1 
Register, January, 1862. 

"Journal of March from North Hampton, N. Hampshire, in the year 1779," by Daniel 
Gookin of that place. 

Tuesday, May4, '79. Set out from N. Hampton for the army. Lodged at Andover, 
Mr. Adams, 30 miles. 

5. Thro'.Tukesbury, Bilrica, Bedford, Concord, Malborough to Landlord Sawings, 38 
miles. 

6. Marched thro' Northborough, Salsbury, Woster, Leister, Spencer, Brookfield. 
Lodged at Landlord Coley, 35 miles. 

7. Marched thro' Weston, Palmer, Wilbraham to Springfield. Lodged at Landlord 
Cottons, 32 miles. 

8. Thro' Sufifield (at this place my dog -Bark left me) to Simesbury, 22 miles. 

9. Sunday. Thro' Harrington to Litchfield. Landlord Thomsons at the Gaol, 25 
miles. 

10. Washington, New Milford to pinch gut. Lodged at Camps Tavern. 24 miles. 

11. Marched thro' Danbury to Ridgfield. Lodged at Keeler's tavern, 18 miles. 

12. Wednesday, thro' Salem (this is in New York) Courtlandt's manor, correspond to 
Soldier's Fortune, 5 miles above Peekskill where the regt was encamped, 30 miles. 

13. 14, 15. 16, Staid at Soldier's Fortune. 

17. Marched from our encampment thro' Fishkill, crossed North River. Lodged at 
.Newburg, 21 m. Here Gen. Poor over took us. 

18. Marched thro' New Windsor to Bethlam, g miles, 
ig. to Chester, 12 miles. 

20. to Warick, 14 miles. 

21. Rainy Day, did not march, this place is 4 miles in the Jersey. 

22. Did not march. 

23. To Sussex Court House, here are four or five houses, very good, but the houses 
from North River to this place are small, the country mountainous, the valleys fertile, 
bearing large crops of wheat and rye, the men do but little work, and the women great 
sluts, marched 22 miles. 



ENSIGN DANIEL GOOKIN. 103 

24. Marched to Hope, a small raoravian town where there is one of the finest mills I 
ever saw, built of stone, the sluce way of this mill is cut thro' stone 800 feet in leng^th, 30 
feet deep in some places. 

25. Marched within 5 miles of Easton, encamped in Woods, marched in ig miles. 

26. Marched into Easton 5 miles, tjjis town lies on the west side of Delaware river, 
60 miles by land above Philadelphia ; this town is very pleasantly situated on the Dela- 
ware and Lehi, the river runs thro' Bethlehem ; they have a fine Stone Church and Court 
House which lie in the centre of the town and a Stone Gaol ; the inhabitants German, 
buildings most of them stone. 

27. 28. We encamped on the Banks of the river Lehi. Bethlehem lies 12 miles up 
this river. 

29, 30. Went to church, heard a sermon in Dutch, saw the Priest administer the Sac- 
rament, there was boys belonging to this church not more than twelve years old ; their 
manner of administering the sacrament is first the men come around the altar, the min- 
ister takes small white wafers about as big as a copper which he puts into their mouths 
speaking to every one, the same with the wine, the organ going all the time and people 
singing. Sunday afternoon went to church, heard sermon preached by Jersey Chaplain. 

31. I [ ] & Rec'd one Hundred Dollars of Capt. Fogg. 

June i, '79. Rec'd this day a certificate from the State of New Hampshire, appoint- 
ing me an ensign in Col. Reids Regt. to take Rank from 6 May, 1777. 

2, 3. On Court martial. 

7. Bought of Capt. Carr a Hanger for one hundred and fifty Dollars. Borrowed of 
Capt. Fogg 200 Dols. 

14. Heard of the Victory Genl Lincoln gained over the British at Charleston, S. Caro- 
lina. Fired a fuze de joy on the Occasion. 

18, Marched from Easton to Hilerston, 12 miles and encamped. 

19. To Poconoco Mount, Point Lawrence. To wain 17 miles. Country all moun- 
tainous and Barren. 

20, 21, 22, 23. Marched thro' Long Swamp to Wyoming 36 miles, there is one house 
7 miles from this (no inhabitants) that is all for 36 miles back. 

24. On guard. Provisions scant, Beef very paor ; there has been a large quantity 
condemned. 

26. Indians discovered last night near one of our piquets. 

27. Removed our camp to the west side of the river, about 3 miles up ; this is allowed 
by judges to be the best land they ever saw and sure I am that I never saw an equal to it, 
our garden spots in New Hampshire not excepted, the interval surpasses all description : 
the river Susquehanna on which this lies, abounds with fish, shad in great plenty in the 
spring, as they go up to spawn, and the shores are covered with these fish which have 
died up the river, thro' their too long stay in Fresh water. The land at present is unim- 
proved, the inhabitants being killed in an engagement with the Indians and Torys, last 
summer. 300 were killed and scalped at one time. 

29.' Mr Bell arrived from N. Hampshire. 

30. Our men went out this day gunning, saw deer and wild Turkey, killed none ; this 
country has a mountain which affords excellent stone-cole ; our blacksmith told me Its 
almost equal to Newcastel Cole. 

July 5, 1779. This day Genl Poor gave a genl invitation to the officers of his Brigade 
to dine with him in commemoration of American Independence (the fourth being Sunday) 
we had an elegant entertainment. A number of patriotick [toasts] drank, &c. &c. 

6. This day a shower rose in the East and rained very hard with thunder & hail, the 
hail was as big as pullets egg. 

12. Received Commission as an Ensign in the 2d N. Hampshire Regt giving me Rank 
as Ensign from the 6 of May, 1777 ; my warrant I rec'd at Easton. 

21. The Genl congratulates the Army on the success of our arms at Stoney Point, this 
newes he received by letter from one of Genl Washington's Family, the following is an 
extract : (to wit.) Brigadier Genl Wayne with part of the light Troop surprised and took 



104 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Prisoners the whole of the garrisoii at Stony Point, all the cannons, stores, mortar, how- 
itzers tents, baggage, &c. &c. without the loss of more than four or five men, no officers 
killed or badly wounded ; if tliis story turns out as true as the news from Genl Lincoln 
did. Amen for orders. Mr Bell being'on detachment with Colo. Reid at Brinker's IVlills 
by Major Titcombs desire I did Adgts duty froni the lO &c. &c. drew very bad provisions 
it being that which was condemned some time palt all the alteration in it is that it has been 
smoked which takesout some of the Ugly snlell but ttie juice of the grape continues in it 
yet. Owing to the badnessojf the Provision some of our officers and men are sick. 

28. Colo Reid & Mr Bell & the Detachments that went with him, arrived at Camp, 
drew our horses, making all the preparations possible for a march up the river. Agree- 
able to Genl orders we moved'down yesterday from Forty Fort to Wyoming. 

31. Marched from Wyoming to Leighawaneuch, our baggage was carried on pack 
horses provided for that purpose, g miles, 

August ist. By reason of the boats not getting up the river, we did not march till 
three o. Clock in the afternoon. Marched td Quilutimack. 4 miles.' 

2. Our moving so late from Lfeighawanock yesterday, and the badness of the roads, 
several of the pack horses {with flour ahd other' stores over set) which put us under the 
fatalnecessity of tarrying all this day and night at this Post. 

3. Marched at Seven oclock in the morning over a very mountainous country to Tunck 
Hanich twelves miles, our baggage arrived safe this night, one of our men catched a wild 
turkey and another a deer both of them' alive, the deer attempted to run thro' the troops 
but got grabbed ; not very well, up last night on guard &c. &'c. Crosd several very fine 
streams in our march this day, (or rather) waded thro' them. 

4. Marched at six o'clock in the morning, the country much the same as yesterday 
untill we arrived within about 3 miles of this Encampment when we come to most excel- 
lent land on t,he interval, there were black walnut trees four feet through, not only one or 
two but a very large number of them that hold their bignes equal to pine.' The land back 
of the interval descending gradually toward the river afforded a mo'st exalted prospect. 
On our march came across what they'call Indian apples, they grow on a small bush only 
one stock which is about two feet high, six inches from the top there is one branch, on 
this branch there is a very large leaf and in the crotch of these grows the apple about as 
as big as a walnut shell and all over ithas a thick skin like Lemmons, and the middle of 
it very fine tasted. Encamped at Vanderlips desolate farm, 42 miles from Wyoming. 

: 5. To Wylucing :o miles.. On our march this day came across very large Buttonwood 
trees one of which I had the curiosity to measure, it was nineteen feet eight inches round, 
ig-8 inches. Capt. Fogg ineasured' one 21 feet round. 

6. By reason of the rain did not march this day. 

7. The weather still continuing bad cannot march this day was sent out Corpl Mill 
with some men to spy out the country. 

8. Marched at six o'clock in the morning to Standingstone. 10 miles. 

9. Marched to Shackanack, 14 miles, very tedious days march this. 

TO. Did not march from the Shackanack bottom by reason of the boats not arriving. 

II. To Tioga 4 miles waded across the river up toour middles, currant running strong, 
Col. Barber came very near drowning crossing the river. The number of horses that 
came from Wyoming was Genl Poor's Brigade 300, Genl Maxwell's 300, Genl Hands 200, 
Colo Proctor 100, the horses from the Publick stores 300 besides the riding horses of the 
officers, 120 boats, 800 head of cattle &c. To see with what patience the soldiers endured 
the fatigues of this march wadeing rivers, climbing' mountains and a number of other 
things too tedious to mention, afford a pleasing prospect that in time we shall have soldiers 
equal to any in the world. 

12. Waiting at this post for Genl Clinton's Brigde the Troops employed in building 
four block houses and a fort for the security of the garrison, and the provision that is to 
be left, at this post. 

13. Genl Sullivan hearing that part of the enemy lie at Chemung gave orders for the 
whole army's moving which we did soon as ever it was dark last night, marching all night 



ENSIGN DANIEL GOOKIN. 105 

arriving at Cheriiung at day light, but the enemy had just moved out of the town which 
we set on fire, destroyed large fields of their corn, beans, potatoes, squashes, cucumbers, 
water mellons &c, they plant with as much exactness as any ■ farmer and their corn and 
other things [were] very forward our men pursued them, came up with them and ex- 
changed some shots— we had 7 or 8 killed and a number wounded, returned to Tioga in 
the evening from this to Chemung is said to be'iz miles. 

14. In our nights march fell and hurt my Knee which is somewhat painful— a good 
deal fatigued, &c. &c. &c. 

i^. Sunday a small partyof the enemy came down to the outpost of our encampment 
and Killed one man and wounded another, 

16. A detachment of 900 men commanded by'Genl Poor went to meet Genl Clinton. 

17; The army preparing'to march which we shall do as soon as Genl Clinton arrives. 
Tioga lies on the west side of Susquehanna river and just in the crotch of the river that 
comes by Chemung, one man killed and scalped this day by the Indians. 

20. A party from Genl Clinton arrived last night giving an account of his being -within 
eighteen miles of this post. 'Rainy last night and to-day. 

21. Cutting up tents for bags to carry flour. 

22. Sunday on guard — Genl Clinton's brigade arrived this day, they have better than 
200 boats and 1800 men. ' 

23. This day about 3 o'clock a very melancholy accident happened in camp — Samuel 
Gordon, soldier in Capt. Duston's company taking a gun in his hand and snaped it (not 
knowing it was loaded) the gun went off, killed Capt. Kimball of Col Cilleys Regiment 
as he was sitting in a tent, and wounded one more. Capt. l-Cimball was buried with the 
honors of war. 

24. The army struck their tents at 3 o'clock and loaded them and the rest of the bag- 
gage — and the fianks and the infantry and covering partys took their foot in order of 
march — I was drafted from the right flank. 

25. Wednesday, was to have marched this day but the storfes not being ready pre- 
vented our marching in the morning and in the afternoon it was rainy. 

26. Thursday early in the morning received a letter from my sister Betsey, dated July 
10. Marched from Tioga at 11 o'clock fore-noon about two & a half miles above Fort 
Sullivan. 

27. Marched at nine o'clock but proceeded very slow on account of the Artillery and 
the Horses being over loaded, did not arrive till g o'clock at night which was at the corn- 
field. 

28. Marched at 3 o'clock afternoon over a very high mountain from which we had a 
fine view of the country — arrived at Chemung and encamped — passed a defile a mile in 
length. 

29. Sunday, marched at nine o'clock about 4 miles when our advanced party discov- 
«red the enemys breastwork which they seemed determined to defend, upon this we 
formed ourselves and waited for the rear to come up, about 3 o'clock in the afternoon we 
were ordered with Genl Poor's and Genl Clinton's brigades to gain the rear of the enemy. 
Just as we began our march the cannon began to play on the enemys line which drove 
them from the breast-work before we had time to gain their rear — they took possession of 
a high mountain which we immediately attacked and gained the summit of — in this attack 
Major Titcomb was wounded thro' the belly and arms, Capt. Clayes thro' the body, Ser- 
jeant Lane wounded in two places, Serjeant Thurstin & Twelve Rank & file wounded. 
Corp. Huntress Killed. 

Lt McCalley of Colo Cilley's regiment was wounded in the knee, the wound was so 
bad that they were obliged to take of his leg — Colo Reid's regiment suffered the most, 
the infantry and rifle men pursued them by the river whilst we were gaining the rear ; the 
name given this place by the Tories is Newton, about 6 miles from Chemung. 

30. Monday did not march^>on fatigue Lt McCalley died this morning of his wound 
— here were large fields of corn and beans which our people destroyed. In the engage- 

14 ' 



106 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

ment yesterday one Tory was taken aqd one negro. They gave an account that both 
Butler and Brant were at this post, they had with them i sergt I corpl & 12 regular sol- 
diers, 600 Indians, & two hundred Tories, that they live on green corn and beans, have: 
no meat all. Our men found considerable plunder buried in the ground. They got 
yesterday several Indian scalps, &c. &c. &c. 

The Genl returns his thanks to the army in general and to Genl Poor's brigade in par- 
ticular for their spirited exertions yesterday. 

31. Tuesday. Last night our wounded were sent down the river to Tioga & the am- 
munition waggons were sent back. Wfe proceeded on our march at 9 o'clock with 4 small 
pieces of cannon and one Howitzer. The ammunition was carried on pack horses. 
Marched to [ ] :o miles and pitched our tents there, put to half allowance. 

September i. , Marched at .9 o'clock across what they call the 12 mile swamp. This, 
swamp is composed of mountains and valleys which rise and fall as quick as possible one- 
after the other, it being such bad going were not able to arrive at our encamping ground 
till ten o'clock night. The troops much fatigued & great loss of Flour, Ammunition &c. 
&c. ■ ■ ' 

2. One Indian squaw left on this ground, she was so old they could not carry her oil — 
Genl Sullivan gave her a pardon — she gives an account that the warriors went out from 
here as our advanced guard entered — they had a council of war where in the squaws were: 
for throwing themselves on our mercy, but the sannops would not consent — on guard last 
■night and to day — did not march on account of the baggage not all arriving last night. 

3. Marched 5 mile and came to the Sinica Lake — a very fine level country along this. 
Lake — Marched 12 miles this day. 

4. Marched 14 miles, plenty of mandrakes or Indian apples along this country— en- 
camped in woods. 

5. Sunday, marched to T [ ] diah 5 miles and encamped ; this is an old settled 
place, a number of 200 old apple trees and peach trees plenty — the houses here look quite 
comfortable, there are two tombs where their Indian chiefs were buried — here one of our 
men that was taken at Wyoming a twelve month ago made his escape from them and came 
to us, informs us that Butler is for fighting us again but the Tories say its only throwing 
their lives away for no purpose ; cut down their apple trees. 



JOURNAL OF SERGT MAJOR GEORGE GRANT. 



GrEOBGE Grant, Sergeant Major in the Third New Jersey Eeginient 
Journal published in the Wyoming Republican, July 16, 1834, from the 
original furnished by Thomas Gordon, of Trenton, N. J., which has 
since been destroyed by, fire. Republished in Hazard's Register (Pa.), 
Vol. XIV, pp. 72-76. 

A journal of the Marches, &c, completed by the 3d Jersey Regiment, and the rest 
of the Troops under the command of major Sullivan, in the Western Expedition. 

May 17, 1779. At 8 o'clock the 3d Jersey Regiment Marched for Samptown. 

18. To Boundbrook ; the weather wet, detained them there until the 23d. In the 
interim every man received two pair overhalls each, and every one that had no blankets, 
received one — 

23d. Marched to Tinbrooks Tavern. 

24th. Marched to Pittstown, where they received tents for the Regiment. 

25th. Marched to Johnson's Mills. 

26th. Marched to Kaston where they joined ist Jersey Regiment, two New Hamp- 
shire Regiments, and Colonel Proctor's Artillery. Immediately on their arrival, a man of 
Col Dayton's Company, being disguised with liquor, unfortunately drowned himself in 
the Delaware river. A few days after arrived here the 2d Jersey Regiment. One Regi- 
ment of New Hamshire Troops marched for Wyoming in order to prepare the roads for 
the Artillery and wagons, as also did the ist Jersey Regiment. 

Easton, June 13. Three soldiers belonging to the Pennsylvania Regiment com- 
manded by Col. Hubley, were executed for murdering an inhabitant at this place. The 
whole of the Troops on the ground were present at this melancholy occasion. 

14. Was fired a few de joy at evening on account of a victory obtained over the 
enemy in South Carolina. 

About this time were taken two men, one of whom formerly had been a Lieut, in the 
Militia, and was confined for enticing a number of the Artillery to desert to the enemy. 
A General Court Martial, whereof Brigadier General Maxwell was president, found them 
guilty and sentenced them to death. 

18. The whole of the aforementioned Troops, warned by the firing of a Cannon, 
marched together with the pack horses, and baggage waggons at 4 o'clock in the morning 
on their way to Wyoming. The roads for this day's march were good — encamped at Hel- 
liard's Tavern, distant 11 miles from Easton. 

igth. Marched to Larney's Tavern or Pokanose (Pocano) point. 

20th. To Chouder Camp. 

2ist. To Fatigue Camp. 

22. To .Sullivan's Camp or Great Meadows. 

23rd. To Wyoming, situate on the East Branch of .Susquehanna. On the East side 
has been formerly a place of strength, near 400 families having lived here before these 
troubles began. The town formerly, has been regularly laid out, and the houses well 
built, but is now destroyed by the Savages and Tories, when the battle was fought here 



103 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

between the two Butlers, last fall, when the enemy Jellied 300 of the inhabitants, burnt 
the Town and Fort, and left about 230 women widows. The land here is excellent, and 
comprehends vast mines of Coal, Pewter, Lead, Copperas, &c. The river affords abun- 
dance of fish of various kinds, and excellent. Here we joined the German Battalion, one 
York Regiment, Capt. Shptt's Company, Capt. Spalding's Free Corps, composed qf the 
inhabitants, and also the 4th Jersey Regirhent. 

July 1st. This day was executed one of the abovementioned traitors. 

I2th. Three friendly Indians and three soldiers were despatched from here up the 
river to reconnoiter — they proceeded as far as Wyalusing, 56 miles distant, and returned 
without anything material. 

17th. Received the ,agreeabl,e news of Gen,, Wayne .hav.ing surprised and taken 600 of 
the enemy at Stony Point, with also their baggage and artillery. 

■24th.' Arrived a fleet cdnSisting of 134 Boats loaded with provisions of all kinds ; on 
the arrival, they fired 13 Cannon, and were, saliited by the like number from the Garrison. 

30th. A party of 600 men was eniployed from 5 o'clock in the morning until g in the 
evening, loading the Boats- and Pack'horses.' ' '' •'-''" 

31st. At 9 o'clock the army began their march for Teaogp, (Tioga.) Col. Proctor's 
Regiment of artillery, and a detachment from the whole army, manned the Boats. Col. 
Proctor commanded the fleet. , The arrny marched to^I.agkawanna, distant nine miles 
from Wyoming, (Wilkes IJarre.) This pla,ce contains 200 acres of excellent level land, 
and beautifully situated, having a fine creek bordering on the East side of the river in 
front, and a large mountain in the rear, which forms this place a triangular form. 

Aug. 1st At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, marched for Wylutanunk-:-on the road passed 
a fine cataract, as handsome as ever I saw in Kurope, the water falling near 300. feet. 
From this place we had a very bad road for upwards pf 3 miles. 

It was 10 o'clock at night before the troops arrived bere, having to pass the most of the 
way a very narrow defile, the Pack horses not arriving until next morning, having several 
of their packs lost, consisting of liquors, ammunition, and provisions. 

2d. Lay by — drew provisions,— washed our,lipen. Distant from Lackawanna 7 miles. 

3d. Marched for Hunck Hannunk, (Tunkhannock) distant 14 miles, the road in gen- 
eral very good, but exceeding steep and mountainous. Halted in a Valley 4 miles from 
Hunck Hannunk. Here refreshed, then proceeded to the aforementioned place, and 
encamped. 

4th. Marched for Van De Lyp's farms — for one and a half miles the road bordering 
on the river, aifprding a fine landscape, the opposite side being formerly a large farm, 
extending for several miles, and called Catchakany plains. Then proceeded up a high 
and steep mountain, the road so narrow that not more than one man at a time could ascend 
it. One of the Commissaries horses fell down this mountain and broke his neck, and 
several packs Ipst. The Troops halted, after crossing a creek, refreshed themselves. At 
the mouth of this creek is a cavity in a rock, also a small flat bordering on the creek. 
] lere it is said a man and his family lived two years befpre these troublesome times began. 
From here we proceeded for the aforementioned place, \yhich is beautifully situated on the 
border, of the river, also very fine farms, but evacpated and destroyed by the Savages. 
Here is also a very, fine Walnut Bottom, one of those trees being measured was found to 
be 14 feet through. 

5th, Marched for Wyalusing, distant 14 miles, and crossed Tuscarpra creek » fine 
plantatipn being fprmerly here. Frpm thence prpceeded forward. A soldier falling , sick 
of the Falling sickness, died here, and one of Col. Proctor's artillery was drowned. Pro- 
ceeding up the river, passed through a very fine Buttonwood bottom, some of them meas- 
uring 14^ feet through. Arrived at the aforementioned place about sunset, where a 
Sergeant of the 2d Jersey Regiment died suddenly. 

This place is most beautifully situated, and fine pasture for cattle, also some orchards, 
and has been inhabited by 50 families, mostly of the people called Dunkards — they have 
been obliged to fly, and their habitations burnt. 

6th, Halted to refresh the cattle, draw provisions, ind washed our linen. 



SERG'T MAJOR GEORGE GRANT. 109 

7th. Detained here this day on account of rain — in the evening aU the troops on board 
the boats were reviewed, and the command given to Col, Courtland and Maj. Conway. 
Also orders for deducting ^ per man per day. 

8th. Marched for Standing Stone Bottom, a very pleasant place and a large planta- 
tion. 

gth. Marched for Queen Hester's Plains. Had a very tedious and difficult march — 
the distance 14, miles. One Defile we passed near one mile and a half in length, where 
one man had scarce room enough to walk. Three cattle fell from this defile near 120 
yards perpendicular, and were Killed. Several pack-horses were lost. This defile bor- 
dered elose to the river — Towards 6 o'clock in the evening reached the Plains and en- 
camped. 

loth. Lay by on account of rain. 

nth. This morning marched for Teaoga (Tioga) distant 4 miles — the country level and 
fine land. Within half a mile of Teaoga we crossed the .Susquehanna, hanging our car- 
touch boxes on our bayonets, and wading the river up to our armpits. Previous to the 
troops crossing. Col. Proctor landed some of his artillery, on the west side of tfie river, 
and fired a few shots into the woods on the east side in order to annoy the enemy if any 
should be there. The army then proceeded to cross and landed on a beautiful meadow — 
halted for a quarter of an hour, then across the Teaoga river and encamped. Capt. Cum- 
mings of the 2d Jersey Regiment was despatched towards Chemung with a small party to 
reconnoitre the enemy, who we were informed were strong at this point. The above party 
returned, with intelligence of the enemy abandoning Chemung in a very great confusion. 

I2th. General orders were immediately issued that all the army that were off duty and 
able, would hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's Vifarning. At 8 o'clock 
in the evening the army began their march and marched all night at a very slow rate. 

13th. At day break found that the Army were 5 miles from Chemung, detained by 2 
very narrow defiles they had_ to pass. The morning being very foggy favoured our design, 
but on arrival found the town abandoned. Gen Poor's Brigade formed on a flat on the 
west side of "Teaoga — Gen. Maxwell's on the east side, set fire to and destroyed the t;own. 
fJen. Hand with the light troops marched forward for two miles when a party of the 
enemy which lay in ambush fired on the advance guard. This was returned so briskly 
that the enemy retreated with great precipitation, carrying off with them their killed and 
wounded, so that their loss could not be ascertained. The loss which we sustained was 
seven killed and tiine wourided. Among the wounded are one Captain and one Adjutant. 
The troops then began to destroy the grain, & c. At 2 o'clock began our marcli back- 
wards to Teaoga. Chemung is pleasantly situated 12 miles from Teaoga,'Oh the bank of 
the aforesaid river, their corn, &c raised on the opposite side on a very rich flat, and pro- 
duces a very large crop of co^rn, beans, &c. 

14th. Nothing material. 

15th. A Corporal and four men being sent to collect cattle, on their return was fired 
upon by a party of the Savages, who killed and scalped one, wounded another. Though 
all possible means were used to come up with them, yet they made their escape. A party 
from each Brigade was ordered to build Block houses on a Peninsula of the Teaoga and 
Susquehanna. 

i6th. A command of Soo men was despatched up the river Susquehanna to escort Gen. 
Clinton's Brigade to Head Quarters, whereof Brigadier Gen, Poor had the Command. 

17. The like accident happened as did on the 15th. 

18. Nothing material. 

19. This morning at 5 o'clock 9 men detached from Gen Clinton's Brigade, arrived 
here. They say they left the Brigade 22 miles distant, making the best of their way down. 
The remainder of this day and the preceding night has been one continual rain which 
detained General Clinton's army from joining the main body as soon as was expected. 

20 & 21. Nothing Material. 

22. This day at 12 o'clock arrived Brigadier General Clinton and his Brigade, also 
200 Batteaus. Gen. Poor met them 40 miles from here, and escorted them in^ his party 
being greatly fatigued. 



no JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

2'J A captain of the New Hampshire' Troops was killed, and a soldier wounded by 
accident. 

24. and 25. Several Tents cut up to make bags for the more conveniency of carrying 
Flour. 

26. Marched this day on the road to Chemung, and encamped about 3 miles from 
Teaoga, leaving Colonel Shreeve of the 2d Jersey Regiment with 200 men, properly offi- 
cered, to Garrison the Peninsula ; all the spare baggage, the sick, and women, were left 
at this port, and two 6 pounders. 

27. This morning, the roads very bad, the ammunition wagons oversetting, retarded 
the march very much, also the field pieces and pack horses were a great obstruction ; it 
was 12 o'clock at night before the whole of the army came to the encampment, the dis- 
tance only 7 miles from the last encampment, and within 2 miles of Chemung. 

28. This morning the troops went to destroying the corn with which this encampment 
abounds. At two o'clock the army marched for Chemung, and arrived there about sun- 
set, and that with difficulty, having to cross the Teaoga twice in marching about one 
mile. Chemung contained about 40 houses well built. 

29. At 8 o'clock began the march, and continued for 4 miles, when the Rifle Corps 
were attacked by the enemy who had built a breast work, thinking to destroy our army at 
their crossing a narrow defile in front of their works. The left column stood to their 
arms, while the right column moved forward in order to gain the heights and if possible 
to cut off their retreat. The cannon began, and the shells were so freely distributed 
among the Savage and Tory brood that they were obliged to fly, which they did with such 
precipitation, that Gen Poor had not time to effect his purpose. The enemy then formed 
on a steep hill close to Newtown. Thither Gen. Poor followed, his men climbing the hill 
with charged bayonets, regardless of the enemy's fire, which was poured on them like 
hail ; the enemy at last fled, leaving their dead on the ground to the amount of nine 
Indians ; we took two prisoners, one white man and one negro. The army then encamped 
at Newtown. Newtown is six miles from Chemung. The enemy had rendezvoused here 
for eight weeks to the amount of 1500, and was put to the allowance of seven ears of corn 
per day for each man for the last eight days, and no meat. Here had been planted corn 
&c. for the purpose of carrying on their wanton depredations against our frontiers. About 
twenty of Gen. Poor's Brigade was wounded in mounting the hill. This town is newly 
built and pleasantly situated on the Teaoga, with a high hill in rear of it, and a beautiful 
falls on the opposite side of the river. 

30. This day was spent in destroying Corn, &c. and sending heavy baggage away, 
viz. 2 Howitz, one three pounder, and the man who were wounded, with the ammunition 
waggons, to the garrison at Teaoga. 

31. Marched for ten miles and encamped near the Caiuga Creek. The left column 
marched through and set fire to a settlement of eight houses. About two miles from 
Newtown, passed several defiles and steep hills. 

Crossed the Caiuga Creek and halted in a town called Knawaholee, very pleasantly sit- 
uated on a peninsula of the Teaoga and Caiuga. From here the third Jersey Regiment 
was despatched up the Teaoga to destroy what crops of corn, &c they could find, also to 
look out if the enemy had or might be there as the General was informed by the prisoners 
that they moved all their sick and wounded in boats up the river. They proceeded up 
the river for eight miles, destroyed the corn, &c, but could not perceive that any of the 
enemy had been there since the 29th. The Army proceeded and encamped ten miles from 
Newtown. Knawaholee contains twenty houses. 

Sept. i. The army marched from their camp 10 miles from Newtown. The road was 
mostly through a large swamp abounding with vast quantities of large hemlock, the left 
hand column had to cross a creek, which empties into the Seneca Lake, near 30 times in 
the course of three miles. It was dark before the army could reach Catharine's Town, 
where they encamped, distance 13}4 miles. The road in general very bad, several pack 
horses were lost, 2 horses had their necks broke, and many of the horses and men did not 
reach camp until next day. This town contains thirty houses, but poorly built, with 



SERG'T MAJOR GEORGE GRANT. Ill 

orchards — likewise a great quantity, of corn, &c, and the creek above mentioned runs 
through the centre of the town and discharges itself into the Seneca Lake,, 5 miles below 
the town. 

2. The remainder of the army, &c. came in this morning, was found also an ancient 
■Squaw of the Caiuga Nation, who gave an account of the precipitate flight of the enemy. 
The army destroyed the Town, Corn, &c. this day, also cleaned their artns. Linen, &c. 

3. Marched from Catharine's Town for 12 miles and encamped, the whole of this 
•day's march having a fine view of the Seneca Lake, the land excellent, and well timbered. 

4. Continued the march as above for 12 miles, the land the same as yesterday, and the 
Lake in view. Four miles from last camp passed by an Indian castle, built on the edge 
•of the lake, here was found several Indian colts, as was also at Catharine's Town. From 
here we proceeded on our way destroying several small cornfields, beans, &c. and en- 
•camped as above. 

5. Marched to Kanadia, 5 miles distant from last camp, a very good road, a very fine 
■cataract half way between here and the last camp. Kanadia is a very fine town well built 
"with large orchards, the town bordering on the lake pleasantly situated. Here met with 
a man who had been captured by the Indians last fall at Wyoming. This town contains 
:20 houses, and here was lost 27 head of cattle. 

6. For the most part of this day was destroying corn and collecting the cattle and 
Tiorses. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon marched 4 miles and encamped close to the Lake, 
Tthere being good pasture for cattle, &c. 

7. Marched for Canadasago 12 miles from last camp. The march continued for g 
miles along the Lake, then waded the outlet. Gen. Maxwell's Brigade was then despatch- 
■ed through the woods in order to come on the back of the town, which was effected before 
•dark, but found the town abandoned. The town is extremely well built, a good orchard, 
.and an abundance of corn. The town consisted of 50 houses. Here we found a white 
•child about 3 years old. 

8. A party of 400 men was despatched to destroy a town called Gothsinquea,* situate 
■on the west side of the Lake, consisting of 14 houses. A party of Volunteers made a 
forced march along the Seneca Lake and destroyed a town called Schoyerre,f consisting of 
18 houses, very pleasantly situated, several Fish Ponds abounding opposite the town. 
The rest of the troops were employed destroying corn at and about Kanadasago. 

9. Marched for 7>^ miles through a swamp and encamped in the same. 

10. Marched to a town called Kanadaque, distant 10 miles. This town consisted of 
23 houses, very badly situated for water, the houses in general very large, with a good 
quantity of corn, &c, This town is situated about 1% miles N. W. of the Chinesee Lake. 

11. Marched for Hanayaya, distant 13 miles from Kanadaque, consisting of 10 houses, 
•situated on the edge of another of the chinesee Lakes, on a fine flat. Here was left Capt. 
■Cummings of the 2d Jersey Regiment with 50 effective men, with all the provision, am- 
munition, and all other heavy baggage thit could be spared, also a three pounder and 
some of Col. Proctor's Artillery. 

12. Marched for Kanaghsaws, -distant 11 miles, but a very indifferent road, and was 
obliged by night coming on to eiicamp wit-hin one mile of the above town. 

13. Marched for the above town where the troops were ordered to halt and cook their 
provisions. The preceding night Lieut Bold of the Rifle corps was sent to reconnoitre. 
He had with him one Indian for a guide and 24 Volunteers. His orders was for only 5 or 
•6, and was to proceed to Chinesee, the capitol of their Country. They lost their way and 
fell in with a little castle on the Chinesee river. Here they surprised a few Indians, two 
of whom they killed and scalped, and was on their return to Kanaghsaws, when they were 
surrounded by the enemy who killed 14 of the party, and took Lieut Bold and one man 
prisoner. The rest of the party made their escape to Camp. The light troops were 
immediately despatched to their assistance, but was too late, they having effected their 

* Kashong— 7 miles South of Geneva— Q. S. C. 
t Skoi-yase— present Waterloo.— G. S. C. 



'112 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

end, and made their escape with a great loss on their side. The Surveyor and a Corpo- 
ral's Guard was also fired upon by the enemy who .wounded the Corporal and one, private. 
The army which was at this time destroying Corn, &c, was immediately ordered to march 
to the Little Castle, 7 miles distant, which contains 8 houses. Kanaghsaws consisting of 
25 houses, is pleasantly situated , in a large Valley, a very fine run of water running 
through the same. Encamped at the Little Castle, 

14. Marched for Chinesfee, the Capitol of the Indian country, crossed the little Chin- 
esee River and marched through a large vale, near 4 miles in leng,th, where the enemy 
must have seen our whole strength and order of march. 

Then crossed the Chinesee river and arrived at the Chinesee castle, here they found 
the "fires fresh and the bodies of Lieut Boyd and the other his fellow sufferer mangled in 
a most inhuman and barbarous manner having plucked their nails out by the roots, tied them 
to trees and whipped Ihem \yith Prcikly Ash, whilst the rest threw darts at them, stabbed 
them with spears, cut out their tongues, and likewise cufoff their heads. This town is 
very large and well built, containing 128 houses. The enemy from all their Nations 
have been employed here a^l last spring raising grain, &c. A woman came to us who had 
been captured at Wyoniing by the savages with a child in her arms, about 7 or 8 months 
old. She says the Indians sent off all their Squaws and baggage to Niagara : The 
whole of the army now in high Spirits at this our last stage. 

15. The whole of ,fhe array this morning with the greatest cheerfulness went about 
destroying the Corn, Beans, &c, which they effected by 12 o'clock. At i o'clock the army 
began their march to Teaoga and encamped in the Valley aforementioned close, to the 
Chinesee river. ,, , / ,■ 

16. After finishing the destruction of all the corn at this place by crossing the river 
passed by the Ijttle Castle and encamped at Kanaghsaws. This place, it is said was com- 
manded by a negro, who was titled Capt. Sunfish, a very bold enterprising fellow. 

17th. This morning began our march to Hanayaya. We found Captain Cummings 
and his party in perfect health and security, having erected a small fort fpr their safety, 
the work consisting of flour, also bags of flour, the latter they completed, ambroziers pic- 
queted on the outside with the tops of the Apple Trees sharpened. 

i8. Marched for Kanadaque. On the road was met by an Indian Sachem from the 
Oneida Nation who brought a message from that Nation in behalf of the Caiuga Nation 
besides some other important despatches. 

ig. Marched to Kanadasa,go and was met on the road by an express ' from Teaoga 
with an account of Major Lee of the light Dragoons having surprised the Garrison at 
Powell's Hook, dismantled the enemy's works, and brought the men that composed the 
Garrison off prisoners. 

20. This morning a p^rty of ,200 men were despatched to Gothsenquea to effect the 
total destruction of that place and any other that they might, find, on^hat side of the Lake. 
At 12 o'clock a party of 600 men was despatched with Lieut Col. Dearbqrne on the south 
side of the Caiuga Lake to destroy all that remained of that Nation on that side. Col. 
V. Schoyk* was despatched with 150 men through the Indian country towards Fort 
Schuyler to forward the ibaggage of, Gen. Clinton's Brigade towards Albany. The army 
then marched to the ground they occupied on the 6th instant. 

21. Marched for i8 miles situate between the two encampments of the 4th and 5th 
instant, ■ ' 

22. Marched to, Catharine's Town and encamped on a tneadpw 3 miles beyond the 
towti on the bank of -the aforesaid Crooked Creek. Here we fpund the old Squaw before 
qj|n*ioned, 

23. Marched to Knawaholee, where they were met with provisions, &c. from Teaoga. 
Here Col. Shreeve had established a, post during the absence of the army for the con- 
venience of forwarding Corn, &c, to the Garrison. The Army now received their full 
allowance of iprovisions, they having cheerfully submitted, by giving three huzzas, on the 
30th of August to live upon half the usual allowance. The army now halted to refresh 
themselves, wash their Linen, and also to clean their arms, small parties every day fetch- 

* Probably refers to Col. Gansevoort. 



SERG'T MAJOR GEORGE GRANT. 113 

ing in Corn, &c, to send to the Garrison. Col Smith and his party joined the army at this 
post on the 25th instant, as did Col. Dearborne on the, 27th, having destroyed on the 
Caiuga, Houses, to the amount of 18, and a town situate on the border of the great 
Swamp called De Ho Riss Kanadia, containing 25 houses very elegantly built, likewise 
destroyed a great quantity of Corn, Beans, &c. 

I return to the 20th to follow Col. Butler, who left us at Kanadasago, and proceeded 
along the outlet of the Seneca Lake for 8 miles and halted at Schoyerre,* formerly 
destroyed by Col. Harper. 

21. Early this morning a party of 200 men under the command of Major Scott, was 
despatched to destroy Corn, &c, the remainder with Col. Butler proceeded on forward. 
Seven miles of the road was very bad, the land poor and barren and no water. They 
then entered on an excellent Swamp which produced fine Timber, the soil exceeding rich 
and fertile. This extended for 4 miles when they reached the Caiuga Lake. This they 
crossed at a place, wading it to their breasts in water, where they halted, waiting for 
Major Scott and his party. As soon as they had joined they proceeded along the Lake 
side, the land excellent, the Timber large, the country level and well watered. Came to 
a habitation within i mile of Caiuga town and encamped 18 miles from Schoyerre. 

22. Marched to Caiugaf i mile distant. This town is large and commodious, consist- 
ing of 50 houses mostly well built. The party went immediately to destroying corn, &c, 
with which this place abounds, but the water very bad and scarce. Here was found some 
salt of the Indians making from the Salt Springs^ which are in this country. Found sev- 
eral muskets here branded with the brand of the United States, also a few Regimental 
coats, blue, faced with white. 

23. The most part of the day taken up in destroying scattering towns, corn, &c within 
two and three miles all around this town. About 4 o'clock marched for another town dis- 
tant about 4 miles but could not learn any name for it and here halted for this night. 

24. This morning went to destroying corn, beans and Orchards. Destroyed about 
1500 Peach Trees, besides Apple Trees and other Fruit Trees. This town consisted of 
13 houses ; Then marched for 18 miles, the first 12 the land exceedingly good, the other 6 
not extraordinary. 

25. Marched for loj^ miles, the road mostly bad, having to ascend and descend 
extremely steep and dilEcult mountains, then through thick and difficult Swamps, passed 
the end of the Caiuga Lake and halted at the above distance at De Ho Riss Canadia 
which they found burnt and the corn partly destroyed. Here was found the Rev Dr. 
Kirkland's horse supposed to be left here by the party who destroyed the corn, &c. 

26. Marched for iS}4 miles through the Great Swamp. 

27. Marched for 17 miles, 15 of which was through the above swamp most part of 
the way they had to steer by the sun, there not being the least resemblance of either road 
or path. A man of this party died suddenly. 

28. Marched for one mile and crossed the outlet of the Caiuga Lake and came upon 
the ground occupied by the army on the night of the 31st of August, from thence to 
Knawaholee where they joined the main body of Gen. SjiUivan's army. 

2g. The whole of the army marched 2 miles beyond themung. 

* Skoi-yase.— G. S. C. 

+ Goi-o-gouen, of the Jesuit Relations, and site of the Mission of St. Joseph, called also Cayuga 
Ca.stle, and the same described as three towns by Thomas Graut under the names of Cayuga Cas- 
tle, fifteen houses ; upper Cayuga, containing fourteen houses ; and Cayuga, containing thirteen 
houses. The houses were very much scattered, and on both sides of Great Gully brook on the 
south line of the town of Springport in Cay.uga County. Greenhalgh, an English trader, passed 
through the Cayuga country in 1677, and found them then occupying "three towns about ^i*le 
distant from each other ; they are notfstockaded. They do consist in all of about one hundred 
houses and intend next Spring to buila all fcheir houses together and stockade them. They have 
abundance of corn, and lie within twoor three miles of lake Tichero." — J. S. C. 

t These salt springs were located on the opposite side of the river from Choharo, at foot of 
Cayuga lake. Luke Swetland, a prisoner in 1778, made salt at these springs, which he says was 
of excellent quality.— J. S. C. 

15 



114 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

30. Marched to Teaoga. The Garrison saluted the army by a discharge of 13 cannon, 
which was returned by the Park of Artillery. The army then proceeded to their respect- 
ive encampments. In the evening Col. Shreeve made as grand an entertainment as the 
circumstances of the place would admit to which the commander-in-chief and the rest of 
the General and Field officers were present. 

Oct. I, 2, and 3. Nothing material. 

4. The army marched within 4 miles of standing Stone Bottom. 

5. The whole of the army embarked on board the Boats except a few who rode the 
Pack Horses. 

7. Arrived at Wyoming and was saluted by the Garrison. 

8. The Commander-in-Chief was the first person on shore. A grand entertainment 
was ordered by Col. Butler, the Commander at this post, at which was present the Com- 
mander-in-chief, &c. 

10. This afternoon the army began their march to Easton, but on account of the bad- 
ness of the road they were obliged to encamp within 4 miles of Wyoming. 

11. Continued our march to the edge of the Great Swamp and encamped. 

12. Continued the march through the swamp the roads being extremely bad. The 
Tack Horses took a wroiig road, and the troops were obliged to lie without their tents or 
covering during a very stormy night, — Encamped at Chouder Camp. 

13. Marched to Brinker's Mills where the Pack Horses came up. 

14. Marched to Hilliards Tavern. 

15. To Easton. 

17. The whole army was mustered, and a Thanksgiving Sermon was preached by the 
Kev. Dr. Evans, Chaplain to Gen Poor's Brigade, at which was present the Commander- 
in-Chief and the whole of the Army at this post. 

27. Crossed Delaware and encamped opposite Easton. 



28 
29 
30 
3r 



Marched to Queensborough Oxford Meeting House. 

To the Log Goal. 

To Sussex Court House. 

To Wallen's Tavern. 
Nov. I. To Warwick. 
2. Parted with the Western Army. 



3. Marched to Sterling Iron Works and from thence to Pompton. 

4. To Moristown. 

5. To Springfield. 

6. To Scotch Plains and encamped. Remained there in tents for six weeks durir.g 
fhe most severe and cold weather. 

Dec 16. Marched for Chatham. 

17. To Eyre's Forge and encamped and began to build huts. 
25. Removed into our huts and ended the Campaign. 

Here ends the glorious and Noble Campaign, which gave honor to Sullivan, Clinton 
and Wayne, That they be always crowned with merit. To lead their men en with an 

undaunted Spirit. 

GEORGE GRANT Serg. Maj. 

to the 3d Regiment of N. Jersey. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 



John Leonard Hardenbergh was a native of Eoseudale, Ulster 
'County, N. Y., bom in 1718. In July 1776, his name appears as First 
Xieutenant in the Second New York Militia, which regiment was raised 
under a special call. November 21, 1776, he was commissioned First 
Lieutenant in the Second New York Continental Kegiment, Col. Eitze- 
ma, who was soon superceded by Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt. From 
the autumn of 1776 to the winter of 1780, Lieutenant Hardenbergh was 
identified with the Second New York, sharing its fortunes, and partici- 
pating in the important battles in which it was engaged, when the five 
New York regiments were consolidated into two, in which arrangement 
he fell into that class of officers who were retained in service but not 
-attached to any battalion.. But in July, 1782, he was made Captain of 
Levies under Lieut. Col. Weissenfels, in which capacity he continued 
for the remainder of the war. 

He was one of the surveyors of the Military Tract and his field 
books, neatly kept and carefully preserved, are now in the possession of 
the Cayuiia County Historical Society. Pie was the first settler and 
owner of a tract of land at what was called Hardenbergh's Corners, udw 
the flourishing city of Auburn, N. Y., having settled there in 1792. 
He died April 25, 1806. 

In 1879, the Cayuga County Historical Society published No. 1 of 
their Collections, comprising the journal of Lieut. Ilardeiiliergh, which 
was then in the possession of the family, in the hand writing of Lieut. 
Hardenbergh and undoubtedly an original made by him during the 
campaign of General Sullivan against the Indians. The notes of Con. 
John S. Clark are valualile, as they are the result of a laborious in\'esti- 
gation of some two years, during which time he was indefatigable in 
searching out every scrap of historical information relating to the Sulli- 
van expedition, and made a thorough inspection of the line of march of 
the army, tracing up and critically examining all the important Ltealities 
and Indian village sites. Being by profession a Civil Engineer and 
Surveyor, and having seen active service all through the late ci\'il war, 



116 > JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

none conld be more thoroughly competent for such a task than Gren. Clark, 
and it will be found that his notes are invaluable and his maps and 
description of the battle of Newtown and of the Grroveland ambuscade, 
are an important addition to the literature of the campaign and a valuable 
aid in arriving at a correct understanding, the conclusions reached being 
the result of a most patient examination of all accessible authorities and 
likely to stand the test of the most intelligent and critical scrutiny. 

JOURNAL. 

Saturday, May ye First. — Drew out of our Winter Quarters at Wawasink* and 
encamped in a field near Jacobus Brown's at that place. 

Sunday, May 2nd. — Laid still ia-camp. 

Monday 3d. — Drew provisions and prepared for a march. 

Tuesday, 4th. — Struck our tents. Loaded our baggage in order to proceed on our 
march for Weyoming, but being alarmed by an express that the savages were murdering 
the inhabitants at Fantine Kille,+ about five miles in our front, Coll. Cortlandt marched to 



* Wawarsing — An Indian word, said to signify " a black bird's nest," the name of a town and 
village in sbuth-west part of Ulster County, N. Y., containing a post village of same name, located 
on Rondout Creek on the line of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. The surface of the town is 
mostly m.ountainous uplands, intersected by deep valleys. The Shawangunk Mountains extend 
along the east border, and sjiurs of the Catskills occupy the central and west parts, the highest 
peaks being from 2,000 to'3,000 feet above tide. The eastern and north-western parts are rocky 
and precipitious, and unfit for cultivation. There was a stone fort in the village on the site of B. 
C. Hornbeck's house. On Aug. 13, 1T81, a large party of tories and Indians under one Caldwell, 
appeared in the town with a design of falling upon Napanock, but being Informed that the place 
vras defended by cannon they came to Wawarsing before the inhabitants were up in the morning. 
Two men and a young woman discovered the enemy before they reached the fort, and the young 
woman succeeded in closing the door just in time to prevent it from being burst open by the sava- 
ges. Finding further attack to be dangerous they dispersed and burned and plundered the out 
settlements, and next day withdrew laden with spoils. Several lives were lost on both sides and 
much property destroyed.— [The Indians — or Narratives of Massacres and Depredations on the 
frontiers of Wawarsink and Vicinity, p. 21. 

+ Fantine Kill, a settlement, on a stream of that name, about a mile from the present village of 
EUenville, in the town of "Wawarsing. Ulster County. The attack was made at day-break by a 
party of thirty or forty Indians under Brant, who came by the way of the Indian trail to Grahams- 
ville, and from thence through the woods to the settlement. Widow Isaac Bevier and two sons 
were killed, also the entire family of Michael Socks, consisting of the father, mother, two sons 
who were young men, two children, and one or two others. They attacked the house of Jesse 
Bevier, but the inmates being good marksmen and having plenty of ammunition succeeded in 
defending themselves until Col. VapCortlandt came to their relief. 

"As I was about marching from my encampment, having called in my guard, I discovered 
smokes rising from the village about six miles south, and a lad sent from its vicinity informed me 
that the Indians were there burning and destroying. It was occasioned by two of my men deser- 
ting in the mountains, when I received the order to return ; for they went to Brant and informed 
him that I was ordered away, and he expected that I was gone. * * * On my approach Brant 
ran off. He had about one hundred and fifty Indians, and as I approached him, he being on a hill, 
and seeing me leaning against a pine tree waiting for the closing up of my men, ordered a rifle 
Indian to kill me. but he overshot me, the ball passing three inches over my head." — [Col. Van- 
Cortlandt's manuscript statement, 1825. 

" General, while you were standing by a large tree during that battle, how near to your head did 
a bullet come, which struck a little above you ?" 

The General paused for a moment, and replied—" About two inches above my hat." 

Brant then related the circumstances. *' I had remarked your activity in the battle," said he, 
'* and calling one of my best marksmen, pointed you out and directed him to bring you down. He 
fired and I saw you dodge your hear! at the instant I supposed the ball would strike. But as you 
did not fall, I told my warrior that he had just misSed you, and lodged the ball in the tree." Con- 
versation between Brant and General Van Cortlandt— [Stone's life of Brant, II., 460,] incorrectly 
located at the battle of Newtown. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 117 

their assistance, but before we arrived at the place they were gone. At 4 in the afternoon 
returned to Wawasin^ and remained in houses.* 

Wednesday, 5th. — Remained in the Quarters of yesterday. 

Thursday, 6th. f— At 7 in the morning: loaded baggage, marched to Lurenkill^ and 
halted at Broadhead's§ for refreshment about two hours, and marched for Mamacotting,| 
where we arrived at 7 o'clock at night. 

Friday, 7th.— At 4 struck tents, marched at 5, halted at Bashesland^ for refreshment 
for about two hours, proceeded on our march. Crossed Denanasink** Creek at Dewitt'sff 
and arrived at Major Decker's, crossed the creek with wagons and encamped in the field 
near Decker's house. 

Saturday, May 8th. — Drew provisions ; marched at about 11 o'clock and encamped 
iit Haurnanack.:|:J 

Sunday, gth. — Discharged four wagons which we had taken from Wawasink ; loaded 
our provisions on board the canoes, sent them down the Delaware. At 8 o'clock in the 
morning began our march ; marched to Esquire Vancamp's ;§§ the weather very hot. we 
rested ourselves and marched for Decker's Ferry|||| on Delaware, where we arrived at sun- 
down and encamped. 

Monday, 10. — Laid still for refreshment and washing. 

Tuksday, nth — iStruck tents and marched at 7 in the morning ; got o/er the ferry, 
proceeded on our march ; rested for refreshments, at Smithfield at or near Depew's.^TT 
at 5 p. M. ; marched for Fort Penn where we arrived at dusk of the evening. 



* *' Col. Cantine commanding a regiment of militia arrived during the day. I then pursued but 
•could not overtake him, as he ran through a large swamp beyond the hill ; and Col. Cantine 
being also in pursuit, I returned, not having any prospect of overtaking him." [Col. Van Cort- 
Jandt's statement, 1825. 

+ " The second day after, pursued my march to Fort Fenn as ordered by the commander-in-chief 
■and there received General Sullivan's orders to make a road through the wilderness." [Col. Van 
Cortlandt's statement, 1S25. 

JThe present name of a stream flowilng south-easterly two miles south of EUenville. 

§ On the Lurenkil two miles south of EUenville. 

J Present Wuhtzboro in town of Mamacating on Sauthier's Map of 1779, said to have been named 
in honor of an Indian chief, is about fourteen miles south-west of Wawarsing. A block house was 
here occupied during the revolution. 

t West Brookville, formerly called Bashusville, near the southern line of town of Mamakatingin 
Sullivan Com ty. So called from a Squaw named Bashe, who lived on the bank of the creek. The 
first house built was of stone and used as a fort. 

** Mahackamack or Neversink River, the crossing appears to have been near Cuddebackville in 
the town of Deer Park. 

tt De Witt A brother of Mrs. James Clinton, the mother of DeAVitt Clinton ; where he is said to 
have been born, March 3, 1769, while Mrs. Clinton was on a visit with her brother. General James 
Clinton in 17G3 raised and commanded a corps of two hundred men, called the Guards of the 
Frontier. This position called Fort DeWitt was one of the posts occupied. Other accounts say he 
was born at the homestead of the Clinton family at Little Britain. 

Xt Now Port Jervis, formerly called Mohockamack Fork, at the junction of the Neversink and 
Delaware Rivers. The route taken appears to have been over the ''^ old mine road''' as it was 
-called, constructed by the early Dutch settlers of Esopus to reach a copper mine in Walpack 
Township, Warren Co., N. J. It follows the Mamakating Valley, the first north of the Shawangunk 
mountains, and continues in that of the Mahaokamack branch of the Delaware river, and pene- 
trates the Minnisinks east of that river. The mine was about three miles north-west from Nicholas 
Depew's house. 

§g John Adams, while attending Congress during its session at Philadelphia, as late as 1800, passed 
over this same '" Mine Road" as the most eligible route from Boston to that city. He was accus- 
xomed to lodge at Squire Van Campen's in the Jersey Mininsinks. 

[Ill Decker's Ferry at Flatbrookville, about thirteen miles from Fort Penn at Stroudsburg. 

"Hlf Samuel Depew's, in the town of Smithfield. Monroe Co., Pa., on the west side of the Delaware, 
three miles above the Water Gap, where he settled prior to 1730. He was one of the Walloons who 
came to New York about 1697. Rev, H. M. Muhlenberg, who lodged at his house in 1750. states he 
had been Justice of the Peace, was a prominent man in Smithfield, and at that time advanced in 
life. The river is fordable at the head of Depew's Island, a little above the bouse. The old home- 
stead is still in the Depew family ; Nicholas, one of Samuers sons, is well known in provincial 
history between 1750 and 1770. On the Pennsylvania side of the river on Depew's land, stood the 
Smithfield or old Sfiawne church, removed about 1854. 



118 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

May I2th and 13th. — Laid still at Fort Penn* on account of rainy weather. 

Friday. May 14th, 1779. — The weather clear, we received orders to march at i o'clock: 
in the afternoon. Struck tents, marched for Learn's ;f marched about five miles and 
encamped in the wood. 

Saturday, 15th. — About 7 in the morning .struck tents and marched to Learn's ; 
pitched camp, and proceeded with-a party to mend a road to Weyoming.:]: 

Sunday, i6th. — Our camp remained, and were joined by Coll. Spencer's g regiment » 
we continued maldng the road. At night seven men deserted fVom our regiment. || 

Monday, 17th. — Decamped from Learn's about 7 in the morning, and encamped at 
about 7 o'clock in the afternoon, just on the west side of a small creek called White Oak 
Run.^ 

Tuesday, i8th. — Our camp remained ; we continued working on the road ; I was- 
ordered to remain in camp with the guard. 

Wednesday, 19th. — Last night about 11 o'clock, an alarm happened by the firing of 
one of the sentinels, but soon found it to be false alarm.** The we ather being wet, we 
remained in camp all day. 



*Ft. Penn, at Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pa., built in 1763, on the site previously occupied by 
Ft. Hamilton, built in 1755. 

t Learn's log tavern, north-west of Stroudsburg, twenty-eight miles from Easton. The main, 
army encamped here June 19th, at camp called Pocono Point. This was the last house on the road 
between Easton and Wyoming. On the 3d of July, 1781, Mr. Learn was shot and scalped near his- 
house, as also was his son George. Another son, John, shot one of the Indians who was left on the- 
spot where he fell. The Indians carried off George Learn^s wife, and an infant four months old, 
but not wishing to be encumbered with the child, dashed out its brains. 

$ The 2d New York Regiment, Col. Van Courtlandt, and Col. Spencer's N. J. Regiment were- 
ordered to precede the army and construct a road over the mountains to Wyoming. They followed 
the well known Indian trails mainly, one of which led from Easton by way of the Wind Gap, 
directly north, along the high lands between the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, to New York 
State line near Oghquaga ; the other leaving Fort Penn at Stroudsburg, passed through the town- 
ships of Pocono, Tunkhanna, Tobyhanna, Buck, Bear Creek, to Wyoming. Much of this road is 
still in use and is known as the " old Sullivan road." At Easton Gen. Sullivan published the foUow-^ 
ing order : 

Head-Quarters, Eastox, May 31, 1779. 
+ * * The commander in-chief returns his most sincere thanks to Colonels Cortlandt and 
Spencer, and to the officers and soldiers under their command for their unparalleled exertions in- 
clearing and repairing the road to Wyoming. He cannot help promising himself success in an 
expedition, in which he is to be honored with the command of troops who give such pleasing evi- 
dence of their zeal for the service, and manifest so strong a desire to advance against the inhuman 
murderers of their friends and countrymen. ***** 

Order Book Lieu. Col. George C. Barber, of 3d N. J. Regt., 

Adjunt Gen''l of the Western Army. 
§ CoL. Oliver Spencer. Commanding the Independent regiment, 5th Continental of New Jersey. 
II General Sullivan reached Wyoming with the main body of the armj' June 23d ; the following ap- 
peared in orders on the SSth : 

He AD -Quarters, Wyoming, June 25, 1779. 
* * * At a general court martini held on the eighth instant, whereof Major Fish was presidents 
Oliver Arnold of the 3nd New York regiment, was tried foi- desertion, found guilty, and sentenced to- 
be shot to death ; the General Approves the sentence and orders it to be executed at the head of the 
legiment to-morrow afternoon at six o'clock. Edward Tyler, of the same regiment tried by the same 
court for desertion, found guilty and sentenced to run the guantelope through Cortlardt's. Spencer's 
and Cilley's regiment, with a, centinel at his breast to regulnte his pace ; the General approves the sen- 
tence and orders it executed to-morrow afternoon at five o'clock. John Stevensof the pame regiment, 
tried for desertion, found guilty and sentenced to receive one hundred lashes ; the General approves 
the sentence and orders it executed at the head of the regiment, to-morrow afternoon at six o'clock. 

s):************* 

Order Book Lieu.-Col. George C Barber, 
Adjutant Gen'l of the Western Army. 

t Near the west line of Pocono Township, also called Rum bridge. 

♦*Therewere three paths leading eastward from Wyominfi ; the southern, called the "warriors 
path," by way of Fort Allen and along the Lehigh to the Delaware at Easton ; the northern, by way 
of the Lackawana at Capouse Meadows, through Cobb's Gap and the Lackawaxen. to the Delaware 
and Hudson ; the middle one, along which this military road was cnnelriicted, led through the Wind 
Gap to Easton, The raaeeacre of Wyoming in 1778 had filled the forests along this central trail with 
hundreds of helpless fngitives ; some estimate the number about two thousand, mostly women and 
children ; many sunk under the tomahawk, otihers died of excitement, fatigne, hunger and exposure ; 



LIEUT. JOHN L HARDENBERGH. 119 

Thursday, 20th.' — Rainy weather with some thunder ; we remained in camp, 

Friday, 21st. — Foggy, rainy weather with thunder and Ughtning ; remained in camp. 
This day Ensign Swartwout "* arrived in camp from the State of New York, brought news 
that the Indians were lurking about Rochester and Wawasink ; and inhabitants chiefly 
moved off their families. 

Saturday, 22nd. — The weather continued rainy. Remained in camp. At sunset the 
weather cleared off. 

Sunday, 23d. — The morning fair and clear. Received orders to march. At 8 o'clock 
the General beat ; struck tents, proceeded on our march till over a creek in the Great 
Swamp f called Tackhanack, the road very bad, the baggage could not come up ; went 
back and mended the road and encamped where the baggage was. In the evening, Ser- 
geant Jonas Brown X with five men, was sent off to Weyoming with letters from General 
Sullivan to Gen. Hand.g 



many were lost and peri&hed in the woods, while hundreds were never seen or heard of after their pre 
cipitate flight. At this time small parties of Indians still hovered around Wyoming. Tbey watched 
the passes, and occasionally exhibited extraordinary instances of ccirage and audacity. Major Pow- 
ell, with two hundred men of a regiment that had suffered severely at the battle of Germantown, hav- 
ing been ordered to Wyoming, arrived at Bear Creek about ten miles from that point, on the 19th of 
April. Deeming themselves out of danger from a surprise by the Indians, officers and men arrayed 
themselves in their best apparel, burnished their arms and put everything in shape for a respectable 
appearance on entering the Viilley. According to the fashion of the day the officers donned their ruf- 
fles, powdered their hair, and with enlivening strains of music, advanced toward their destination. 
The advance guard reported having seen some deer, and Captain Davis, Lieutenant Jones and others, 
started in pursuit ; near the summit of the second mountain by the Laurel Rnn, and about four miles 
from the fort, a fire was opened upon them by the Indians in ambush. Davis, Jones, Corporal Butler 
and three soldiers were killed and scalped. Chaplain Rogers says: "Scalped, tomahawked and 
" speared by the savages, fifteen or twenty in number ; two boards are fixed at the spot where Davis 
'* and Jones fell, with theirnames o^ each. Jones's being besmeared with his own blood. In pat^^ing 
'* this melancholy vale, an unusual gloom appeared on the countenances of both officers and men with- 
*' OQt distinction, and from the eyep of many as by a sudden impulse, drops the sympathizing tear. 
** Colonel Proctor, out of respect to the deceased, ordered the music to play the tune of Roplin Castle, 
*' the soft and moving notes of which, together with what so forcibly strncb the eye, tended greatly to 
*'fill our breasts with pity, and to renew our grief for our worthy departed friends and brethren." 
The bodies of the two officers were exhumed a few weeks after this and re-interred at Wilkesbarre, 
with military and masonic honors by the officers of Sullivan's army. 
* Barnardus Swartwout. an Ensign in fii'st company of Col. Van Corthindt's regiment. 
•I- "Monday June 21, 1779.— This day we marched through the Great Swamp, and Bear Swamp. The 
Great Swamp, which is eleven or twelve miles through, contains what is called on our maps ' shades of 
death,' by reason of its darkness ; both swamps contain trees of amazing height, viz., hemlock, birch, 
pine, sugar maple, ash, locust, etc. The roads in some places are tolenible, but in other places exceed- 
ing bad. by reason of which, and a long though necessary march, thiee of our wagons and the car- 
riages of two field pieces were broken down. This day we proceeded twenty miles and encamped late 
in the evening at a ppot which the commander name 1 Camp Fatigue. The troops were tired and hun- 
gry. The road through the Swamps is entirely new, being fitted for the passage of our wagons by 
Colonels Cortiandt and Spencer at the instance of tlie commander-in-chief ; the way to Wyoming be- 
ing before only a blind, narrow path. The new road does its projectors great credit and must in a future 
day be of essential service to the inhabitants of Wyoming and Easton. In the Great Swamp is Locust 
Hill, where we descovered evident marks of a destroyed Indian vil'age. Tobyhanna and Middle 
creeks empty into the Tunkhanunk ; the Tunkhanunk empties into the head branch of the Lehigh, 
which !it Easton. empties into the Delaware. The Moosick mountain, through a gap of which we 
passed in the Great Swamp, is the dividing ridge which separates the Delaware from the Susque- 
hanna," — [Rev William Rogers' Journal. 

t Sergeant Jonas Brown of Captain Charges Graham's Co., Second New York returned as dead 
by Lieut. Conolly, in 1785, drew lot twenty-three, of the military tract in Homer, containing six hun- 
dred acres. 

§ Bkigadikr General Edward Hand, the youngest Brigadier of the expedition. Bnrn in Ireland 
the last day of 1744, was an ensign in the British army, served two years with his regiment in Amer- 
ica, then resigned and settled in Peunsyivani^',. At the beginning of the Revolution he entered the 
continental service as Lieutenant-Colonel, was made Colonel of a rifle corps in 1776, was in the battles 
of Long Island and Trenton, and in the summer of 1777 was in command at Pittsburg. Washington 
placed great confidence in his judgment and consulted him freely as to tlie feiisibilily of this cam- 
paign. In 1780 he succeeded Scammel as Adjutant General of the army and held the position until the 
close of the war. He was a lover of fine horses and an excellent horseman. He died in Lancaster, 
Pa., Sept. 3, 1803. 



120 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Monday, 24th. — About g o'clock in the morning struck camp, marched across the 
Tackhanack * and encamped on a hight, about half a mile from the creek, but continued 
making the road which was very bad about that place. 

Tuesday, 25th. — Left our camp standing, and continued making the road ; built a 
bridge and causeway at Tobehanna f' of one hundred and fifteen paces in length. The 
cre^k is considerable large and abounds with trout. | Som e good land along the creek ; 
the road very diflftcult to make. 

Wednesday, 26th. — Laid still in camp on purpose to refresh the men, and washing. 
Sergeant Brown returned from Weyoming. 

Thursday, 27th.— Went out to work. 

Friday, 28th. — Finished the bridge across the Tobehannah and returned to camp. 

Saturday, 29th. — John Curry and Michael Sellers were tried at the drum-head, for 
stealing rum from the commissary, § found guilty, and sentenced to receive, Curry seventy- 
five lashes, and Sellers fifty, which was directly put in execution. Our camp remained ; 
we continued work on the road. After we returned from fatigue. Gen. Sullivan and Col- 
Hoopes I arrived in our camp. 

Sunday, 30th. — In the morning Gen. Sullivan and Col. Hoops returned to Easton. 
At 7 o'clock in the morning struck tents, the regiment marched to Locust Hill and en- 
camped there ;*[] myself was ordered to remain with the Commissary stores which could 
not move with the baggage for want of teams. 

Monday, 31st. — The Coll. sent the wagons back to fetch the stores. We loaded them 
on the wagons and proceeded to Camp and arrived there at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 
The troops worked on the road. 

Tuesday, June ist. — Worked on the road. The Camp remained on Locust Hill. 

Wednesday, JuNE2d. — Lt. Weissenfels** of our regiment was sent toWeyomingas 
an escort to guard a number of pack horses. The troops continued working the road. I 
was ordered on court martial, of \Yhich Captain Graham was President. 

Thursday, June 3d. — The troops did not work for want of provision. 

Friday, June 4th. — The camp remained on Locust Hill. Captain Graham, myself, 
and two other officers were ordered to inspect pork which was chiefly Condemned on 



* TuNKHANNA, froiH Tunkhanue, i. c, the small stream, is a tributary of the Tobyhaniia, which it 
«ntere at the west corner of Tunkhanna township. The smallest of two confluents or sources of a 
river is always called Tankhanne by the Delawares. 

t ToBYHANNA, Corrupted from Topi-hanne, siguifying alder stream, i. e , a stream whose banks are 
friuged with alders, is a tribatary of the Lehigh, which it enters from the south-east, at Stoddartsville, 

4 The camp of the two regiments on White Oak Run, or Rum Bridge as called in some journals, was 
the same place where the main army encamped June 19th. and " called Chowder Camp from the com- 
mander-in-chief dining this day on chowder made of trout." 

§ " One quart of whipkey to be issued this evening to each officer and a half pint to each non-com- 
missioned oflicer and soldier on the detachment command by General Poor. * • ♦ * 
The officers are to see respectively that water be immediately mixed with the soldier's whiskey.''' 
General orders, Aug. 1.5, at Tioga. 

Ij Major Adam Hoops, third A. D. C. to General Sullivan. He was in the army throughout the Rev- 
olution, and at one period belonged to the staff of Washington. He was connected with the earliest 
surveys of Western New York. In 1804, he in company wirh Ebenezer F. Norton, purchased most of 
the township Olean and laid out the Tillage of Hamilton, the original name of the present village of 
Olean. He was a bachelor and died in Westchester, Pa. 

1 Dr. Jabez Camppield of Col. Spencer's Regiment, joined his regiment while they were in camp 
at Tunkhanna on the 26th of May, where he says they continued until the 30th, " when we mtirched 
to Locust Hill. All this way the land very indifferent and rough, the timber mostly pitch pine 
and hemlock, some white pine, also birch, mirtle, and some beach, elm and spruce. This hill ia 
covered with small locust trees. While the detachment remained at Locust Hill, the First New 
Hampshire Regiment joined us, but at the same time a detachment under Colonel Smith were sent 
to Wyoming so that we gained very little by the Hampshire men coming up. " 

William Barton's .Journal under date of June 11th says ; • * * " Locust Hill so called, on 
account of being entirely timbered with it for twenty-three miles. We all proceeded on our 
journey again until we fell in with a detachment composed of several regiments which had been 
cutting a road through from Learn's to Wyoming, as there never was any before only an old Indian 
path." 

** Lieutenant Charles F. WEisBNPeLS of 3d company, 2nd regiment, served during the war. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 121 

account of its being Spoiled.* On the 3d of June, John Ten Eyck, soldier in Captain 
French's company of light infantry was drowned in the Lehi by accident. 

Saturday, 5th.— The regiment was ordered on fatigue with three days provisions, that 
night lay out in the woods. 

Sunday 6th.— I was relieved by Lt. Fairlief and went to Camp, this day we worked 
through the great Swamp. 

Monday, 7th June.— At about 8 in the morning decamped from Locust Hill, crossed 
the Lehi and encamped on the side of a Swamp ciUed the Shades of Death, t about six 
miles from Locust Hill. 

Tuesday, 8th June. — About 2 o'clock in t , . afternoon, struck our tents, marched 
through the Shades of Death, and encamped c^. night about on" mile from the Shades. 

Wednesday, Qth. — The Camp remained. 

Thursday loth.— The Camp remained. The troops workc on the road. 

Friday, 'nth. —The regiment decamped and marched within seven miles from Weyo- 
xning. Capt. Wright and I remained behind to guard the Commissary Stores. 

Saturday, 12th.— The guard and Commissary Stores came up to Camp. 

Sunday, r3th. — Laid still. 

Monday, 14th.— At six o'clock the General beat, struck tents and marched to Weyo- 
ming § and arrived there at about 12, and pitched Camp. 

June 15th and i6th. — Laid still. 



* On the 31st o? July, General Sullivan writes to Congress from Easton, after complaining of the 
<lelays of the quarter-master and commissary departments in forwarding supplies, he speaks as 
follows in regard to the quality : * * * " My duty to the public, and regard to my own reputa- 
tion, compel me to state the reasons why this army has been so long delayed here, without advanc- 
ing into the enemy's country. ♦ ♦ * The inspector is now on the ground, by order of the Board, 
of War, inspecting the provisions ; and his regard to the truth must oblige him on his return to 
report that, of the salted meat on hand, there is not a single pound fit to be eaten, even at this 
day, though every measure has been taken to preserve it that possibly could be devised." * * * 
About one hundred and fifty cattle sent to Sunbury were left there, being too poor to walk, and 
many of them unable to stand." 

+ LiKDT. James Fairlie, of Capt. Fowler's company, 2nd regiment, after the consolidation of the 
five New York regiments in 1780. He drew military lots Nos. seventy-three Cato, and sixty-flve 
Brutus. 

X Shades of Death, supposed by many to have derived the name from the sufferings of those 
who escaped from the massacre of Wyoming, but this is evidently an error, as the name was 
attached to the locality and appeared on the maps, long previous to 1778. 

§ Wtoming. 

" On Susquehanna'' s side, fair Wyoming .' 
Delightful Wyoming ! "—Campbell. 

The Delaware name given to a valley on the Susquehanna river, of three to four roilea in width, by 
about sixteen in length, extending from the mountain range nbove the Lackawana where the river 
wendH its way through a gorge a thousand feet deep, south-wepterly to where the river again finds its 
way through a range equally lofty and precipitous. This was the Schahentoa or Schahen-dowane of 
the Iroquois, signifying great plains^ us does also the Delaware name of Wyoming. From its earliest 
known history, this valley has been ii favorite place of Indian residence, and was the probable seat of 
an Iroquois tribe, called Schahentoar-ronons by Brebeuf in 1635, whom he describes as allies of the 
Hurons, and speaking their language. In 1614, three Dutchmen in the employ oT the Directors of New 
Netherland, accompanied a party of Mahican Indians from near Fort Orange, in a war expedition 
against the Caranlouannaie, a powerful Iroquois tribe, whose main village containing more than eight 
hundred warriors, was located on the Bo-called " Spanish Hill " near Waverly, N. Y. These Dutchmen 
were captured by the Carantouannais, and were the first white men these Indians had ever seen ; 
believing them to be French, who were allies of their friends the Hurons, they treated them kindly, 
and conducted them down the Susquehanna to this point, and thence by way of the Lehigh river to the 
Delaware, where they were ransomed by Capt. Hendrjcksen, " giving; for them kittles, beads and mer- 
chandise." In the map made by the Captain from information furnished by these Dutchmen, he indi- 
■cated four towns on the west aide of the river, at this point, and designated the tribe as Minquas, this 
being the general name applied by the Dutch to all the Iroquois tribes south of the Five Nations, and 
west of New Ketherland, several of which are known to have been In existence at that early date, but 
■which appear to have been entirely overlooked by the echolarslof the country. 



16 



122 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Thursday, 17th. — Moved the camp about four miles up the River, to a placed called 
Jacob's Plains.* 

i8th and 19th.— Laid still. 

Sunday, June 20th. — I was ordered to go down the River Sisquehannah with a party 
in boats under the commund of Captain Graham. Left Weyoming about 7 o'clock ia 
the morning and arrived with the boats at Fort Jenkins f at sunset and stayed that night. 

Monday, 21st. — Left Fort Jenkins in the morning, proceeded down the River and 
arrived at Northumberland town,t dined there, &nd proceeded to Sunbury and arrived 
there at 7 o'clock at night. 

Tuesday, 22d.— Laid still at Sunbury and loaded the Boats with flour and beef. 

Wednesday, 23d.— At 9 o'clock in the morning left Sunbury, proceeded up the River 
about eight miles. 

Thursday, 24th.— Proceeded up the River till night and lodged on board the boat.. 
In the night lost my hat. 

Friday, 25th. — Proceeded up the River as far as Fort Jenkins and lodged there. § 

Saturday, 26th. — Left Fort Jenkins and arrived at the falls.] Got half the boats up. 
the falls, which were drawn up by ropes. 

Sunday, 27th. — Got up the rest of the boats, and proceeded up the River and halted 
along shore over night. Coll. Ogden's regiment from Jersey was sent down as a guard 
to us from Weyoming. 

Monday, 28th — At Revelle beat proceeded up the River to the upper falls. Got all 
the boats up, (one of which overset in going up) and arrived at Shawny flats about 4 miles 
from Weyoming. 

Tuesday, 2gth— Left Shawny flats in the morning and arrived at Weyoming IT about 7 
o clock in the morning, unloaded the boats and went up to camp in the afternoon tck 
Jacob's Plains. 

Wednesday, 30th June. — The regiment was mustered in camp at Jacob's Plains. 

* Jacob's Plains — A. plateau on the east side of the river, above present Wilkesbarre in the town of 
Plains. Abraham's Plains' are on the west side of the river. ■■ June 17.— Decamped at 10 o'clock 
The three regiments marched up to Jacob's Plains, encamped near the bank of the river on tlie east 
shore, about four miles above the g.irrisoa."— Nathaniel Webb's Journal, 

t Fort Jenkins,— Near Centreville, Columbia County, half way between Wygraing and Sunbury. 
built in 1777. There was another Port Jenkins on the west side of the river a mile above Fort Wm- 
termoot, built in 1776 under the supervision of the Jenkins and Harding families. This was captured 
and destroyed in 1778 in the Wyoming massacre. 

X NoRTHUMBBRLAND,— At the Junction of the west, and main branches of the Susquehanna, above 
Sunbury, sixty-flvo miles from Wiikeebarre, 

§ During the absence of Lieut. Hardenbergh down the river a party visited the battle-ground. " The 
place where the battle was fought may with propriety be called ' a place of skulls,' as the bodies of the 
slam were not buried, their oones were scattered in every direction all around ; a great number of 
which for a few days past having been picked up, were decently interred by our people. We passed a 
grave where seventy-five skeletons were buried ; al^o a spot where fourteen wretched creatures, who, 
having surrendered upon being promised mercy, were nevertheless made immediately to sit down in a 
ring, and after the savages had worlied themselves up to the extreme of fury iu their usual manner, by 
dancing, singing, halloaing, &c , they proceeded deliberately to tomahawk the poor fellows one after 
Enolher. Fifteen surrendered and composed the ring ; upon the Indians beginning their worls of 
cruelty, one of them providentially escaped, who reported the matter to Col. Butler, who upon his 
return to Wyoming, wtmt to the spot and found the bones of the fourteen lying as human bo ies in an 
exact circle. "—Keu. Win. Rogers' Journal. 

II Nescopeo Falls— at present Nescopec in ounty of Luzerne. 

''^ '' Wyoming is situated on the east side of the east branch of the Susquehanna, the town consist- 
ing of about seventy houses, chiefly log buildings ; besides these buildings there ai-e sundry largei^ 
ones which were erected by the army for the purpose of receiving stores, &c.. a large bake and 
smoke houses. There is likewise a small fort erected in the town, with a strong abbata around it, 
and a small redoubt to shelter the inhabitants in case of an alarm. This fort is garrisoned by 100 
men, draughted from the western army, and put under the command of Col. Z^bulon Butler. I 
cannot omit taking notice of the poor inhabitants of the town ; two thirds of them are widows 
and orphans, who, by the vile hands of the savagt^s, have not only deprived them of tender hus- 
bands, some indulgent parents, and others of affectionate friends and acquaintances, besides 
robbed and plundered of all their furniture and clothing In short, they are left totally dependent 
on the public, and are become absolute objects of charity."— if t*6Zey's Jownal. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 123 

While I was out on my voyage down the river, Gen Sullivan arrived at Weyoming with 
troops to be employed on the expedition.* 

Thursday, Juiy i. — Laid still. 

Friday, July 2d ; Saturday, July 3d. ^Remained at Jacob's Plains. 

Sunday, July ye 4th. — Decamped from Jacob's Plains, crossed the river Sisquehan- 
nah and encamped on the west side the River, near forty fort f on a fine plain called Abra- 
ham's Plains. 

Monday, 5th July.— Went out on a scouting party in order to hunt. Went up the 
River as far as Laghawanny Creek and returned at sunset. Met with no success. 

During our stay at Weyoming we had nothing to do but to keep guard, and disciplin- 
ing our troops ; only a few that were employed in boating to carry provisions t up the 
River from Sunbury to Weyoming, 

(From July 5th to July 31st no entry was made in the Journal). 

Saturday, the 31ST of July.— About 3 o'clock in the afternoon we left Weyoming 
on our expedition. Our baggage being carried on pack horses, the provisions and artillery 
in boats, we marched as far as Lackawannick.g ten miles from Weyoming, and encamped.| 

Sunday, Aug. First. — At i o'clock in the afternoon struck our tents and marchpd 7 
miles to a place called Quialutiraack.lT The road was very difficult, the baggage did not 
arrive till towards day. 

Monday, August ye 2d. — Laid still at Quialutimack. 

Tuesday, Aug. 3d.— At 7 o'clock in the morning struck our camp, loaded our bag- 
gage, proceeded on our march and encamped at night in the wood. 

Wednesday, Aug. 4th. — At 7 o'clock in the morning the General beat, struck our 



* The army when concentrated at Wyoming was organized as follows : 

New Jersey Brigade, Brig. Gen'l William Maxwell com'd. 

1st N. J., Col. Matthias Ogden. 

2d, " " Israel Shreve. 

8d, " " Elias Dayton. 

6th, " '■ Ohver Spencer's Independent Regiment, also fragments of Forsraan's and Shel- 
don's regiments merged into Spencer's. 

New Hampshire Brigade— Brig. Gen'l Enoch Poor, com'd. 

1st N. H., Col. Joseph Cilley. 

2d " Lieut. Col. George Reid. 

3d " " " Henry Dearborn. 

2d N. Y., Col. Philip Van Cortlandt. 

Brigade of Light Troops, Gen'l Edward Hand, com'd. 

11th Pa., Lient. Col. Adam Hubley. 

German Regiment, Maj. Daniel Burkhardt. 

Independent Wyoming Company. Capt. Simon Spalding 

Wyoming Militia, Capt. John Franklin. 

Schotf s Rifle Corps, under Capt. Selin. 

+ Forty Fort— On the right bank of the Susquehanna between Pittston and Wilkesbarre, built 
in 1770 by the company of emigrants from Connecticut, forty in number. , 

X Gen. Hand, and other olTticers were engaged for six weeks in collecting supplies, which General 
Sullivan expected would be in Wyoming on his arrival. Four hundred and fifty boatmen were 
enlisted and large parties of soldiers were detailed for this sezwice. 

§ Lackawanna ErvER, flowing into the Susquehanna from the north-east, called by the Delawares, 
Lechau-Hanneck, signifying the forks of a river or stream, and by the Iroquois Hazirok ; an 
Indian town called Adjouquay existed at an early date on the east side, on present site of Pittston. 

I] Falling Springs.— A short distance above Campbell's ledge, a beautiful cascade comes rushing 
down from the mountain called Falling Springs. It proceeds from several never-failing springs 
on the summit. Hubley says, "to attempt a description of it would be almost presumption. Let this 
short account thereof Buffice. The first or upper full thereof is nearly ninety feet perpendicular pour- 
ing from a solid rock, ushering forth a most beautiful echo, and is received by a cleft of rocks, con. 
siderably more projected than the former, from whence it rolls gradually aud falls into the Susque- 
hannji," 

tCiUAiLUTorACK Seven miles from Lackawanna, signifying " loe came wnoN-(n'e.s ifpon f/ieni " A 
place between the steep mountain and the river said to have been the place of an Indian battle. The 
camp was on a " spot of ground situaled on the river open and clear, containing about twelve hundred 
acres, soil very rich, timber fine, grass in abundance, and contains several springs."— ifiibit'i/'s Jour- 
nal. 



124 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

tents, proceeded on our march and encamped at night at Venderlips * Plantation. This 
day's march was very fatiguing. Our regiment was on the Rear Guard, the road very 
mountainous and difficult. We had the care of all the pack horses and cattle, which was 
very troublesome. * 

Thursday, Aug. Sth.^About lo o'clock decamped, proceeded on our march and 
arrived at Wyalusingf and encamped there. 

Friday, Aug. 6th.— Laid still at Wyalusing for refreshment. 

Saturday, Aug. 7th— Laid still on account of rainy weather. 

Sunday, August 8th.| — At 6 o'clock in the morning struck camp, moved from Wya- 
lusing and encamped at evening at a place called Standing Stone. § 

Monday, Aug. gth. — At six o'clock in the morning struck our tents, proceeded on our 
march and arrived at Sheshehung flats || and encamped there. 

Tuesday, Aug. loth.— Laid still at the Flats. 

Wednesday. Aug. nth. — At 6 o'clock in the morning struck tent, marched at 7 o'clock 
for Tyuga.iy Our regiment and the 2d New Jersey regiment was ordered to cross the 

* Van DER LipPE'S).— Now Black Walnut in the town of Meshoppen, Wyoming County. So called 
from a Tory of that name, who was the first settler, above the Lackawanna, who previous to this time 
had abandoned the valley, and afterward died in Canada. During this day's march the army passed 
over Indian Hill, where Col, Hartley had a battle with the Indians the previous year. 

+ Wyalusing. 4t present Wyalusing in Bradford Countj'.—" Passing up the river we came to a 
place called by the Indiana, Gohontoto. Here they tell ue was in early timesjan Indian town, traces of 
which are still noticeable, e. g., corn pits, &c., inhabited by a distinct nation (neither Aquinoschioni* 
i e., Iroquois, nor Delawures) who spoke a peculiar language and were called Tehotitachsab ; against 
these the Five Nations warred, and rooted them out. The Cayugas for a time held a number of them, 
but the nation and their language are now exterminated and extinct. This war, said the Indian, fell in 
the time when the Indians fought in battle with boivs and arrows before they had guns and rifles.''— 
Cammerhoff's Journal^ 1750. This was also the seat of the Moravian mission of Friedenshutten. ea- 
tabliehed in 1765, abandoned in 177;J This w^s about a mile helow Wyalusiui; Creek, on the farms 
now occupied by G. H. Wells and J. B. Stafford. Rogers devotee several pages to a description of this 
town. — The Indian town site was above Wyalusing. 

f Newttchanning.— This day Col. Proctor destroyed the first Indian town, named Newtychanning. 
containing about twenty houses, located on the west side of the Susquehanna, on the north side of 
Sugar Creek near North Towanda. Sullivan says it contained twenty-two houses; Canfield, that it 
was built the preceding year and contained from fifteen to twenty houses. This was near the siie of 
Oscalui, of a previous date, and the same site called Ogehage. on Captain Hendricksen'a map of 1616, 
and was then one of the towns of the Carantouannais, an Iroquois tribe destroyed or driven out by the 
Five Nations previous to 1650. 

§ Standing Stone. — A large and long rock, on the we!>t side of the river, said to have been detached 
from its bed on the mountain and taking a downward course, displacing all obstacles, took a final leap 
from the top of the precipice, and landed in a vertical position in the water near the shore, and re- 
mains a standing stotie. The main army encamped directly opposite this, on Standing Stone flats ; 
Hand's Brigade on Wysoi creek, three miles above. 

II Sheshbquin Flats.— On site of present Sheshequin in Bradford County, on the opposite side of 
the river on site of present Ulster, was the Indian village of Sheshequin, six miles below Tioga. 
Cash's creek divided the town into two parts, th-j north side being heathen, those on the south Mora- 
vian Christians. About 1772 the latter removed six miles north and founded a new town, afterward 
known as Queen Esther's Town. Sheshequin was destroyed by Col. Hartley in 1778. 

t Tioga, the name given by the Iroquois to the wedge of land lying between the Chemung river 
and north branch of the Susquehanna ; from Teyaogen, an interval, or anything between two 
other things. [Bruyas, Agniers Racines]. Teiohogen, the forks of a river (Gallatin's vocabulary 
387). This has from time immemorial been one of the most important strategical points of the 
country of the Five Nations. Zeisberger passed through here in 1750 and says that " at Tioga or 
the gate, Six Nations Indians were stationed for the purpose of ascertaining the character of all 
persons who crossed over into their country, and that whoever entered their territory by any other 
way than through the gate, or by way of the Mohawk, was suspected by them of evil purpose and 
treated as a spy or enemy." An Indian town of Tioga near the point, destroyed by Col Hartley 
in 1778. 

The earliest known account of the placie is found in Champlain, who sent out one of his inter- 
preters, named Stephen Brule, in 1615, to arrange with the Carantouannias for a force of five hun- 
dred warriors, to co-operate with him in an attack on the Onondaga stronghold, then located in 
the town of Fenner, Madison Co,, N. Y. Brule with a small party of Hurons passed through the 
country of the Five Nations, to the great town of Carantouan, containing more than eight hundred 
warriors, then located on the so-called Spanish Hill near Waverly. Brul6 returned to Carantouan 
after the expedition, and the next year, 1616, went down the Susquehanna to the sea " where he 
found many nations that are powerful and warlike." 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 125 

River at our encampment and proceed up the River on the opposite side, to take posses- 
sion of the ground at Tyuga to cover the fording^ place for the army and horses to cross 
the River, arrived at Tyuga about ii o'clock in the morning,* At night Gen, Sullivan 
sent off a small scout f to discover Shemung ^ (of one Captain and seven men,) which lay 
about twelve miles up the Tiyuga branch. 

Aug. 12. — The scout returned with news that the enemy seemed to be in great confu- 
sion and seemed to be moving off. The Gen'l left a guard at Tiyuga sufficient to guard 
the camp and marched with the rest of the army under cover of the night for Shemung, 
marched all night, the weather very dark, and nothing but an Indian path through the 
wood made it difficult. § 

Friday, Aug. 13th. — About six o'clock in the morning we arrived at Shemung and 
found the enemy had left the town. On our approach we burnt the town, destroyed the 
corn, &c., and returned to Tiyuga. A small party of the Indians who had concealed 
themselves in the wood, fired on a small party of Gen'U Hand's Brigade, killed six men 
and wounded two without loss on their side.| A party of Gen'l Poor's Brigade, was des- 
troying corn, were fired upon by the enemy, killed one and wounded one. 

Saturday, Aug. 14th. — Laid at Tiyuga waiting for the arival of Gen'l Clinton's 
Brigade, who came down the Susquehanna from the Mohawk River. A large detachment 
from the army was ordered up to join him.^ The remainder of the army were employed 



* Break-Neck Hill.— The army passed this day Break-Neck Hill, nearly opposite North Towanda, 
" This mountain derives its name from the great height of the difficult and narrow passage not 
more than a foot wide, and remarkable precipice which is immediately perpendicular, and not less 
than one hundred and eighty feet deep. One mis-step must inevitably carry you from top to 
bottom without the least hope or chance of recovery."— ifwftiej/'s Journal. 

" This day marched on the side of a mountain about three hundred feet from the bottom in a 
narrow path where if we were to step one foot to our left we would be gone, and on our right the 
mountain was about four hundred feet high. N. B.— Three cows fell down and broke every bone 
in their bodies." — S/iufe's Journal. 

tCiPT. CuMMiNGS of the 3d N. J., Lieut. Jenkins, Capt. Franklin and five others. 
■ -* t Chemunq— An Indian town of fifty or sixty houses, occupied in 1779, located on the left bank of 
the Chemung river, three miles above the present village of Chemung, in Chemung County, 
destroyed by Gen. Sullivan Aug. 13th, 1779. 

Old Chemung.— An Indian town partially abandoned in 1779, located on the left bank of the Che- 
mung river, half a mile above the present village of Chemung, in Chemung County. A few houses 
burned Aug. 13th, 1779. 

§ This night's march was very tedious. The path followed the north bank of the Chemung pass- 
ing the first narrows, near present Waverly, and the second along the steep hill-sides and precipi- 
ces west of present Chemung. At these points there was scarcely room for two to walk abreast, 
and a single mis-step would insure a landing on the rocks a hundred feet below. It was daylight 
when the troops reached second narrows, but a denS3 fog prevailed, under the cover of which 
they advanced, and found the town abandoned. 

II Chemung Ambuscade.— On the failure to eurprise the Indiana in their village, General Hand pnr- 
susd them up the river. About a mile above New Chemung, the trail paaeed .obliquely over a hil 
known locally as the Hog Back, near the present residence of Doctor Evsrett, about two and a half 
miles below the monument on Sullivan Hill. Col. Hubley's regiment was in front, with Capt. Bush's 
company of forty men on the right acting aa flankers, with ihe two Independent Companies in the rear 
The head of the column appears to have been somewhat in advance of the flankers and when near the 
summit of the hill, received a fire from the enemy in ambush, at short range. Six were killed and nine 
wounded, among the latter Capt. Franklin, Capt. Carbury and Adjutant Houston, all of Col, Hubley'a 
regiment. The enemy at once retreated to the thicket north of the hill. 

IT The foUowiQg extract from the Journal of Major Norris, describes the march of this detachment up 
the north side of the Susquehanna from Tioga to Union, in the town of Union, Broome County, where 
they met General Clinton's brigade. For the march of Clinton down the Susquehanna see Beatty's 
Journal : 

"Aug. 15th.— Nine Hundred chosen men under the Command of Brig. Gen'l Poor are ordered to 
march Tomorrow morning up the Susquehanna, to meet Gen'l Clinton, who is on his march to join 
Sullivan's Army with his Brigade and le in some Danger of being Atacktd by the Enemy before he can 
form a Junction with our Main Army ; This afternoon a Small Party of Indian's fired on some of our 
Men who were without the Guards after some Horse's, and Cattle, Killd and Sculped one man and 
Wounded another, a party was sent out in pursuit of them but could not come up with them— 

16th General Poor March'd with his Detachment at 10 o'Clock A. M. proceeded in two Collam's ap 
the Suscuhannah River:Over very rough Ground we Incampt Near the Ruins of an old town CaU'd 
Macktowanuck the Land near the River is very Good— 

17th We marched Early this Morning Proceed 12 Miles to Owagea an Indian Town which was De- 



126 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

in building a garrison at Tiyuga.* On the 22nd day of Aug't we were joined by Gen'l 
Clinton's Brigade. 

Monday, Aug't 23. — Laid still. Capt. Kimble of Col. Cilley's Regiment, Gen'l 
Poor's Brigade, was killed in his tent by accident with a gun being snapped by a soldier. 

Tuesday, 24th Aug't. — The disposition was made and everything got in readiness 
for marching. The army encamped that evening agreeable to the order of march, f myself 
being drafted on the right flank, which was commanded by Col. Dubois. 

Wednesday, 25th.^l-aid still not being able to get ready to march on account of our 
pack horses. 

Thursday, 25th, — Struck tents at i o'clock and marched about 3 miles up the Tiyuga 
Branch and encamped. 

Friday, Aug't 27. — At 8 o'clock in the morning the Gen'l beat, struck tents at q 
o'clock marched off and encamped that night about 3 miles below Shemung by a large 
cornfield.:!: 

Saturday, Aug't 28th. — At 3 o'clock in the afternoon marched as far as Shemung and 
encamped. § 

Sunday, 29th Aug't. — At 8 o'clock in the morning the signal for march was given. 
We marched about 4 miles when our Light corps fell in with the enemy on the opposite 
side of a defile with some slight works thrown up in their front. The light troops 
exchanged some shots with them and amused them whilst Gen's Clinton's and Poor's Bri- 
gades with the right flank were ordered to file off by the right and gain the enemy's rear, 
which to effect, we had to ascend a very, steep- hill which the enemy had possessed them- 
selves of. Whilst we were gaining the rear. Col. Proctor with the artillery kept up a 
brisk fire on their works. On our ascending the hill they began to attack us. Our men 
undauntedly pushed on and gained the hill. The enemy went off in confusion, left their 



serted last Spring, after Planting, About the town is many Fruit Trees and many Plants, and Herbsi 
that are Common in our part of the Country ; Hear is a Learge body of clear Intivale Covered with 
Grass, Our March to day Very Survear and Paligueing Esspecelly for the Left CoUm (to which I 
belona:) as we had to pass Several Steap Hills and Morasses— 

18th We March'd Early this Morning proceeded 14 miles to Chocanant the Remains of a Learge In- 
dian Town which has been likewise Abandoned this Summer, here we found Plenty of Cucorabar's, 
Squashes, Turnips &c. We found About twenty Houses, Which we burnt onr Days March has been 
More Survear than Yesterday, as we had bad Hills and Swamps, one swamp of about two miles so 
Covered with Large Pines, Standing and lying which appeared as tho' Several Haricanes had been busy 
among since which a Tremendius Groath of Bushes About twenty feet high has sprung up so very 
thick as to Render the passing through them impractible by any troops but such as Nothing but Death 
can stop — at sunset we were Very agreeably a.arm'd by the Report of a Cannon up the River Which 
was supposed to be General Clintons Evening Gun — 

19th Our Troops were put in Motion very early this Morning after Marching about one Mile Gen'l 
Poor Received an Exspress from General Clinton Informing him that the Latter exspected to be hear 
by 10 o'clock A. M, this day in Consiquence of which we Return'd to our Old Incarapment where Gen- 
eral Clinton, Joined us at 10 o'clock with two Thousand Men— Including Ofllcers, Boatsman &c. he 
has two Hundred and Eight Beautoes with Provisions Ammunition &c after Mutual Congratulations 
and Complements the whole Proceeded down the River to Owagea and Incampt this Evening, the 
town of Owegea was made a burnfire of to Grace our Meeting * * * * *" 

* FoKT Sullivan— near the center of the present village of Athens, where the two rivers approach 
near each other. It was about one hundred yards square, with a strong block house at each anglei 
two opposite ones resting on the banks of the rivers, and the two others about midway between. The 
curtains were made by setting logs endwise in the gronnd, the whole being sn rounded by a ditch, 
making a work of ample strength. Col. Shreve was left in command with a gar ison of two hundred 
and fifty men besides the invalids, with two pieces of artillery. 

t The order of march was arranged to form a hollow square, General Hand's Brigade in front ; Gen- 
eral Poor's on the right ; General Maxwell's on the left ; and General Clinton's in the rear. Within 
the square was Col. Proctor's artillery, aifd eight lines of led pack horses, and the beef cattle. On the 
right of General Poor was a flanking division, and Hank guard of two hundred and fifty men under 
Col. Dubois ; and a like flanking division and guard, on the left of Maxwell, under command of Col. 
Ogden. A strong advanc,e guard of light infantry covered the front, 

X Encamped on the site of Old Chemung, burned August 13th, 

§ Encamped on the flats, near New Chemung, The army passed a very difBcnlt defile, known as 
the " Narrows " west of present Chemung ; the artillery forded the river twice. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 127 

■dead on the ground.* — About sunset we encamped on the enemy's ground, f We had 
■one major, one Capt. and one Lt. wounded. The Capt. and Lieut, died of their wounds, 
-also a few men wounded. 



*Four towns were destroyed in the vicinity of the battlefield, viz.; 

l8t. Newtown, an Indian village of about twenty houses, occupied in 1779, located on the left bank 
■of the Chemung river about five miles below Ehnira, and a mile above the fortified position between 
Baldwin's creek, and the river. It gave the name to the battle fought near it Aug. 29, 1779, 

2d. A small village northeast of the battlefield of Newto^\n on both sides of Baldwin's creek, of 
twenty or thirty houses which had never been occupied, and were supposed to have been built for stor- 
ing the crops grown in the vicinity. This was located at the point where Gen. Poor commenced the 
«scent of the hill ; and was destroyed by Clinton's brigade. 

3d. A small village near the angle in the works of the enemy on Baldwin's creek, the timbers of 
which were used by them in the construction of the fortifications. One house in front of their works 
was occupied by the enemy as a block house during the engagement. 

4th. " Monday, Aug, 30. * * * Went up the river aboui two miles, then took up a long branch 
-of the river (which runs near S. W.) one mile, burnt five houses and destroyed all the corn in our 
way." — Beaity''s Journal. 

tTHE Battle of Newtown was fought on Sunday, Aug. 29. 1779, near the Indian village of the 
same mime, on the left bank of the Chemuug river six miles southeast of Elmira. The enemy's foice 
of British regulars, two battalions of Royal Oreens, and Tories, were led by Colonel John Butler 
with Captains Walter N. Butler and Macdonald as subordinates ; the Indians by the great Mohawk 
Captain I hayendanegea, alias Joseph Brunt, Butler being chief in command. The design of the enemy 
-appears to have been primarily, an ambuscade. They had artfully concealed their works, and posted 
their forces in positions to attack simultaneously, both flanks, froilt and rear ; the position naturally 
strong was admirably adapted to their purposes. From Elmira, extending southeasterly for several 
miles is a mountainous ridge running parallel with the river, something over six hundred feet in 
height near the Indian village, but gradually melting away to the level of the plain where it terminates 
■about a mile below ; on this southeustern slope was the battle of Newtown. To the north and east of 
this ridge is a similar one, which also terminates near the battlefield, and between them is a consider- 
able stream, which, running nearly parallel with the river in its general course enters the Chemung a 
mile and a quarter below. The river here sweeps around in a graceful curve, making a full semi-cir- 
cle, enclosing several hundred acres of rich bottom lands, on which were the Indian cornfields ; the 
Wellsburg north and south road dividing it into two nearly equal parts. Rising abruptly from this 
plain is a sharp, narrow ridge, known locally as the Hog Back. This extends from the river across the 
plain nearly to Ibc creek, a distance of about a third of a mile. The crest of this* ridge was occupied 
by the enemy in force, protected by rude log breast works and rifle pits, which extended to ihe eastern 
■extremity, and from thence turning north, connected with the steep banks of the creek above. The 
-lines to be defended were these two sides of a triangle, their right resting on the river, their left on the 
mountain, the path of the army passing between the two lines, along which was also the enemy's line 
of retreat. From the angle in the works a thin line extended to the mountain, on which was a body of 
-the enemy and also another small body on the mountain to the east. The results at Chemung a few daj's 
previous led the enemy to hof)e that a like blunder might be repeated, and that Wyoming and Minni- 
-flinks were to be re-enacted. Presuming that the army, after crossing the creek, would follow the In- 
dian trail without discovering their works, they flattered them^-elves that an unexpected fire on the ex- 
posed flanks would create great confusion, which if augmented by simultaneous attacks in front and rear 
by the forces in that quarter, might result in a panic, and a possible stampede of the pack horses and 
■cattle, which would be quite as disastrous as the defeat of the army. But three companies of Morgan's 
riflemen, the pride of Washington, weie in the advance ; these veterans of a hundred battles were in no 
way inferior to the enemy in Indian craft ; the works and position of the enemy were discovered when 
afar off. and this ingenious device of drawing our forces into an ambuscade was frustrated. The am- 
buscade failing, the alternative was presented of forcing a direct attack in front, under great disadvan. 
tage or of a flanking movement, over very diflicult ground, where nearly the entire force of, the enemy 
•could be brought to bear on the attacking force at any point on interior lines possibly in time to re- 
pulse one division of the army before the other could come to its relief. The attack in front was invited 
by repeated sorties of a body of about four hundred of the enemy, who would deliver their tire, and 
Immediately retreat to their works. After three hours of skirmishing, deliberation, and reconnoiter- 
ing. General Sullivan determined to divide his force, turn the enemy's left, and attack simultaneously 
in front and flank. 

The artillery was posted on a rising ground, three hundred yards from the enemy, in position to enfi- 
lade the main line of their works, and sweep the ground in the rear. Gen. Hand was to support the 
artillery, the left flanking division to threaten the enemy's right, and Gen. Maxwell's brigade to be held 
in reserve Gen. Poor's brigade of four regiments, the right flanking division, and the three compa- 
nies of riflemen, were to make a circuit of about two miles and turn the enemy's left and attack in 
:flank and rear, to be supported by General Clinton's brigade of four regiments following as a second 
line. One hour was allowed for this movement, at the expiration of which, the artillery was to open, 
to be followed by a general assault of the two divisions. Poor almost immediately after commencing 
-his march, found himself involved in a thicket of underbrush, almost impenetrable, bat after great 



128 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Aug't 30. — Remained on the ground of yesterday. The greatest part of the army 
were employed in destroying corn which was in great abundance. 

Tuesday, 31st Aug't.* — At 9 o'clock in the morning marched off ; marched ten miles 
above Newtown and encamped on a large pine plain, forming a square with our camp to 
secure our pack horses and cattle. 

Wednesday, Sept. ist. — The signal gun fired at 8 o'clock in the morning. We 
marched at half past nine, marched about 6 miles through a flat level road at the end of 
which we entered a dark pine swamp, which continued four miles with almost impassable 
hills and valleys and arrived at 11 o'clock at night at Catharine's town. 



difficulty reached the foot of the hill on which the enemy was posted, juet at the moment the artillery 
fire commenced. Forming his line of battle with Lient. Col, Reid'e 2d N. H. on the extreme left, next 
to him Lieut, Col. Dearborn's 3d N. H.. then Alden'e 6th Mass., and Col. Cilley's let N. H. on the ex- 
treme Ti^ht. To the right of the brigade was the right flanking division of two hundred and fifty men 
under Col. Duboip, the whole preceded by three companies of riflemen under Maj. Parr. General 
Clinton's brigade formed line or battle with Col. GaDsevoort's 3d N. Y, on the left, next Dubois 5th N. 
Y., then Livingston's 4ch N. Y., with Van Courtlandt's 2d N. Y. on the extreme right, following in the 
rear of the first line. Poor when about half way up the hill encountered the enemy, buc not in suffi- 
cient force to materinUy check the advance of the flanking division, or the regiments on his right ; 
on reaching the summit of the hill, these rapidly pushed Forward to seize the defile near the river, a 
short distance above Newtown, which was the only avenue of escape for the enemy. Almost at the 
commencement of the cannonade, the main force of the enemy adroitly abandoned their works with 
out being discovered, and. precipitated themselves on Col. Reid's regiment in greatly euperior numbers. 
They swarmed about him in a semi-circle, and for a few moments made the forest ring with their ex- 
ultant shouts, but for a few minutes only ; for Col. Dearborn having reached the summit of the hill, 
and misfing Col. Reid on his left, on his own responsibility, faced his regiment to the rear and moved 
to his assistance. At the same moment the two regiments on the left of Clinton's brigade by a left 
oblique movement, came up from the rear to Eeid's support, and the enemy soon found themselves 
dangerously threatened. The conflict was short, sharp and decisive, and the war whoop soon gave 
place to the retreat halloo. Poor with the remainder of his brigade, followed by the two regiments on 
the right of Clinton, had pushed rapidly for the defile. In the meantime Hand had advanced in 
front, and the left flanking division under Col. Ogden had worked its way along the river on the ene- 
my's flank, when, the enemy admirably conynanded, and wisely discreet, sounded the signal for retreat 
just in time to escape. A British account says : ■■' In this action Col, Butler and all his people was sur- 
rounded, and very near being taken prisoners. On the same day a few miles from this he attempted 
again to stop them, but in vain. The Colonel lost four rangers killed, two taken prisoners and seven 
wounded." Twelve Indians were found dead on the field, the number of wounded unknown. The 
enemy were pursued for two or three miles above Newtown by the light troops, where Salmon says 
they made another stand, which appears to be confirmed by the account above quoted, but no details 
are given, and the matter is not alluded to in Gen. Sullivan's official report. The loss in killed accord- 
ing to the Indian official account, found, four days after, near Catharine's town is as follows : "' Sept. 
3d.— This day found a tree marked 1779, Thandagana. the English of which is Brant. 12 men marked 
on it with arrows pierced through them, signifying the number they had lost in the action of the 89th 
Itimo, A small tree was twisted round like a rope and bent down which signified that if we drove and 
distressed them, yet w« would not conquer them." 

The loss of our army is variously given in different accounts of the action. Major Livermore 
(Journal Aug. 29) says that " but four or five" were killed and three officers and about " thirty others" 
were wounded, Lieut. Barton (Journal) " that two or three of ours were killed and thirty-four or five 
wounded," Gen, Sullivan, in a despatch written the next day after the fight, makes the entire loss 
three killed and thirty-nine wounded. 

* During the march this day two towns were burned, viz : 

MiDDLBTOWN.— A Small Indian town mentioned In several Journals as lying between Newtown and 
Kanawlohalla, on the north side of the river, consisting of eight houses, destroyed Aug, 31 by the 
army while on the march. 

Kanawlohalla.— Signifying a head on apole^ located on the present site of Elniira, destroyed by 
Sullivan's army Aug. 31. In some Journals this town is called Newtown, and the one near the battle 
field Lower Newtown, but the majority designate it by its Indian name, which, according to Mr. Max- 
well should be spelled Canaweola, as pronounced by Red Jacket, and who also gave the signification, 
and the legend connected with it. 

Col. Dayton with the 3d N. J. regiment and a detachment of riflemen were detached here and sent up 
the river in pursuit of the enemy, whom the advanced guard saw escaping in their canoes. He failed 
to overtake them, but found an Indian village at or near present Big Flats, which he destroyed. He 
encamped hero for the night and rejoined the main array the next morning, oy a march north-east 
through the valley, where the main body were encamped near present Horse Heads. 



LTEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 129 

Thursday, 2d.— Laid still.* Our line of march being confused by the badness of the 
road the day before. 

Friday, Sept. 3d. — The signal gun fired at 7 o'clock, the army marched ofif at 8 
o'clock, marched about twelve miles and encamped in the wood on the east side of the 
Seneca Lake.f The land good and well timbered. 

Saturday, ye 4th Sept. — The Gen'l beat at 9 o'clock in the morning. The army 
marched at 10 o'clock, marched 4 miles and halted.:}: 

Sunday ye 5th. — The Gen'l beat at half past 9 o'clock, the army marched at 10 o'clock 
and encamped in a town called Candaya,§ or Appletown. 

Monday, Sept 6th. — At two o'clock in the afternoon left Appletown and marched 
about three miles and encamped in the wood.jl 



* Catharine's Tows —8he-o-qua-ga;~An Indiau village located on the high ground a little south of 
the present village of Havana. The towQ was on both sides of the inlet and about three miles from 
the head of the lake. This was the residence of tbe famous Catharine Montour, by many writers 
Incorrectly confonnded with Madame Moutonr, and by others with C^ueen Esther, of Wyoming noto- 
riety. 

Madame Montour a noted personage in the Colonial history of Pennsylvania, resided at one time 
at the present site of Montoursville, iu Pennsylvania, on the west branch of the Susquehanna, after- 
wards on an island near Shamokln ; and about 1749, when very aged and blind, removed to the vicin- 
ity of Lak'e Erie, where she probably died previous to 1753. She had several sons and one daughter, 
all distinguished characters in Pennsylvania annals. 

Queen Esther, notorious as the " fiend of Wyoming." She was living at Shcsheguin, six miles 
below Tioga point in 1772 aud removed about that date six miles north, and founded a new town, after- 
ward known as Queen Esther's town ; this was afterward destroyed by Col. Hartley in 17T8, when she 
probably removed to Chemung. She hud a son, who lost his life a short time previons to the massacre 
of Wyoming, which was probably the exciting cause of her fury at that place. She was a daugh- 
ter of French Margaret, grand daughter of Madame Montonr and a sister of Catharine Montour. She 
had another sister Mary who was the wife of John Cook, alias Kanaghragait, a famous Seneca chief 
sometimes called White Mingo. He died at Fort Wayne in 1790. Her own husband was Eghohowin, 
khig of the Minsi Delawares. 

Catharine MoNtour, from whom Catharine's Town took its name, was a daughter of French Mar- 
garet and grand-daughter of Madame Montonr. Her husband was Thomas Hudson, alias Telenkmut, 
one of the most noted of the 'Seneca chiefs. She had a son named Asiochol who was living at New 
Salem in 1788, and two daughters mentioned in 1779. Queen Esther was her sister, as also was Mary 
the wife of John Cook, who lived on the Allegany and Ohio. Roland and John Montour were related 
but were not sons of Catharine. Roland married the daughter of Siangorqchti, the chief Sachem of 
the Senecas, and both were well known as leaders on tbe many Indian raids against the border settle- 
ments. , Catharine was living in 1791 "' over the lake not far from Niagara." 

t Peach Orchard, a small Indian town, was destroyed here, August 3d, on the point called Apple- 
tree town in Nukerck's Journal, J'enkins says " the army encaruped about 4 iu the afternoon near a 
small Indian settlement," &c. 

t CoNDAWHAw —An Indian town occupied in 1779, located on the east side of Seneca Lake on tbe 
present site of North Hector, was so called in 1778 by Luke Swetland, who passed through it while on 
- his way to Kendaia. It was burned by the army Sept. 4, 1779. It is called Apple Town in William 
Barton's Journal. 

§ Kendaia, a towii containing about twenty houses, located on lot 79 Romulus, on the east side of 
Seneca lake, on land now owned by Edward Van Vliet. It was about half a mile from the lake, on 
both sides of a small stream. Luke Swetland resided here for a year as a prisoner, until rescued by 
the army. Several journals give interesting accounts of this town, and especially of the Indian 
tombs, which appear to have been arranged with more than ordinary care. It was the custom on the 
death of distinguished personages to paint on their monumental posts a record of important events 
relating to the history of the deceased person. The fact that these tombs were different in construc- 
tion and style of ornamentation from others, suggests the idea that they were a remnant of some sub- 
jugated tribe, differing in mode of burial from the Iroquois. A noted Seneca warrior named Kendaia 
was conspicuous at the siege of Ft. Niagara in 1759. 

I Lieut. Hardeneergh mentions the fact of being "drafted on the right flank, which was com- 
manded by Col. Dubois." He was probably one of the one hundred men drafted from the line, as part 
of the right flanking division, and consequently would be on the extreme right of the army while en 
route. The center line of the army was the regular Indian trail, which was opened to a sufficient width 
for the passage of the artillery. Along Seneca Lake, the present lake road follows substantially on the 
line of the trail. 

At this point, Beatty says " we encamped close along the edge of the lake, and opposite to us on the 
west side of the lake, we could perceive a small Indian town." See note Gothseungquean. 

17 



130 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

TfESDAY YE 7th. — At 8 o'clock in the morning struck tents, marched off and crossed 
the outlet of the Ceneca Lake, where we expected to meet some opposition, but the enemy 
had left the town. We entered it, found a white child* in the town, supposed to be 
about 4 years old, it was supposed they had taken away from the frontiers, where they 
had destroyed and burnt. 'I'he Ceneca Lake is supposed to be thirty-six miles in length 
■from south to north. The land along the east side appears to be a rich soil and well tim- 
bered. At the north end is the outlet which is a continual stream and considerable large. 
About three miles and a half from the outlet is the town Cannadasago or Ceneca Castle. f 

Wkdkksu.w, ye 8th Sept. — Laid still at Cannadasago. 

Thursday ye gth. — Marched from Cannadasago about 8 miles and encamped in the 
■wood.t 

Friday loth. — At 7 o'clock marched off about 7 miles and crossed the outlet of a 
small lake, a few miles from which stood a Tow^n called Canandaigul,§ about ijj^miles 
from Ceneca Castle, which we entered, and encamped at 3 o'clock, about a mile north of 
the town in a large cornfield. 

S.\TORDAY YE itth Sei't. — Struck our tents at g o'clock and marched about 9 miles 
through an open country, halted at 11 o'clock for refreshment, moved at one o'clock, and 
arrived at a small town called Honyuga,|| At this town we left a small garrison of one 
Capt. one Lieut, and fifty men, exclusive of invalids, with some flour, horses and cattle. 

SuND.^Y I2th. — Left Haunyuga at 12 o'clock, marched about 11 miles and encamped 
in the wood. ^ 

Monday, 13th. — At five o'clock in the morning marched about two miles to a small 



* This child was tenderly cared for, adopted by Capt. Machin, an officer in the artillery, and chris- 
tened Thomas Machin. After the return of the army it was placed in a family near Kingston, N. T., 
where it died some two years after of small pox. No cine was ever obtained as to its parentage. 

tKANADASEAGA, the grand village, so called from being the residence of the chief sachem of the 
Senecas, located one and a half miles northwest of the present village of Geneva on both sides of £an- 
adaseasa Creek. This was the capital of the Seneca nation and contained about sixty well built houses. 
A stockade fort was bnilt here in 1756 by Sir William Johnson, the remains of which were in existence 
in 1779. Rev. Samuel Kirkland was a missionary here in 17H4-6. Was destroyed Sept. 9. 

Butler's BniLDiNas.— .-V small village c.iUed Butler's Buildings was found on the shore of the lake, 
ne:ir present canal bridge, in the village of Geneva. 

GoTHSEtJNGQUEAN also Called Shenanivaga. and many other dlalec'ical variations, an important 
town was also destroyed Sept. 8, by a detachment of riflemen under Major Parr. 1 he name is per- 
petuated in Kershong creek, on which it was situated, on Seneca lake, seven miles south of Geneva. 
It contained twenty houses. 

X From Kanudaseaga the route was first southwest for about two miles to the line of the present 
turnpike, and thence nearly due west along the line of the turnpike to Canandaigua lake. Beatty men- 
tions an ancient stockade fort between Kauadaseaga and Canandaigua. This was on Flint creek on 
lot 92 in N. W. corner of the town of Seneca. The encampnaent was on Flint creek 

§ Kanandaioua, an Indian town of twenty-three large houses mostly framed, located about a mile 
from the lake shore, in west part of present village of Canandaigua. The corn fields, which were very 
extensive, were located on the ridge north of the town. The usual variety and quantity of fruit trees 
were found here, all of which were destroyed. From Kanandaigua the route of the army was nearly 
southwest, substaniially on the line of the present road through Bristol to the foot of Xioneoye Lake, 
a distance of sixteen miles, to the next village of Hanneyaye. 

I Hanneyaye, an Indian town occupied in 1779, located at the foot of Honeoye lake, about half a 
mile east of the outlet, and south of Mill creek. It contained about twenty houses, one of which was 
occupied as a fort under command of Capt. Cummings of the and N. J. regiment. Beatty gives the 
following description of the work which he says was occupied by three hundred men in all : " They 
was encamped round the house where we had left our stores and the camp was abbateed in, and round 
the house they had made a small Fort of kegs, and bags of flour, and had three pieces of artillery in it, 
and the house they had made full of loop holes, so as to fight out of it in case of necessity, and upon 
the whole I think they was very safe." 

1 On leaving Hanneyaye the army forded the outlet near the lake, and taking a west course, nearly 
on the line of the present east and west road leading west from the present village of Honeoye, to the 
summit of the dividing ridge and thence in a south west course, crossing the outlet of Hemlock lake at 
its foot and continning over the hill on the same course to present Foot's corners, in the town of Con- 
csus. where the army encamped on level ground two miles north of the Indian town Adjutoa or Kan- 
aghsaws. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 131 

town called Adjutoa,* from this place the Gen'l sent out a scout of one Sub, and ig men 
to reconnoitre a town that was in front. On his return he was attacked by about lOo 
Indians and were all killed but 2 men who had the good fortune to make their escape. f 



* Kanaghsaws, or AajatOQ, siccordir.g to some Journals, an Indian town uf 18 housee, located about 
•a mile north-west of Conesue Centre, on the north and south road that passes through the McMilleu 
farm. Between the town and the lake oa Henderson's flats were the cornfields. The villase appears 
to have occupied the jjrouuds in the vicinity of the McMillen residence, and extended north across the 
-creek, and southward to the phiteau now covered by an orchard which was probably an ancient pali- 
saded site of the town. The main body of the army encamped on the night of the 12th nearly two 
miles north on the flats, south-west of Foot's corners. A local tradition exists that Hand with the 
light troops followed the road through Union Corners and encamped on the L. 3. Richardson farm, 
southwest of Conesiis Centre at the False Faces, but nothing of the kind is^found in any of the joui- 
nals. On a manuscript map in the Congressional Library, made to represent the route of the army, it 
appears that a portion of the army did take the route described. George Grant says a fine stream of 
water ran through the town, and that " Captain Sunfish, a negro, resided here, a very bold, euterpris. 
ing fellow, who commanded the town." Several Journals mention the fact that Big Tree, a noted 
Indian warrior, also made this his home. President Dwight describes him as a man of lofty character 
and dignified deportment, and that he had strenuously urged his countrymen to observe strict neutral- 
ity, but without success. The chieftain stood on an elevated spot and saw his own possessions de- 
stroyed. "You see how the Americans treat their friends," said some of those around him, favorable 
to Great Britain. " What I see," calmly replied the chief, "is only the common fortune of war. It 
-cannot be supposed that the Americana can distinguish my property from yours, who are their ene- 
mies " The army was engaged until near noon in destroying the crops and re-building the bridge 
which had been destroyed by the enemy. 

t Gboveland Ambuscade — This, one of the most important matters connected with Sullivan's cam- 
paign, has. for a hundred years, remained a stumbling block and mystery to historians. This has 
arisen in part from erroneous views as to the location of Gathtsegwaroharo and the trails, but mainly 
"from the mistaken idea that Boyd's party was the force against which the efforts of the enemy were 
originally directed, rather than that it was a formidable attempt to ambuscade the main army. 

From Kanaghsaws the trail led southwesterly across the low grounds following the line of the pres- 
ent road near the inlet, and crossing it at, or very near the site of the present bridge, about three- 
fourths of a mile from the head of tbe lake. North of the bridge, the banks of the inlet are low and 
marshy, in many places impassable for infantry, and at all points impassable for artillery and pack 
horses ; while south of the bridge is a wet swamp almost impenetrable from the thick growth of under- 
brush. West of the lake and inlet is a steep hill-side, the face of which, cut up by numerous ravines, is 
so steep that with considerable difficulty an army could march directly up it. The trail after leaving the 
bridge probably continued southwesterly up the hill obliquely, nearly on the line of the present high- 
way to the summit of the bluff, and thence turning northwest followed along the heads of the ravines 
for a mile and thence directly west to Gathtsegwarohare. Directly west of the bridge, between two 
very deep ravii.es, i^ a space nearly half a mile in width which continues up the hill on very favorable 
ground for the advance of the army. It appears to be the oi.ly point* where it could advance in the 
order of march laid down, which would require a space of nearly a half a mile in width for the several 
■columns. 

After the battle of Newtown, Butler and Brant with their demoralized forces, sullenly retired, pow- 
erless to prevent the advance of the devastating army. Butler had reached the last Indian village of Can- 
awaugas, located on the west side ot the Genesee, twelve miles north of the Great Genesee Castle. Here 
he received reinforcements of regulars from Niagara, and determined to make one more effort against 
the invaders. Gathering all his available forces of regulars, toiies and Indians, he left Canawaugas on 
the morning of the Idth of September, and probably reached the position on the hill west of Kanagh- 
saws, on the evening of the same day. Here they posted themselves north of the trail, at the heads of 
the ravines about three-fourths of a mile west of the bridge, and a mile and a half from Kanaghsaws. 
This was a most admirable position for an ambuscade, and in many essential particulars of topography 
and fact, bears a striking resemblance to the fatal ground where Braddock so ingloriously sacrificed his 
army ; and had Sullivan advanced in the same blundering manner, he, too, might have met with an 
equally disastrous defeat^ The plan appears to have been to attack a portion of the army after it had 
crossed the bridge, or to ambuficadc the head of the column while ascending the hill ; but whatever 
may have been the original design, it was completely frustrated by the fortunate movements of the 
unfortunate Boyd. It will be remembered that the army went into camp on the flats near Foot's Cor- 
ners, two miles north of the village of Kanaghsaws. Boyd and his party left camp at 11 o'clock at 
night, passed through the abandoned Kanaghsaws, and from thence pursued the direct trail which led 
southwesterly up the hill to Gathtsegwarohare. In the darkness of the night, he passed Butler's rio-ht 
■flank, neither party being conscious of the presence of the other, and reached Gathtsegwarohare. which 
the inhabitants had abandoned early in the morning, withoutencountering any difficulty. On the morn, 
ing of the 13th Sullivan advanced to Kanaghsaws, and finding that the enemy had destroyed the bridge 
■over the inlet, he detailed a portion of the army to aid the pioneers in its re-construction and to j-epair 
the roadway over the low grounds leading to it. All of this was directly under the eye of But- 
ler, who, according to a British account, " lay undiscovered though only a musket shot from the 



132 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

The army remained in town till about 12 o'clock. Some were employed in destroying- 
corn and some in building a bridge (across a mirey swamp and creek) for the artillery to 
pass. While we were so employed the surveyor* had advanced a little in front of the 
advanced guard, was fired upon by the Indians and had one of his party wounded. f At 
12 o'clock we left the town, and arrived at a_town called Cassawauloughly | 7 miles frcn 
Adjutoa, which we entered at sunset. i:J 



rebels, ar.d even within eight." On reaching the town Boyd halted his forces at the suburbs, himself 
and one of his men reconnoitered the place, then rejoinedv the party and concealed themselves in the 
woods near the town. He sunt back two of his men to report to General Sullivan, and awaited the 
light of the day whose morning was just breaking. These two men got through safely and reported. 
About daybreak four Indians were seen to enter the town by Boyd, one of whom was killed, another 
wounded, the rest escaped. Boyd then immediately set out to return, expecting to meet the army on 
the march, and when about half way, despatched two more men to inform the general of his intention 
to remain " on the path" and await the coming of the army. These men soon encountered five Indians^ 
and returned ; the entire party then resumed the march, following and firing on the retreating Indians, 
who lured them directly into the lines of the enemy. Colonel Butler bearing the firing on his right and 
rear imagined he was discovered, and that instead of ambuscading the rebels, he was himself to be sur- 
prised by this unexpected attack in the rear. No evidence whatever has appeared to confirm the con- 
jecture, that Boyd's presence was either known or suspected in that quarter, by Bntler, or any portion 
of his force, until discovered by the five retreating Indians and to them, only by accident ; but when 
discovered, with true aboriginal cunning, they allured their unsuspecting victims to the fatal embrace 
of the enemy, who came there to surprise an army, but were prevented by the blundering of a scout. 
A few of Boyd's party who were acting as flankers escaped, five or six fell near the trail and were 
found when the army advanced, the remainder retreated a short distance north to a clump of trees, 
where their bodies were found all near together, and where all the bodies were buried on the return 
march of the army on the Kith. During the construction of the bridge a guard had been established 
west of the inlet, and Captain Lodge with his party engaged in making their surveys, had advanced 
some distance up the hill ; the bridge was about completed when the fugitive flankers came rushing 
down the hill pursued by email parties of the enemy. Hand's brigade immediately advanced up the 
hill to the position occupied by the enemy in the morning, where he found the packs of the enemy in 
the position they had left a few minutes previous. He remained here in line of battle until the army 
had crossed, and formed for the advance up the hill. 

* Capt. Benjamin Lodge, with a party of assistants accompanied the army and with chain and com- 
pass survpyed the entire route of the army from Easton to the great Genesee town. On the return 
march he accompanied Col. Butler's expedition through the Cayuga country. 
t Corporal Calhawn, a volunteer, died the next day. 

t Gathtsegwaroiiare, so culled by Nakerck ; G aghegwalahale hyDeeLvhovn ; Cassawauloughly 
by Hardenbergh, was seven miles directly west of Kanaghsaws, on the east side of Canaseraga creek 
about two miles above its confluence with the Genesee river. Here is a beautiful plateau of about six 
acres, admirably adapted for an Indian town, at present occupied by the house and enrrounding 
grounds of the widely known " Hermitage,'' the ancestral home of the Carrolls. The town contained 
twenty-five houses, mostly new, and appears to have been located on both sides of the stream north of 
the Carroll mansion. The tribe residing here were called Squa-tche-gas by Sullivan, were the same that 
settled at Squakie-Hill, to whom was reserved the two eq.uare miles in the Big Tree Treaty of 1797. 
They were probably a remnant of one of the tribes of the historic Eries who occupied the territory to 
the south and east of Lake Erie whose blood, language, and league did not differ materially from the 
Iroquois Five Nations. After a terrible conflict, and many bloody battles, the Eries were finally over- 
thrown about the year 1655, and a remnant incorporated with the League. They were permitted to live 
by themselves, to have a separate council fire and keep up a show of tribal rites. Boyd and his party 
reached this town at about the break of day, on the morning of the 13th, and found it abandoned. He 
sent two of his men to report to Gen. Sullivan and concealed his force in the adjacent w^ods. Soon 
after four Indians on horseback entered the lown, one of whom, Bah-nah-dah-yah, was killed and 
scalped by Murphy, when Boyd set out for camp. As Sullivan approached the town about dark on the 
13th. he found the enemy, both Indians and rangers drawn up in battle array, apparently intending to 
dispute the further advance of the army ; but as the advancing columns assumed their positions in 
line of battle, and the flanking divisions moved to the right and left, threatening their lines of retreat, 
a few shots from the howitzers caused them to abandon their position, and retreat across the Cana- 
seraga The army were engaged until noon of the 14th, in destroying the cornfields which were very 
extensive in the vicinity of the town. 

§Chenussio.— This town, though not in existence at the time of Sullivan's campaign, is intimately 
connected with its history It was located near the site of ancient AVilliamsburg, at the confl'ience of 
the Canaseraga and the Genesee, on the east side of the latter river. It iippears on the Guy Johnson 
map of 1761 as Clienusnio, on the Pouchot map of 1758 as Connecchio, in both cases at the point de- 
scribed and where Mary Jennlson's narrative says it was in her day. In 1750 it was visited by Cammer- 
hofr and Zeisberger, two Moravian missionaries, who called it Zonnesschio and describe it as then 
containing forty houses. All of these names are dialectical and orthographical variations of the 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 133 

« 

Tuesday, 14th Sept. — At one o'clock left the town crossed the Chenesee flats and 
forded the River which was about four feet deep, and about thirty yards wide and arrived 
at the capital town of the Chinisees, called the Cbinisee Castle. * We entered the town 
about 6 o'clock, found Lieut. Boyd and one soldier f whom they had murdered in an 
inhuman manner. Said Boyd was one of the party that was sent to reconnoitre a town as 
is mentioned before. The Chinisee Castle consisted of about one hundred commodius 
dwelling houses compactly built and pleasantly situated. 

Wednesday, 15th Sept. — The whole army if (except the ^juards to which I belonged) 
were employed in destroying corn from 6 o'clock in the morning till two in the afternoon. 
In the mean time a white woman § with a small child came to us who had been taken 
prisoner at Weyoming. At about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, we set the town on fire, 
marched off, re-crossed the River and encamped after sunset on the Chinicee flats. 

Thursday, i6th, Sept. — Decamped at ii o'clock, marched six miles and encamped at 
the town of Adjutoa at hai£ past five P. M. 

Friday 17th. — Decamped at 6 o'clock, marched off and anived at the t--wn of Hauny- 
uga at one o'clock P. M. 

Saturday, i8th Sept. — At 5 o'clock in the morning marched, at 7 o'clock crossed the 
outlet of a Lake at Cannandagui.|| and encamped at sunset on the ea^t Side of the 
outlet. 

Sunday i^. — At seven o'clock in the moi'ning struck tents, marched at 8 o'clock and 
arrived at sunset at Canadasago. 



modern word Genesee, signifying; the beautiful valley. Gausturax, a celebrated Seneca Chief, was for 
many years a leading spirit of this town, and during the French and Indian war, being thoroughly iti 
the interests of the French, it required all the diplomatic abilitiy of Sir William Johnson. aAd the in- 
fluence of the other nations of the league to neutralize his efforts. It was in existence as early as 
1750, and as late as IITO, but in 1768 it had ceased to be the western door, which honor was then held by 
the great town of Chenandoanes, on the wet^t side of the river. At the time of Sullivan's campaign, it 
had ceased to exist, or had dwindled into an insignificance unworthy of mention, 

'I his was the town that Hoyd was sent tu recoiinoitre, and which Major Norris says the General ex- 
pected to find on the east side of the river and two miles north of Gathtsegwarohare. This is the town 
aleo, that writers confound with the great town west of the river, and which so perplexed General Sul- 
livan iu his examination of the maps. 

* Genesee Castle.— This was the great village of the SenPcas, the western door of the Long 
House, located between Cuylerville and the west hank of the Genesee riv.er, in the town of Leices- 
ter, Livingston County. It appears on Evans' map as Chenandoanes in 1776, is mentioned as early 
as 1754 as Chenandanah, and is often called Little Beard's town. Sullivan's official report says : 
" The Castle consisted of 128 houses mostly large and elegant The place was beautifully situ- 
ated, almost encircled with a cleared fiat, which extended for a number of miles, where the most 
extensive fields of corn were waving, and every kind of vegetable that can be conceived." 

t This soldier was named Parker, who with Lieut. Boyd were made prisoners. They were car- 
ried to Little Beard's Town, where Boyd after being tortured in a most cruel manner was beheaded, 
Parker was beheaded without being tortured. The remains of Boyd and Parker were removed to 
Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, N. Y., in August, 1842. 

t Several writers claim that Canavvaugas, on the west side, and Ohadi and Big Tree on the east 
side of Genesee river were destroyed in this campaign. No reliable authority has been furnished 
in support of the theory. Sullivan says distinctly that he went no farther than the great town, 
beyond which, as he was informed,, there was no settlement, and no villages are mentioned in any 
account as existing on the east side of the river, nor is mention made of any portion of the army 
being on that side,— on the contrary, several mention the fact, that all the arini/ were engaged in 
the destruction of the town, and cornfields, which, when completed at 2 o'clock on the afternoon 
of the 15th, the whole army came to an about face, and returned on the same route and in same 
order in which they advanced. Butler left Canawaugas on the morning of the 15th for Niagara. 

§ Nathan Davis in his account, before referred to, mentions the incident with additional particu- 
lars. Her story was that at the time she and her little boy were taken prisoners, her husband was 
killed by the savages ; that she had lived with the Indians some two years, and when the army 
entered tbe town, the day before, the Indians were in such haste to get out of it that she could not 
follow them, and finally lost herself in the woods, and thinking it might be Butler's camp, she had 
ventured to show herself. She was taken to the General's Quarters and well provided for. Dur- 
ing the march, the woman and her boy were furnished with a horse. On the third day of tbe 
march the child was taken sick and shortly after died. The boy was wrapped in an old blanket 
and hastily buried. The scene is described as exceedingly touching. She afteiward married Ros- 
well Franklin, the first settler of Cayuga County. 

H Present Canandaigua Lake in Ontario county. 



134 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

* 

Monday, 20th Sept. — At two p. m. struck tents, marched off at 3 o'clock from Cana- 
, dasago, crossed the outlet of Ceneca Lake and encamped at sunset near the lake.* 
Previous to our march from Canadasago Col. Butler of the 4th Pensylvania Regimfent was 
sent with a detachment to the Kiyugaf Lake to destroy sotiie Indian settlements that 
were there. Col. Gansevort sent with one hundred men to fort Stanwix | in order to send 
down some baggage which was left on the Mohawk River by troops that had been stationed 
there the preceding year. 

Tuesday, 28th. — Struck tents at 8 o'clock, marched at 9, left Candayag or Appletown 
about two miles in the rear' and encamped in the wood, along the east side of the Ceneca. 
Lake, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Wednesday 22d. — At fi o'clock the Gen'l beat, marched at 8, halted and at one o'clock, 
about one hour for refresbmen'ts, and encamped at sunset along the east side Ceneca 
Lake. ' ' ■ 1 . i 

Thursday, 23d Sept.— Marched at 8 o'clock, left French Catharine, about 3 miles in the 
rear, and encamped at sunset. ♦ ' 

Friday, 24th. — About six o'clock in the morning the Gen'l beat, marched at 8 o'clock 
and arrived at the forks of the Tiyuga or Newton. At this place there was a post estab- 
lished by order of General Sullivan, and provision for the army at their return,^ 

Saturday, 25th Sept. — Laid still. An ox and 5 gallons of rum was given to the 
officers of each Brigade.** A fu-de-joy was held in consequence of the arrival of the 
news of Spain declaring us Independent ff with 13 rounds of Cannon was discharged, fol- 
lowed by two round of musketry interspersed with cannon. The evening was celebrated 
in our camp with much joy and gladness. Jt 

Sunday 26. — Laid still. 

MoNi^AY, 27th Sept. — A detachment under the command * * * was sent out and 
returned at night. §§ 

Tuesday 28th. — A detachment under the command of Col. Cortlandt was sent up the 
Tiyuga |{{{ branch on purpose to destroy some corn. Col. Butler with his detachment 
joined us. The invalids were sent to Tiyuga in boats. 

Wednesday, 29th Sept. — The Gen'l beat at 8 o'clock in the morning, marched at 9. 
o'clock and encamped in the afternoon three miles below Shemung. 

Thursday 30th. — At nine o'clock in the morning marched off and arrived at Tiyuga. 
at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. At our arrival we were saluted with a discharge of 13 can- 
^ non from thcGarrisbn, and an elegant dinner was prepared for the officers. 

* This encampment was on Eose Hill in the town of Fayette. 

t Lieut. Col. William Butler. See Thomas Grant's account ot the march of this detachment. 

} No account has been found of the exact route taken by this detachment. It is supposed ^they 
followed the regular Indian trail, the line of which was afterwards substantially adopted for the- 
Seneca Turnpike, which passed through Auburn and Onondaga Hill to Fort Stanwix on the Mo- 
hawk, on the site of present Rome in Oneida County.' On the' way the party passed through the 
Oneida and Tuscarora towns, where every mark of hospitality and friendship was shown the pai'ty. 
They reached Fort Stanwix on the 25th. 

§ Kendaia. 

H " We lost in this place more than a hundred horses, and it has been called, 1 suppose, the val- 
ley of Horse Heads to this day." — Nathan Davis^ Statement. 

H During the absence of the army Col. Reid had constructed a palisaded work at the junction of 
Newtown creek and the Chemung just below Sullivan's Mills in Elniira, called in some accounts 
Fort Reid. 

** There were five brigades. 

tl At the same time news was received of '" the generous proceedings of Congress in augmenting- 
the subsistence of the officers and men." 

t$ Thirteen appropriate toasts were drunk. The last was a^ follows ; "May the enemies of America, 
be metamorphosed into pack horses and sent on a western expedition against the Indians." — Loss- 
in(fs Field Boole Rev., T, 878, ntite. 

§§ " Sept. 27.— A large fatigue party was sent up the river nine miles, where they loaded nine 
boats with corn and other vegetables and brought them down. This evening, Mr. Lodge and Ave 
men from Col. Rutler, came in and informed us that the Col. was about 10 miles from camp." — 
Jenkins'' Journal. 

Ill Col. Van Cortlandt says he went above Painted Post. 



LIEUT. JOHN L. HARDENBERGH. 135 

Friday, Oct. i, 1779. — T^aid still at Tiyuga.* 

Saturday 2d. — Laid still.' Orders were given to load the boat with stores, artillery, 
&c., and to demolish the fortf the next day. 

Sunday, ye 3d Oct. — Agreeable to the orders of the preceding day the boats were 

loaded, the fort demolished and everything got in readiness to march the next morning. 

Monday, 4th Oct.— At 7 o'clock in the morning the Gen'l beat, struck our tents, the 

army marched at nine from Tiyuga. The boats with the stores, artillery and sick set off 

at the same time, and encamped at evening at Wysaukin creek. 

Tuesday, the 5th Oct. — The main part of the army embarked on board the boats, the 
best were mounted on horses, left Wysaukin about 7 o'clock in the morning and arrived 
at Vanderlips' farm, and stayed at night. 

Wednesday ye 6th Oct. — At 6 o'clock in the morning set off and arrived at sunset at 
Lechawauny J about 10 miles from Weyoming. 

Thursday, 7th Oct. — At 9 o'clock in the morning left Lechawauny and arrived at 
Weyomiiig 5^ about i o'clock in the afternoon. 
Friday, Oct. ye 8th. — Laid still. 

Saturday, ye 9th. — Remained at Weyoming, but received orders to march at 6 o'clock 
the next morning. 

Sunday, Oct. loth. — At 6 o'clock the next morning were ordered to march, but on 
account of our pack horses being strayed we did not march till 2 o'clock in the morning, 
when we left Weyoming and arrived at Bullock's j at dark. 

Monday, nth Oct. — At 9 o'clock in the morning decamped from Bullock's and 
encamped about two miles through the Shades of De,ath.ll 

Tuesday, I2th Oct. — At 6 in the morning proceeded on our march. The after part 
of the day rainy and windy weather, we arrived at White Oak Run ** at evening and 
encamped. 

WED^'ESDAY 13th. — Decamped from White Oak Run at 8 o'clock in the morning and 
arrived at Brinker's Millsff and encamped. 

Thursday 14th. — Decamped from Brinker's Mills, marched from thence, and arrived 
within II miles from Kaston and encamped :j;| on the side of the road in a wood. 

Friday, 15th Oct. — Decamped at 7 o'clock, marched for Easton §§ and arrived ihere 
about 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 
Saturi^ay i6th. — f^^aid still. 
Sunday 17th. — Laid still. 

Monday, 18th Oct. — Capt. Bevier and my-self set out from Easton at 11 o'clock for 
Marbletown,!! traveled about twenty miles and put up at the Widow Sweezer's. 



* TiooA Point, below present Athenp, Penn. 

t Fort Sullivan, built on the narrow isthmus between the two rivers in present village of Athens. 

t Lackawanna. Th"; site of Ooxton, ten miles from Wyoming at the upper end of the valley. 

§ Wyoming, fort and village on the east side of the Susqnehiinna below present Wilitesbarre. 

U Bullock's, deserted house, seven miles from Wyoming at the Great Meadows, and fifty eight 
miles from Easton.— called also Sullivan's camp, from his enciiraping there June 22. Nathan Bullock 
resided here ut the time of the Wyoming massacre. lie had two sons, Amos and Asa, one of whom 
was a lawyer, both killed in the battle. The father was captured and carried to Canada in 1780. 

H Shadics of Death, so called from being a dense forest. Several places in Pennsylvania bore the 
same name. 

** White Oak Run, or Rum BninGE. 33 miles from Easton. 

+t Brinker's Mn.i.s, or Sullivan's Stores, so called " on account of a large house built here, and a 
quantity of provisions being gtorid tberein for the use of the forces under Major General Sullivan's 
command."— i?03ers' Journal. Captain Patterson was in command ; 19 miles from Easton in present 
town of riamiiton, Monroe county. 

it Encamped near Heller's Tavern at the foot of Blue Mountain, at present Hellerville in town of 
Plainfield, Northampton county, 12 miles from Easton. 

§§ " Easton contists of about mo houses. There are but three elegant buildings in it, and about as 
many inhabitants that are any ways agreeable. Take them in general they are a very inhospitable set 
—all High Dutch and Jews." — Shute^s Journal. 

HII Marbletown, a town in Ulster Co., N. Y., west of the Hudson. They appear to have taken the 
road through Warren and Sussex counties, N. J. 



136 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Tuesday, igth Oct. — At half past 7 o'clock in the morning, traveled about 27 miles 
and put up at Gary's Tavern. 

Wednesday 20th. — At 7 o'clock A. m., left Gary's, dined at Bard's in Warick,* set out 
from thence and put up at Bruster's Tavern about 11 miles from New Windsor, f 

Thursday, 21st. — Left Bruster's at 8 o'clock in the morning and arrived at Newburg, 
at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Friday 22nd. — Set out from Newburg at 8 o'clock in the morning and arrived at the 
Poltzj: and, staid that night. 

Saturday, 23d Oct. — At three o'clock in the afternoon set out and arrived home the 
same night. 

From the 23d Oct., 1779, I remained home till the gth of Dec, when I set out to join 
the Reg't, which I did on the 15th, and found them employed in building huts for winter 
quarters, about 3 miles from Morristown. 

(The Hardenbergh Journal here closes. The Nukerck Journal continues the history of 
the regiment for the year 1781 and until the five regiments were consolidated near the 
close of that year.) 



* Waewicic on Wawayanda creek in southwest part of Orange county, N. Y. 

t New Windsor on ihe Hudson, in Orange county, N. Y. 

t New Paltz. a post village, on the Wallkill in Ulster county, N. Y. 



JOURNAL OF THOMAS GRANT. 



Tho.mas Grant, appears from the Journal, to have been one of the 
surveying party under Lieut. Benjamin Lodge, wIki accompanied the 
army from Kastoii, Pa., and with chain and compass, surveyed the entire 
route to the Genesee river. Published in the Historical Magazine for 
August and September, 1862, Vol.' VL, p. 233 and p. 273. 

J O U R N .\ L . 

GEN. SULLIVAN'S EXPEDITION TO THE GENESEE CO UN TRY, 

mg.—A JOURNAL OF JANARAL SULLIVAN'S ARMY, 

AFTER THEY LEFT WYOMING. 

By Thomas Grant. -n^ 

July 31ST, 1779. The whole Army under the command of Major Janaral Sullivan 
marched from Wyoming about one o'clock p. m. The fleet under the command of Col. 
Thos. Proctor saluted the fort, which was Returned to the mutual satisfaction of all pres- 
ent. We marched this afternoon to Lackawana, neer 10 mils from Wyoming, where the 
army Encamped in Regular order. Gen. Hand's Light Troops in front. Gen. Maxwell's 
Brigade on the Right, Gen Poor's on the left. Col. Ogden's Regt the Rear guard. A 
chain of Centinels a Round the camp ; the Boats som rails in our Rear, owing to their 
Loading being Eregular. 

August ist. Rainy weather this morning & Great part of last night. This day we 
marched from Lackawana at 3 o'clock p. M, and arrived at Qualutimunk 7 miles from 
Lackawana about dark. Encamped as before in a fertile plain, the road we came this 
day exceeding rough, and Great quantity of Baggage lost from the pack horses, which 
occasioned the army to lay by. 

August 2d. Nothing Material this day, but prepairing for marching to-morrow. 

August 3d. This morning the Gen'. Beat at 5. The infintry marched at 6, the 
main Body at 7. Marched this day 12 miles to tunkhannunk, and Encamped as before 
mentioned in a very fine Bottom a Bounding with Fine English Grass, Wild Frute, &c in 
our march crossed Several Pleasant Streams of water, viz Butter milk Crick noted for a 
Great Fall where it emtys itself in the Susquehanna Called the Buttermilk Falls and the 
Tunkhaununk, a large Crick about Eight Pole wide. The Gen, Cource this day N. N. W. 
Saw no enemy But plenty of Beef, Deer, Turkis but it was against orders to fire. 

August 4th. The Gen' Beat this morning at day lite. The infintry Marched at 5, 
the Main boady at six. , Marched this day t3 miles to a fine bottom, by the name of Van- 
derlip's Plantation, abounding with Excellent English Grass. On our march we Crossed 

18 



138 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

several fine streams of water, viz. Meshapon Crick & Eight Miles from our last Encamp- 
ment oather small streams, Not knowing by any pirticular Name ; Likewise crossed sora. 
very high hils the first three Mils from our Encampment, at the foot which Run a pleas- 
ant stream of water. The asent of this hill amazing Steep and danjerous for Pack horses. 
Crossed som Bade Swamps and Defils. The Genl Course this day N, W, The fleet 
3 mils in the rere this eavening. Saw no Enemy this day; 

August 5th. This Morning the Genl Beat at 5. We did not March till Eight o'clock 
owing to the boats being in the rere. Marched this dayg)^ miles toW'ialusing, a Noated 
Indian Town formaly sitled by Moravian Indians who professed Christianity. This town, 
consisted of between 80 or go Neat Log Houses Regularly built, likewise a Large Church. 
This Town and the land ajacent formerly Belonged to an Indian Chief by the name of 
Joab Chillanay, which in this present Contest & before has Behaved frendly. This place 
is at present Laid waste partly by our own people and the Indiens ; not the aperence of a. 
horse To be seen, but the Soyl exceeding fine, abounding with the fine.st Grass I Ever saw- 
in a Wild Contry, Chiefly blue Grass & Clover, on our March we Crossed two pleasant 
Streams of water. The first two Miles From our last Encampment by the Name of Tus- 
carogue, the oather notnoing by any Pirticuler name ; Likewise passd. the place where 
Col. Hartly defeted the Indiens in 78. We then asended a hill knowing by the Name of 
Wealusing Hill, the asent Very Gradual, the desent Very steep ; this Hill from the acent 
to the Bottom near two mils. From the Top of Sd Hill we had a very fine Prospect of 
the River, which apered Very Beautiful winding round the Point of a hill. On ye South 
West side, in the form of a horse shew, fresh Tracks of Indiens ware Discovered, but 
saw none, tho very Contrary to our Expectasion. The Infintry Troops I continue with, 
under the Command of Ganl Hand. Encamped at Wealusing Creek i^ ™les from the 
place Where Wealusing old Town stood. We lost three men this day, two by fatigue &. 
one drounded, the Last a Fifer Belonging to Coin Prockter's Train of Artilary. Th& 
Genl Corse this Day W be N. 

August 6th. Lay By this Day for the men to refresh them Selves and draw provisions, 
and expects to March to Morrow Morning. 

August 7th Rainy Weather Great Part of Last Night & this Morning, which pre- 
vented our marching this Day. 

August 8. This morning the Genl Beat at day brake, the Infintry marched at 5, the- 
main boady March'd at 6.' Mirch'd this day to Wissahin creek, oatherwise Rush Meadow- 
Creek, distant I3j^ Miles from our last Encampment. Encamped this Eavening in a bot- 
tom abounding with High Grass and Grate Quantitis of heasil Bushes very Full of Nuts,. 
Though two Green for use. The main Boady Encamped three Miles in our Rear, at a. 
place calld. the standing stone flatts. On our March this day we crossed Repeated hills 
and some small Runs. Not any pirticuler name. The Genl Course this day N. W. Saw 
no Enemy. 

August gth. Lay by this day till 10 o'clock a. m. waiting for the Main body to Com 
up. Marchd half past 10. Encamped this Eavening at 5 o'clock P. M. in the upper 9fie- 
kenunk Flatts, a Delightful even Bottom Containing about one Hundred Acres of very 
fine meadow land, abounding with fine Grass. The Road we passed this day much the- 
same as Yesterday, except crossing one very High Mountain known by the name of Break- 
neck Hill. The desent very Steep & Dangerous. Crossing this hill we had three 
Bullocks Killd. at the foot of which we crossd. a small run. Shortly after passed a large- 
Indien Camp. The Distence the Infintry This day n Miles, the Genl Course this day 
N. N. W. Saw no Enemy, but Fresh Tracks. 

August loth, I77g. Reany Weather ys morning and Great part of last night. The- 
Array Lay by this day in order to draw provisions. A fire was seen last Night on a. 
Mountain on the opposid side of the River by our weators supposed to be maid by 
Indiens. This day a party of 500 Men, with a sufficiency of Offasirs Reconitered the 
country as far as oppasite the Mouth of Tioga. Major Hoops with fore Men swam over 
the River and found a Milks Cow on the flats, supposed to be lost by Indiens who had 
fled at our aproach. 



TFlOMAS GRANT. 139 

August nth. This Morning the Genl Beat at 6 o'clock. The hole army marched 
Near Sevin. Marched this day to Tioga, an Indien Town, or Rather the place where an In- 
dien Town formerly stood, In the forks of the River Susquehanah and Cayuga, where the 
main army Encamped in a Deliteful Extensive Bottom, abounding with Excellent Grass. 
The Ihfintry Encamped i'/ Miles in frunt in a narrow Neck of Land in winth (width) 
about 20 pole, a place where the Savages used to Carry their Canews From one River to 
the oather, known by the name of the Carrying place about two miles blow The forks. 
The whole Army forded the River Susquahanna', the manner in which it was performed 
was by forming Plotoons, and Each Man Grasping his fellow supported Each O.ither. 
Genl Hand who commanded the Infintcy quit his horse and waded with cheerfullness. 
The Watter was Rappid and Took them to the middle, not with standing The whole 
army Cros.sed in the space of half an hour without the Loss of Either M,an or horse, or 
any Baggage. The Sight was Beautiful and pleasing, but must have been very Tarifying 
to the Enemy who, its very probible saw us from the Neighburing hills which overlook 
the water. We likewise crosssed Tioga or Cayuga much in the same manner as before, 
but much Shallower and not more than half as wide.. On the south side Cayuga River, 
near the mouth, in the place where Queen Esther's Castle stood. Rany Weather Great 
part of this afternoon. Saw no Enemy ; the Genl Course this day due North ; the Dis- 
tint from Wyoming to Tioga old Town 80 mils, actual measure. 

August 12th. Fair weather but very warm. Last Eavening a small scout was sent to 
Chimung to reconiter The Enimy. They Returned this afternoon with Inflrmation that 
the Enemy wase in Possession of that place. In Consequence of which Genl Sullivan 
ordered the trupes surved with a gill of Liquor pr man, at about, eight o'clock this Even- 
ing The Trupers Mooved of in a very Silent manner. Genl Hand's Light Infintry In 
front as usual, all except the Gard That was left for the safety of the Camp. We 
Marched all this Night past through very Difficult Narrow Defiles. 

August 13th. This Morning about 6 o'clock a. m. we Entered Chemung Town, 
which the Enemy has Just left with Precipitation leaving behind them a Quantity of 
striped Linning deer Skins, Bear Skins, Kettles, plates. Knives, Ladles, and a number of 
articles of Varyous kinds, which the Soldiours soon maid themselves masters of, and Fire 
sit to the town, which Consisted of neer 100 Houses, Great and small. Genl Hand was 
ordered with the light Infintry to pursue the Enemy and ware one miles above the town, 
his Advanced Guard was fired on by the Indians Who in Ambush, and at the first fire 
Killd 3 privets and wonded two ofifasers, viz Captn Carbury & Adjutant Huston, one 
Guide and 3 privets ; the Fire was Returned by our people which obliged them to Quit 
the Ground. The Kild and wounded ware "braught of the field, we pursued the Indians 
neer a mile, then orders came to Genl Hand to return to the Town, which by that time 
was consumed ; then orders was Given to Genl Maxwell and Genl Poor to send Partis 
from their Reispective Brigades to cut down the Corn on the opposite side of the river, 
which they did to the amount of 15 or 20 acres, amongst which was Cucombers, Wat?r 
Millions, pumpkins. Squashes and Beans, during the time they ware destroying the corn, 
they ware fird on by two Indians, who kild one & wounded two. Our people Returned 
the fire & soon Repulsed the Enemy, though uncertin whather they kild any or no. 
About two o'clock p. M. the trups Marched for Tioga where they arived at 6 o'clock in 
the Evening without any molestation on our Return. 

August 14th. Noathing Material this day. Fair weather and warm. 

August 15th. Fair weather and warm. This day about 4 o'clock r. m. a fue men 
who ware looI;ing Horses on the opposid side of the Cayuga River, was fired on by the 
Indiens who kild one, a pack horse driver From Wyoming, and wounded one oather who 
maid his askape ; the slain they sculped and Gave the war whoop ; they likewise shott a 
Bullock which our people applyd to there own use, as the Beef was Good. 

August i6th. This day a Detachment of goo men with a sufficiency of offasirs under 
the command of Genl Poor and Hand were sent up the River Susquehanna in order to 
form a Junction with Genl Clinton who is on his march Towards this place— fair weather 
this day. 



140 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

August 17th. Fair weather this day and Great preparations for Securing our stores 
and Gitting in Readiness for marching as soon as Possable. Genl Clintons Army arrives. 
This afternoon about five o'cloclc a fue men who ware Hunting their offasirs Horses about 
one mile in f runt of the advanced picquet, was fird on by Indians who shott one man 
through the Boady with three Balls, afterwards speered, tommyhowkd and sculpd him, 
Likewise shot an oather through the Arm, the Man Returned the fire and maid his escape. 

August l8th. Noathing meterial this Day. But the usual preporations for marching, 
fair weather and warm. N. B. The' mornings is Genl foggy till between seven and 
eight o'clock in the morning. 

August 19, Very foggy this Morning. The Remaining part of this day cloudy and 
cool. 

August 20th. Rainy weather this day and Great part of Last Night, This morning 
an Express boat arived informing the Junction of Genl Clinton and the troops Sent from 
this post ; they are Expected here to morrow if the weather pirmits. 

August 21st. Fine Agreeable Weather this Day. 

August 26th. This Day at twelve o'clock P. M. the Army marched from Tioga, En- 
camped three miles up the Cayuga Branch. 

August 27. March'd this day 7 miles, on our march passed one very bade defile which 
much damaged our Ammunition wagons. 

April (August) 28th. March'd this day two miles to Chemung, a noted Indian Town 
which we Destroyed the r3th Instant. In this days march we passed one very bade De- 
file which occasioned the Army to forde the Cayuga branch two different Times. 

August 29th 1779. Marched this day 4J^ miles to lower Newton. On our march 
passed the Hill where Genl Hand was fired on by the Indians the 13th Instant. Three 
miles from Chemung, our Advanced party discovered the Enemy, who had Erected a 
Brest work on a steep Bank on the West side of a Large Run or Defile which we ware 
• obliged to pass. The Genl ofifisers ware Emediately informed of the Disposition. Genl 
SuUivin Gave Genl Poor orders to march Round a very High hill in order to gain the 
Enemys Rear, at which time Major Pave to keep up a slow fire on there front, in order to 
amuse them with his Core of Rifil men, who did Considarable Execution. Genl Hand 
was ordered to be in Readiness with his Brigade of Light Troopers to force there Lines as 
soon as Janaral poor should begin The fire, seconded by Genl Maxwill & Clinton ; the 
way Genl Poor had to pass in order to Gain there Road being very Lifficult, occasioned 
the tinfe to elaps Before he coud Compleat his Entention ; Genl Sullivih at the Expera- 
tion Time Limited for Gen Poor to Gain there Rear, ordered the cannon to be braught up 
and open upon The Enemys Works which occasioned them to leave Those Works and 
Retire towards the hill where Genl Poor began the attact which for som minuts was very 
hot. But soon maid the Enemy Retire, leaving A noraber of there Dead on the field, 
twelve of which was sculped. Genl Hand at the Junction the fire began on the Right. 
Advanced in front, but could not overtake There Rear. Encamp'd this Eaveningon these 
ground, two prisners were taken this day, one a white man, the other a Neagro. who 
Informed that Butler there commander in Chie', Brant, McDonald & Butlers Son, with 
thire hole force, to the amount of Eight Hundred, ware this day Engagd. our Loss this 
Day was very Inconsiderable ; We had but two men killed, 3 offasirs and about 15 men 
slitely wounded, som of which are since Dead. 

August 30th. Lay by this Day in order to unload our boats and send the wounded to 
our Garason at Tioga. 

August 31st. Marched this Day 10 miles ; Encamped this Evaning on the side of a 
large Crick not known by any pirticular Name ; passd. this day Newtown, after Passing 
it we Steered Due North. 

September ist 1779. Marched this day r2>^ miles to French Catheronies Towns, 3 
miles from our Last Encampment, We came on the Head waters of the Sinica Creek 
which Emties itself into the River St Laurance 3,'.( miles, entered a Great Swamp, The 
Timber chiefly white Pine and Hemlock, which was 4 miles in Length ; We then Entred 
a fine Bottom, the Timber chiefly Sugar Tree & Walnut ; We entred this town about 
Eight o'clock at Night, which from apperence was Lately Evacuated. 



THOMAS GRANT. 141 

In this Town we found considerable plunder, amongst oather commodates one old Indian 
Squaw Supposed to be above one Hundred years of age. 

Septemuer 2, 1779. Lay by this day in order to colect the Baggag Lost Last Night 
from The pack horses, and git in Readyness For marching To Morrow Morning early. 

Sept. 3d 1779, Marched this day 11^ miles and Encamped about 4 o'clock, i'. M. 
about }4 mile from the side of a large Lake known By the Name of The Senica Lake ; 
The Land we passd This day Exceeding fine. The Timber Chiefly White oke, hickory, 
and walnut. 

September 4th. 1779. Marched This day 13 miles Through a Contry which Exceeds 
any Land I ever saw, abonding with Locust, Walnut, hickry, and oather Timber. The 
Good Land appears to be ExtinC'ive. Encamped this Eavining about sun set near the 
Sinika Lake as aforementioned. 

September 5, 1779. Marched this day 3 Miles to Conday alice Appletown, a large 
Indian Town abounding with' a quantity of Frute Trees where we Ray took a prisoner 
which the Indians had Captured at Wyoming in August '76, who informed that The 
Indians war making all Speed for niagara. 

September 6, 1779. Marched this day and Encamped on the Banks of the Senica 
Lake ; the Good Land Continues. 

Sept 7th. Marched this day 11^ Miles To A Very Large Indian Town by the Name 
of Cannadisago, or the Sinica Castle, which appeared to be Evacuated but a fue Hours ; 
in said Town was found a Child of about 3 years of age partly Indian and partly white, 
likewise a Great Quantity of plunder which was Collected by the Soldiers from the differ- 
ent Houses, such as Deer Skins, Bear Skins &c. Crossed in this days march the outlet of 
Sinica Lake, the lenth of the Lake 36 miles Actual Measure. The Course in Genl. from 
Newtown to the outlet nearly North, but now Westwardly. 

September 8. 1779. This Day the Army Lay by at Connadesago', paries ware 
Detached to burn the Neighbouring Townes and Destroy the Corn; and Expect to march 
tomorrow Morning for the Genesees River, orders ware Issued this E^vening by The 
Commander in Chief, for a Captain, Subaltern, & 50 to Return to Tioga in order to con- 
voy the sick, Likewise to take with them the Diseabled horses. 

September gth. Rainy Weather Last night and this Morning, which prevented our 
marching so Early this morning as we intended. Marched this day 7^ miles chiefly thro 
Swampy Ground, but Very little waiter. 

September loth. This morning the Genl bate }4 Past Six. The Army marched at 
seven. Marched This Day g^ miles thro a very fine level Contry ; at seven miles came 
to a fine Lake about 3}4 Miles in Lenth and one mile Broad. The outlet of said Lake 
Eaqual as large as the Sinica Lake ; the direction of this Lake much the same As the 
Sinica Lake, but cannot larn the name ; Eight miles and 53 chane came to Anandague, a 
large Indian Town, the Buildings superior to any We have yet seen. This town was soon 
laid In ashes. We Encamped this Eavening ij^ Miles North of Sd Town, neer several 
Large cleer Cornfields which sarved for forrage for our Horses And Cattle ; the corn was 
likewise of Grate Sarvis To the Soldiers who are on half allowance. 

Septmber irth. This morning the Genl bate at Day lite. The Army Marched at 
Sun Rise. Marched this Day I3J^ Miles to Haunyauya an Indian Town situated in a 
fine Bottom Near a lake of the same name which to apperence had been left But a fue Hours. 
The Town Consisted of Eight Houses, The Land vve passed this days march Inferior to 
any we have seen since we came to the Sinaca Lake ; But the Bottoms some miles Round 
The town Eaqual to any in the Senaca Contry. This lake Runs neer a due North Corce ■ 
the three Lakes, viz the Sinaca, Kanandague and Haunyauye Run Parallel to Each Oathre 
in Lenth about Six miles and in Wenth I mile, abonding with Great plenty of fish of 
Different Kinds. 

September 12th. Reany Weathey last nite and this morning. Marched this day u 
Miles and Encamped About Sun Set }^ miles From Ajulsa Town : the Land we passed 
This Day Eaqual to any we have yet seen : the Timber Walnut, Hickry, Locust, White- 
oak, &c. Six miles from Haunyauya Town \ye Passed a long lake which Runs paralell 



142 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

To the Gather by the name of Aionyedice, otherwise Longnarrow Lake : the genl Corse 
this Day S. W. 

September 13, 1779. This Morning the Genl Beat at day lite ; the army marched 1% 
miles to Agusta Town, where the army lay by To kill provisions, viz Cattle, and Issue to 
the 'I'roops. Last Eavening' a party of men Commanded by Lieut Boyd, in number 25, 
were sent To Reconniter the Jenessee Town, who did not Return till the next day ; on 
there Return were met by 150 or two Hundred Indians ; After a Considerable Action the 
offasir and 73 of his Party ware Either Killed or maid prisoners ; the men who Escaped 
informs that the party ware sarounded, But fought and Ret^eted & Killed several, they 
think as many as ware Lost on our side. About half an hour afterwards Myself and fore 
Chane Caryers who ware about one and a half Miles Advanced of the troops ware fired 
on by Several Indians who Lay in Ambush . a Corporal of the name of Calhoun, who 
came Vollenteerly with me, was mortally wounded and Died the next day ; the Indians 
pirsued us ^ of a Mile, but without success ; we being Unarmed was obleeged to Run ; 
marched this Day 8 Miles To an Indian Town by the Name Gessauraloughin, half a mile 
from the chief Indian Town ; an Indian was scalped by a Rifleman ; the Genl Corse this 
■day West. ' 

September 14. This day the troops Did not March till 12 o'clock, on account of there 
Being imployed .in destroying Corn ; Marched this day 5^ Miles to the Chief Chenasee 
Town Calld. the Chenassefe Castle 2^ Miles ; Crossed the chenassee River Likewise, the 
most Delitefull Bottom I ever saw, supposed to contain 10.000 acres, chiefly cleared fit 
for excellent Meadow., these flats and the land Adjacent is allowed to exceed any thing in 
America. 

The Chenassee Castle, or the town of that name, contained about 125 Note Indians 
Housis which. ware burnd. the next Day ; Likewise about 150 or 200 acres of fine Corn 
was pulled of the stalks and Burnt ; at this Town we found the dead Boadis of two of 
our men who ware takin the day Before and Inhumanly Murdred by the Savages ; one 
supposed to be the Boady of Lt. Boyd, and the oather a sajt. there heads were Cut off 
and skinned, there Toe Nails pulled off, in short it was the most shocking site my Eys 
Ever saw. 

September 15th 1779. This day, after destroying the Town and Corn, we Returned 
,1 Bout 5 miles and Encamped in the Chenessee fiatts. 

Sept 16th. This Morning the troops ware imployed till 10 o clock Destroying Corn we 
then Marched 7 Miles to Ajutsa where the Army Encamped for the Night. Parties ware 
sent in sarch of the Dead Boadis who ware with Lt. Boyd : 16 of them were found, being 
all that ware missing except two ; from Circumstance it appeared they had Defended 
Themselves very Bravely till they .ware all Kild. and it is thought Kild a nomber of the 
Enemy, as many fresh Indians Graves were found at Chenassee, which I omitted Entring 
in ray Remarks of the 14 ; some ware opanid by the soldiers Contrary to orders, and the 
Boadies of Indians found that ware shot ; we Destroyed the Remainder of the Corn at 
this town this eavenning. 

Sept 17th. This morning the Army marched at sunrise ; marched this day 12 ;< miles 
to Haunyauya were we had left a Garason which I omitted mentioning in my Remarks of 
the I2th, where we found all safe. 

September i8th. 1779. Marched this day from Haunyauya to Kanandague, Being 
13K Miles, the Ground not being Convenient for Incamping, the Army marched across 
the outlet of Kenindugui Lake, about one mile further, and Incamped for the Night. 

Sept 20. This day a Detachment of six Hundred men, with a sufficiancy of offasirs 
Under the Command of Col Wm. Butler, ware sent into the Cayuga Country, with which 
Detachment I was ordred ; they marchd from Connadesago 3 o'clock, p. M. Marched 
this day Eight Miles to an Indian Town by the name of Sauyjpu, * where about Eight 
Acres of Corn was Destroyed. 

The following notes by General John S. Clark are taken from No. I of the Publica- 
tions of the Cayuga County Historical Society, Auburn, N. Y., 1879 : 

* SoAWTAOE or Long Falls, an imporlant Indian town of eighteen houses, located on the north bank 
of Seneca river at present site of Waterloo, in Seneca County. It was partially destroyed on Septem- 



THOMAS GRANT. 143 

September 20th 1779. The Detachment marchd this Morning at 7 o'clock A. m. 16^ 
"Miles to a smawl Indian Settlement * i'^ Miles short of Cayuga Castle, where we In- 
camped for the Night, at-8>^ miles Crossed the outlet of the Cayuga Lake, which in 
Brenth was a Bout 70 Perches, and more than middle Deep to the Men. Neer the outlet 
Ave Destroyed two Indian Housis. The Name of The Place Choharof , and Destroyed 
•on the Lak in Different plasis Houses and Acros of Corn, but saw no Enemy. The Genl 
Corse since we crossed the out let neerly South, the Road not more than J^ A mile from 
the Lake at furthest : The Land midling. 

September 2 2d, 1779. Marched this Day at 6 o'clock, a. m. 2 Miles to the Cayuga 
•Castle,! an Indian Town of that name Containing in Number About 15 very Large 
■Square Logg Housis. I think the Building Superior to any yet hive seen. Cattle were 
Killed and three Days Beef Issued to the troops ; then Fetague partes were sent to destroy 
"the Corn, lo the amount of about no Acres, tho not all Distroyed this Day ; two oather 
Towns were Discovered, one 23 J^ miles from the Senica Lake, which we called upper 
■Cayuga, § containing 14 Large Housis ; the oather About two Miles East of the Castle, 
which we called Cayuga || Containing 13 Houses ; the trupes wer all imployed this day in 
Destroying Corn till after darke. We found at this Town apples, peaches, Potatos. 
Turnops, Onions, Pumpkins, Squashes, and Vegatabils of Various kinds in Great Plenty. 
September 23d 1779. This Day the trups ware imployed till 3 o'clock p. m. in Fin- 
ishing the Destruction of the Corn, and Burning the aforementiond. Towns within. 
Marched 5 Miles to an Indian town By the name of Chandot IJ or Peach Town, Remark- 
.able for a Large Peach — orchard Containing Hundred fine Thriving Peach Trees, like- 
wise Acres of Corn. This town contained about 12 or 14 Houses, chiefly old Buildings ; 
part of the Corn was Destroyed This Eavening. 

September 24th 1779. This morning the trups ware imployed in finishing the Dis- 
traction of the Corn and peach Trees ; at 10 o'clock A. M. fire was set to the Town, And 
the Detachment went of the Ground. Marchd this Day i6j^ Miles and Incamped on a 
Pleasant Hill ** neer a fine Creek, About one hour after Dark : the Land we passed This 
Day well Timbered, and the Soyl very good. But very scarce of water ; 9 miles from 
Chorndete we Crossed a streem of water which Fell over Rocks 80 feet Parpendiculor ; 3 
miles From we crossed a second streem f-j- which fell About 50 feet parpendicular, which 

"btir 8, diiriiifc the advance of the army by a pai-ty of vuUinceerr* under Col. Harper. George Grant 
mentions the fact of " several fish ponds abounding opposite the town." These were circular en- 
"Closures of stone from thirty to forty feet in diameter, built up on the rocky bed of the stream, where 
the water was neither very deep or rapid, so constructed as to permit the water to pass through, but to 
retain the fieli. 

* Gewauga, a small hamlet oV the present site of Union Springs in the town of Springport, on the 
-east Bide of Cayuga lake. 

t Choharo. — This was the Tichero or St. Stephen of the Jesuit Kelations, said to signify the place 
of rushes located at the foot of Cayuga lake on the east side at the exact point where the bridge of the 
Middle Turnpike left the east shore. The trail across the marsh followed the north bank of an ancient 
■channel of the Seneca river, which at an early day took that course. The turnpike afterwards followed 
Bubstantially the line of the trai and crossed the present line of the Cayuga and Seneca canal three 
times between Mud Lock and the old Dumont tavern on the opposiie side of the marsh. The salt 
■springs mentioned by Father Raffeix in 1672, were on the west side of the marsh about half a mile 
north of the N Y. C. Rail Road bridge, and on the bank of the ancient river channel. 

X Cayuga Castle, an Indian town containing fifteen very large houses of squared log^. located on 
the south line of the town of Springport in Cayuga County, on the north bank of Great Gully brook, 
■and from one to two miles from the lake. 

§ Upper Cayuga, an Indian town of fourteen very large houses located neai' the north line of the 
town of Ledyard in Cayuga County, on the south bank of Great Gully brook, and as appears on 
"the map. between one and two miles from the lake. 

II East Cayuga, or Old Town, contained thirteen houses located in the south-east corner of the 
town of Springport, as indicated on the map, from three to four miles from the lake, A site in the 
•south-west corner of Fleming was a site of this town at about this date. 

1 Chonodote, so named on Capt. Lodge's map, an Indian town of fourteen houses, on the site of 
present Aurora in Cayuga County ; according to George Grant's journal it contained fifteen hun- 
dred peach trees. 

** On the hill north of Ludlowville. 

•tt The first of these falls was probably on Mill Creek, two and a half miles south-west of Northville ; 
^he second near Lake Ridge in the town of Lansing- 



144 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

partly after Emptyed Them Selves into the Cayuga Lake. Saw no Enemy this day ; the 
Genl Course S. 30. E. 

September 25th 1779. Marched this morning at 6 o'clock, and Incamped at an In- 
dian Town 3^ miles above the Cyuga Lal<e ; the Town appeared to be Just Consumed, 
supposed to be Burnt by a Detachment from Genl Sullavin's Army.* The Town was 
situated on a Rising Ground, in a large beutifuU Vally ; The Soyl Eaqual to or Rather 
Superior To any in the Contary. Through which Runs Sevaral fine Streams of water ; 
the first a Creek about 4 poies wide, which falls from the Mountain the East side of the 
Valley about 120 feet parpendicular, into which Crick three oather fine streams Empis. 
The second Crick is the prinsable Supply of the Cayuga Lake, navigable for Large Ca- 
news or Boats To the Town. 

(The journal here ends abruptly) 



*CoRKORGONEi. was burned by the detachQient under Colonel Dearborn, See his account Septem- 
ber 24. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 



Adam Hubley, Lieutenant Colonel commanding the Eleventh Penn- 
sylvania Eegiment. Published in the appendix of Miner's Histoiy of 
"Wyoming. The original contained several illustrations, and maps, not 
in the published copy. The following is a reprint. This journal has 
also been republished in Pennsylvania Archives, New Series, Vol. XI. 
or Yol. II of the Eevolution. 

Adam Hubley was commissioned as First Lieutenant in the 1st Pa. 
Battalion, Oct. 27, 1775 ; promoted Major of one of the additional reg- 
iments in 1776 ; Lieutenant Colonel, 10th Pa. Reg't, March 12, 1777, 
ranking from Oct. 4, 1776 ; Lieut. Colonel Commandant 11th Pa. Reg't 
June 5, 1779 to rank from Feb'y 13, 1779 ; retired Jan'y 1, 1781 ; ap- 
pointed one of the auctioneers of Philadelphia, and died there of yellow 
fever in 1793. 

JOURNAL. 

GENERAL ORDERS. 

Head Quarters, Easton, May 24, A. D. , 1779. 
When the army shall be fully assembled the following arrangements are to take place : — 

Armandt's, Hubley's, Shott's, 6 companies 
of Rangers, Wm. Butler's battalion, Mor- 
gan's corps, and all volunteers who may join 
the army. 

Dayton, Shreeve, Ogden, Spencer, form- 
ing fight of first line. 

Cilley; Reed, Scammel, Courtland, and 
form left of first line. 

Livingston, Dubois, Gainsworth, Olden, 
and form second line or reserve. 

The right of the first line to be covered by 100 men, draughted from Maxwell's brigade, 
the left to be covered by 100 men detached from Poor's brigade, each flank of the second 
line to be covered by 50 men detached from Clinton's brigade, the flanking division on the 
right to consist of Hubley's regiment, and a draught from the line of 100 men, the flank- 
ing division on left to consist of the German battalion, and ipo draughted men from the 
line. 

19 



Light corps, commanded by Gen. Hand, 
to consist of — 

Maxwell's brigade consists of — 
Poor's brigade consists of — 



146 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

ORDER OF MARCH, 

The light corps will advance by the right of companies in files, and keep at least one 
mile in front. Maxwell's brigade will advance by its right in files, sections, or platoons, 
as the country will admit. Poor's brigade will advance by its left in the same manner. 
Clinton's brigade will advance by the right of regiment, in platoons, files, or sections, as 
the country will admit. All the covering parties and flanking divisions on the right will 
advance by their left ; those on the left of the army will advance by their right. The 
artillery and pack horses are to march in the centre, 

Should the army be attacked in front while on its march, the light corps will immedi- 
ately form to repulse the enemy, the flanking divisions will endeavor to gain the flanks 
and rear of the enemy. While the line is forming the pack horses will, in all cases, fall 
into the position represented on the annexed plan. .Should the enemy attack on either 
flank, the flanking division attacked will form a front, and sustain the attack till reinforced 
— in which case a part of the light corps is to be immediately detached to gain the ene- 
my's flank and rear, the covering parties of the 2d line to move to gain the other flank. 
Should the enemy attack our rear, the 2d line will face and form a front to the enemy, 
the covering parties of the first line will move to sustain it, while the flanking division 
face about and endeavor to gain their flank and rear. Should the light troops be driven 
back, they will pass through the intervals of the main army, and form in the rear. 
Should the'enemy in an engagement with the army, when formed, endeavor either flank, 
the covering party will move up to lengthen the line, and so much as may be found neces- 
sary from the flanking division will display outwards to prevent the attempt from succeed- 
ing. The light corps will have their advance and flank guards at a good distance from 
their main body. The flanking division will furnish flank guards, and the 2d line a rear 
^uard for the main army. 

When we find that the light corps are engaged in front, the front of the pack horses 
lialt, and the rear close up, while the columns move in a proper distance, close and dis- 
play, which will bring the horses in the position they are on the plan for the order of bat- 
tle. Should the attack be made on either, in flank or in rear, the horses must be kept in 
the position they are at the commencement of the attack, unless other -orders are then 
given. 

SKETCH NO. I. 

[The trees painted by the Indians, between Owego and Chokunut, on the head waters 
of the Susquehanna, with their characters.] 

Wyoming, July joth, ly/g. — Wyoming is situated on the east side of the east branch 
of the Susquehanna, the town consisting of about seventy houses, chiefly log buildings ; 
besides these buildings there are sundry larger ones which were erected by the army for 
the purpose of receiving stores, &c. , a large bake and smoke houses. 

There is likewise a small fort erected in the town, with a strong abatta around it, and a 
small redoubt to shelter the inhabitants in cases of an alarm. This fort is garrisoned by 
100 men, draughted from the western army, and put under the command of Col. Zeb'n 
Butler. I cannot omit taking notice of the poor inhabitants of the town ; two-thirds of 
them are widows and orphans, who, by the vile hands of the savages, have not only 
deprived some of tender husbands, some of indulgent parents, and others of affectionate 
friends and acquaintances, besides robbed and plundered of all their furniture and cloth- 
ing. In short, they are left totally dependent on the public, and are become absolute 
objects of charity. 

The situation of this place is elegant and delightful. It composes an extensive valley, 
bounded both on the east and west side of the river by large chains of mountains. The 
valley, a mere garden, of an excellent rich soil, abounding with large timber of all kinds, 
and through the center the east branch of the Susquehanna. 

NO. 2. A SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT At' WYO.MING. 

Wyoming, July jist, 7779. — Agreeable to orders, marched the western army under the 
command of Major General Sullivan, in the following order, from this place to Tioga. 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 147 

NO. 3. ORDER OF MARCH. 

The array being composed of the following regiments and brigades in following man- 
ner, viz.; — 

C Hubley, [ ^ jj^ents 
r^ u J' -n • J German, \ ^*'' ' } Compose 

Gen. Haads Bngade, ^^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ,,^^^ P,,p, 

f Dayton, 

Gen, Maxwell's brigade, S ,-^ j ' 
^ ' Ogden, 

[ Spencer, 

From main body. 

r Cilley, 

/-^ T. I L ■ J Reed, 

Gen. Poors bngade, Scammel, 

[ Courtland. 

Took up the line of march about one o'clock, P. M., viz.; light corps advanced in front 
•of main body about a mile ; vanguard, consisting of twenty-four men, under command of 
.a subaltern, and Poor's brigade, (main body,) followed by pack horses and cattle, after 
which one complete regiment, taken alternately from Maxwell's and Poor's brigade, (com- 
posed the rear guard.) 

Observed the country to be much broken and mountainous, wood chieHy low, and com- 
posed of pine only. I was struck on this day's march with the ruins of many houses, 
chiefly built of logs, and uninhabited ; though poor, yet happy in their situation, until 
that horrid engagement, when the British tyrant let loose upon them his emissaries, the 
savages of the wood, who not only destroyed and laid waste those cottages, but in cool 
blood massacred and cut off the inhabitants, not even sparing gray locks or helpless 
infancy. 

About 4 o'clock, P. M., arrived at a most beautiful plain, covered with an abundance of 
grass, soil excessively rich, through which run a delightful stream of water, known by "the 
name of Lackawanna ; crossed the same, and encamped about one mile on the northern 
side of it, advanced about one half mile in front of main body : after night fell in with 
rain — continued until morning. 

Distance of march this day, 10 miles. 

NO. 4. SKETCH OF THE ENCAMl'MENT AT LACKAWANNA. 

Sunday, August isi. — Continued at Lackawanna waiting for the fleet, which, by reason 
of considerable rapids, was detained until nearly 12 o'clock this day before the van could 
possibly cross there. In getting through, lost two boats, chief of their cargoes were 
saved. About 2 o'clock, P. M., the whole arrived opposite our encampment, in conse- 
quence of which received orders for a march, struck tents accordingly, and moved about 
2 o'clock, P. M. About one mile from the encampment, entered the narrows on the river, 
first detachment and left column under command of Capt. Burk, to join the right column 
of light corps, and cross the mountain, which was almost inaccessible, in order to cover 
the army from falling in an ambuscade. Whilst passing through the defile found passage 
through exceeding difficult and troublesome, owing to the badness of the path ; we 
passed' by a most beautiful cataract called the Spring Falls. To attempt a description of 
it would be almost presumption. Let this short account thereof suffice. The first or 
upper fall thereof is nearly ninety feet perpendicular, pouring from a solid rock, uttering 
fbrth a most beautiful echo, and is received by a cleft of rocks considerably more projected 
than the former, from whence it rolls gradually and empties into the Susquehanna. Light 
•corps passed and got through the defile about 6 o'clock, P. M ; arrived about dusk at a 
place called Quilutimunk, and encamped one mile in front of the place, occupied that 
night by the main army. 

The main army, on account of the difficult passage, marched nearly all night before 
they reached their encamping ground. Great quantities of baggage being dropped and 
left lying that night obliged us to continue on this ground. All the preceding day num- 



148 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

bers of our pack horses were sent back and employed in bringing on the scattered stores> 
&c. ; distance of march this day about 7 miles ; fine clear evening. Quilutimunk is a 
spot of ground situate on the river ; fine, open and clear ; quantity, about 1200 acres ; 
soil very rich, timber fine, grass in abundance, and contains several exceedingly fine 
springs. 

SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT AT QUILUTIMUNK. 

Monday, August 2(J. — In consequence of the difficult and tedious march the preceding 
day, the army received orders to continue on the ground this day, in the meantime to pro- 
vide themselves with five days provision, and getting every other matter in perfect readi- 
ness for a march next morning at 6 o'clock. Nothing material happened during our stay 
on this ground. 

Wednesday, jd, — Agreeable to orders took up the line of march at 6 o'clock, A. M. Took 
the mountains after we assembled — found them exceedingly level for at least six miles. 
Land tolerable, the timber, viz., pine and white oak, chiefly large. About three miles 
from Quilutimunk we crossed near another cataract, which descended ^the mountain in 
three successive falls, the least of which is equal if not superior to the one already 
described. Although it is not quite so high, it is much wider, and likewise empties into 
the Susquehanna, seemingly white as milk. They are commonly known by the name of 
Buttermilk Falls. 

SKETCH OF BUTTERMILK FALLS. 

About 12 o'clock we descended the mountains near the river ; marched about one mile 
on flat piece of ground, and arrived at Tunkhannunk, a beautiful stream of water so called, 
which empties into the Susquehanna ; crossed the same, and encamped on the river about 
I o'clock, P. M. Nothing material happened this day excepting a discovery of two Indians 
by the party on the west side of the river. Indians finding themselves rather near the 
party were obliged to leave their canoe, and make through the mountains. Party took 
possession of the canoe, and brought it to their encamping place, for that evening imme- 
diately opposite the main army. Distance of march this day, 12 miles. 

SKETCH OF TUNKHANNUNK ENCAMPMENT. 

I Wednesday ^/A.-^The army was in motion 5 o'clock, A. M., and moved up the river for 
three miles, chiefly on the beach, close under an almost inaccessible mountain. We then 
ascended the same with the greatest difficulty, and continued on it for near seven miles. 
A considerable distance from the river the path along the mountain was exceedingly rough, 
and carried through several very considerable swamps, in which were large morasses. The 
land in general thin and broken, abounds in wild deer and other game. We then descended 
the mountain, and at the foot of it crossed a small creek called Massasppi, immediately 
where it empties into the river. We then continued up the same until we made Vander- 
lip's farm, discovered several old Indian encampments ; one of them appeared to have 
been very large. 

The land, after crossing Massasppi, was exceedingly fine and rich, the soil very black 
and well timbered, chiefly with black walnut, which are remarkably large, some not less 
than six feet over, and excessively high. It is likewise well calculated for making fine 
and extensive meadows. The main army took post for this night on Vanderlip's farm, 
and the infantry advanced about one mile higher up, and encamped about i o'clock, P. 
M., on a place known by the name of Williamson's farm. Distance of march this day, 
14 miles ; fine clear day, very hot. 

SKETCH OF THE ENCAMPMENT, VANDERLIP'S AND WILLIA.MSON's FARM. 

Thursday ^th. — In consequence of orders issued last evening to march this morning at 
5 o'clock, we struck tents and loaded baggage. But the boats being considerably 
impeded by the rapidness of the water some miles below our encampment, could not 
reach us, and we were obliged to halt all night. Did not join us until g o'clock, A. M., 
all which lime we were obliged to halt. On their arrival the whole army was put in 
motion, and as more danger on this day's march was apprehended than any before, the 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 149 

following distribution of the army took place, viz. : The right and left columns of the 
light corps, conducted by Gen. Hand, moved along the top of a very high mountain ; 
main body of light corps, under Col. Hubley's command, vifith an advance of twenty-four 
men, moved on the beach several miles on the edge of the water. The main army, 
followed by the baggage, &c., flanked on their right by four hundred men, who had like- 
wise to take this mountain. Thus we moved for several miles, then arrived in a small 
valley called Depue'sfarm ; the land very good. Observed and reconnoitered this ground 
for some distance, it being the place on which Col. Hartley was attacked by the savages 
last year, on his return from Tioga to Wyoming. The country being fine and open, 
some loss was sustained on both sides ; the savages at last gave way, and Col. Hartley 
pursued his route to Wyoming without further molestation. Continued our march for 
about one mile, and formed a junction with the parties on the right flank, ascended a high 
mountain, and marched for some miles on the same. Land poor, timber but small, 
chiefly pine, after which descended the mountain nearly one mile in length, and arrived 
in a fine and large valley, known by the name of Wyalusing. The main army took post 
at this place, and the infantry advanced about one mile in front of them, and encamped 
about 2 o'clock, P. M. Clear but very warm day ; distance of march this day, ioj4 
miles. 

This valley was formerly called Oldman's farm, occupied by the Indians and white 
people ; together, they had about sixty houses, a considerable Moravian meeting house, 
and sundry other public buildings ; but since the commencement of the present war the 
whole has been consumed and laid waste, partly by the savages and partly by our own 
people. The land is extraordinarily calculated chiefly for meadows. The grass at this 
time is almost beyond description, high and thick, chiefly blue grass, and the soil of the 
land very rich. The valley contains about 1200 acres of land, bounded on one side by 
an almost inacessible mountain, and on the other by the river Susquehanna. 

SKETCH OP THE E.NCAMPMENT AT "WYALUSING. 

Friday, Aug. 6th. — The boats not arriving before late this day, the army received 
orders to continue on the ground. In the meantime to be provided with three days pro- 
vision, get their arms and accoutrements in perfect order, and be in readiness for a march 
early to-morrow morning. A sub. and twenty-four men from my regiment reconnoitered 
vicinity of camp ; returned in the evening ; made no discoveries. Rain all night. 

Saturday yih. — The heavy rain last night and this morning rendered it utterly impossible 
to march this day ; continued on the ground for further orders. 

A captain and thirty men from my regiment reconnoitered vicinity of camp ; made no 
discoveries. 

This day received a letter (by express) from his Excellency Gen. Washington, dated 
VIead Quarters, at New Windsor. 

Sunday, 8th. — The army moved (in same order as on 5th) this morning at 5 o'clock ; 
crossed Wyalusing creek, and ascended an extensive mountain, the top remarkably level ; 
land poor, and timber small. Arrived about 10 o'clock, A. M., at the north end, and 
descended the same close on the river side, and continued along the beach for some dis- 
tance, after which we entered an extensive valley or plain, known by the name of Stand- 
ing Stone ; made a halt here for about half an hour for refreshments. This place derives 
its name from a large stone standing erect in the river immediately opposite this plain. 
It is near twenty feet in height, fourteen feet in width, and three feet in depth. This 
valley abounds in grass, the land exceedingly fine, and produces chiefly white oak, black 
walnut, and pine timber. After refreshment continued our march along the same valley ; 
land not quite so fine. Arrived about 3 o'clock, P. M., at a small creek called Wesauking ; 
crossed the same, and encamped about one mile beyond it, and immediately on the river. 

Four o'clock, P. M. — Since our arrival at this place some of my officers discovered a 
small Indian encampment, seemingly occupied but a few days since ; found near the 
same a neat canoe, which they brought off. This morning the scout, (of three men,) sent 
up to Sheshequin some days since, returned without making anv discoveries. 

General Sullivan, on account of his indisposition, came on in the boat. 



150 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

SKETCH OF STANDIiNG STONE. 
SKETCH OF ENXAMPMEMT AT WESAUKING. 

Monday, August gi/i. — The boats not being able lo reach Wesauking, the ground on 
which light corps encamped preceding evening. The main body in consequence thereof 
took post and encamped at Standing Stone, about three miles below light corps encamp- 
ment, for protection of the boats. 

The light corps, on account of their detached situation from main body the preceding 
evening, and apprehending some danger, being considerably advanced in the enemy's 
country, for their greater security stood under arms from 3 o'clock, A. M., until dayhght, 
where they dismissed, with orders to hold themselves in readiness at a moment's warning. 
Previous to their dismissal my light infantry was sent out to reconnoitre the vicinity of 
encampment ; returned about 7 o'clock, A. M. — made no discovery. 

This morning, 9 o'clock, boats hove in sight, in consequence thereof received orders to 
strike tents, and be in readiness for a march ; main army in the meantime arrived about 
10 o'clock ; the whole was in motion, marched through a difficult swamp ; at north of 
same crossed a small stream, and ascended a hill ; lands poor, and wood but indifferent. 
About 12 o'clock, P. M., descended the same, and entered a small valley ; continued 
about half mile, when we ascended a very remarkable high mountain, generally known by 
the name of Break Neck Hill. 

This mountain derives its name from the great height, of the difficult and narrow pas- 
sage, not more than one foot wide, and remarkable precipice which is immediately per- 
pendicular, and not less than 180 feet deep. One mis-step must inevitably carry you 
from top to bottom without the least hope or chance of recovery. At north end of same 
entered a mountainous and beautiful valley called Sheshecununk. General .Sullivan, with 
a number of officers, made a halt here at a most beautiful run of water, took a bite of 
dinner, and proceeded on along the valley, which very particularly struck my attention. 
Any quantity of meadow may be made here ; abounds with all kinds of wood, particular- 
ly white oak, hickory, and black walnut ; the ground covered with grass and pea vines ; 
the soil in general very rich. About 4 o'clock, P. M., arrived on the bank of the river ; 
the whole encamped in a line on a most beautiful plain ; consists chiefly in meadows, the 
grass remarkably thick and high. On our arrival here made discoveries of some new In- 
dian tracks, places on which fire had just been, and fresh boughs cut, and appeared as if 
the place had just been occupied a few hours before our arrival. Distance of march this, 
day, gj^ miles. 

SKETCH OF ENCAMPMENT SHEbHECUN U.N'K. 

Tuesday, August loi/i. — Set in with rain, and boats not reaching this place before 9 
o'clock this morning ; army received orders to continue on the ground until further orders. 
Men drew and cooked two days provisions. 

One regiment from each of the brigades attended General Sullivan. The general and 
field officers of the army whilst they were reconnoitering the river and ground near Tioga 
branch, about three miles above this place, returned without any discoveries worthy of 
remark about 4 o'clock, P. M. 

Wednesday, August iilh. — Agreeable to orders the army moved this morning at S 
o'clock, A. M., in the usual order, flight corps moved half an hour before the main 
army, and took post on the banks of the river near the fording place. On the arrival of 
the main army and boats. Col. Forest drew up his boat at the fording place, and fixed 
several six pounders on the opposite shore in order to scour the woods and thickets, and 
prevent any ambuscade from taking place. In the meantime the light corps marched by 
platoons, linked together, on account of the rapidity of the water, and forded the same, 
and effected a landing about g o'clock ; they immediately advanced about one hundred 
yards from the river, and formed in line of battle, in order to cover the landing of the 
main army, which was safely effected about lO o'clock, A. M., after which came on pack 
horse's, cattle, &c., covered by a regiment which composed the rear guard. About half 
past ten o'clock the whole moved in following order. 



LTEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBL?:Y. 151 



ORDER OF MARCH UP TIOGA FLATS. 

Previous to our arrival on the flats we had to pass about one and a half mile through a 
dark, difficult swamp, which was covered with weeds and considerable underwood, inter- 
spersed with large timber, chiefly buttonwood. We then entered the flats near the place 
on which Queen Esther's palace stood, and was destroyed by Col. Hartley's detachment 
last fall. The grass is remarkably thick and high. We continued along the same for 
about one mile, and arrived at the entrance of Tioga branch into Susquehanna about i 
o'clock ; we crossed the same, and landed on a peninsula of land which extends towards 
Chemung, and is bounded on the east by Susquehanna, and on the west by Tioga branch, 
and continued up the same for about two miles and a half and encamped. This penin- 
sula is composed of excellent meadow and upland ; grass is plenty, and timber of all kinds, 
and soil in general good ; distance of march this day, three miles. Since our arrival a 
scout of eight men was ordered up to reconnoitre Chemung, and endeavor to make dis- 
coveries of the number of savages, and their situation, if possible. 

Thursday, Awfust 12th. — Tioga Plain. This being a plain calculated to cover the 
western army during the expedition to the northern part of it, a garrison for that purpose 
is to remain until- our return. Sundry works for the security of the same are now erect- 
ing about two and a half miles distant from where Tioga branch empties into the Susque- 
hanna, and where the two rivers are about 190 yards distance from each other ; those 
works to extend from river to river. 

Captain Cummings with his scout (sent out last evening) returned this day 11 o'clock, 
A. M.; made several discoveries at Chemung ; an Indian village twelve miles distance 
from this place ; in consequence of which a council of war sat, and determined an expe- 
dition should immediately take place for the reduction of the same. The array (two regi- 
ments excepted) received orders to be in readiness for an immediate march. Eight o'clock, 
P. -M., the whole were in motion, and proceeded for Chemung. 

SKF.TCH ON ENCAMPMF-NT AND WORKS ON TIOGA PLAINS. 

Aiis;ust Tjth,iyyg. — Eight o'clock, P. M., the army having marched last evening in the 
following order, viz.: Light corps, under command of (jen. Pland, led the van, then fol- 
lowed Gens. Poor and Maxwell's brigades, which formed main body, and corps de reserve, 
the whole under the immediate command of Maj. Gen. Sullivan. The night bein^ 
excessively dark, and the want of proper guides, impeded our march, besides which we 
had several considerable defiles to march through, that we could not possibly reach Chi - 
mung till after daylight. The morning being foggy favoured our enterprise. Our pilol. 
on our arrival, from some disagreeable emotions he felt, could not find the town. We 
discovered a few huts, which we surrounded, but found them vacated ; after about one 
hour's march we came upon the main town. The following disposition for surprising the 
same was ordered to take place, viz.. Two regiments, one from the light corps, and one 
from main body, were ordered to cross the river and prevent the enemy from making their 
escape that way, should they still hold the town. The remainder of the light corps, viz., 
two independent companies, and my regiment, under command of Hand, were to make 
the attack on the town. Gen. Poor was immediately to move up and support the light 
corps. We moved in this order accordingly, but the savages having probably discovered 
our scouting party the preceding day, defeated our enterprise by evacuating the village 
previous to our coming, carrying off with them nearly all their furniture and stock, and 
leaving an empty village only, which fell an easy conquest about 5 o'clock, A. M. 'The 
situation of this village was beautiful ; it contained fifty or sixty houses, built of logs and 
frames, and situate on the banks of Tioga branch, and on a most fertile, beautiful, and 
extensive plain, the lands chiefly calculated for meadows, and the soil rich. 

The army continued for some small space in the town. Gen. Hand, in themeantiine, 
advanced my light infantry company, under Capt. Bush, about one mile beyond the vil- 
lage, on a path which leads to a small Indian habitation, called Newtown. On Ckpt. 
Bush's arrival there he discovered fires burning, an Indian dog, which lay asleep, a num- 
ber of deer skins, some blankets, &c, ; he immediately gave information of his discoveries, 
in consequence of which the remainder part of the light corps, viz.: the two independent 



152 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

companies, and my regiment, under Gen. Hatid's command, were ordered to move some 
miles up the path, and endeavor, if possible, to make some discoveries. We accordingly 
proceeded on in the following order, viz.. Captain Walker, with twenty-four men, com- 
posed the van, the eleventh regiment, under my command, after which the two indepen- 
dent companies, the whole covered on the left by Tioga branch, and on the right by 
Capt. Bush's infantry company of forty men. In this order we moved somewhat better 
than a mile beyond this place. The first fires were discovered, when our van was fired 
upon by a party of savages, who lay concealed on a high hill immediately upon our right, 
and which Capt. Bush had not yet made. We immediately formed a front with my regi- 
ment, ptished up the hill with a degree of intrepidity seldom to be met with, and, under a 
very severe fire from the savages. Capt. Bush, in the meantime, endeavored to gain the 
enemy's rear. They, seeing the determined resolution of our troops, retreated ; andi 
according to custom, previous to our dislodging them, carried off their wounded and dead, 
by which means they deprived us from coming to the knowledge of their wouuaea i-nd 
dead. The ground on the opposite side of the mountain or ridge, on which the action 
commenced, being composed of swamp or low ground, covered with underwood, &c , 
.favored their I'etreat, and prevented our pursuing them, by which means they got off. 

Our loss on this occasion, which totally (excepting two) fe on my regiment, was as 
follows, viz.. two captains, one adjutant, one guide, and eight privates wounded, arid one 
sergeant, one drummer, and four privates killed. Officers' names : Captain Walker, 
(slight wound,) Captain Carberry, and Adj. Huston, (I fear mortal.) 

After gaining the summit of the hill, and dislodging the enemy, we marched by the 
right of companies in eight columns, and continued along the same line until the arrival 
of General Sullivan. We then halted for some little time, and then returned to the village, 
which was instantly laid in ashes, and a party detached to cross the river to destroy the 
corn, beans, &c., of which there were several very extensive fields, and those articles in 
the greatest perfection. Whilst the troops were engaged in this business, Gens. Poor and 
Maxwell's brigades were fired upon, lost one man, killed, and several wounded. The 
whole business being completed, we returned to the ruins of the village, halted some little 
time, and received orders to return to Tioga Plain, at which place we arrived at 8 o'clock, 
considerably fatigued. Lest the savages should dificover our loss, after leaving the place, 
I had the dead bodies of my regiment carried along, fixed on horses, and brought to this 
place for interment. The expedition from the first to last continued twenty-four hours, 
of which time my regiment was employed, without the least intermission, twenty-three 
hours ; the whole of our march not less than forty miles. 

Saturday, August i^th. — This morning 10 o'clock, A. M., had the bodies of those brave 
veterans, who so nobly distinguished themselves, and bravely fell in the action of yester- 
day, interred with military honours, (firing excepted.) Parson Rogers delivered a small 
discourse on the occasion. 

Was employed greater part of the day in writing to my friends at Lancaster and Phila- 
delphia, which were forwarded the same evening. 

Sunday ijth. — Agreeable to orders of yesterday, seven hundred men were ordered to 
march on the grand parade for inspection, and to be furnished with ammunition and eight 
days provision, for the purpose of marching up the Susquehanna and meeting General 
Clinton, Who is now on his march to form a junction with this army. 

Two o'clock, P. M., a firing was heard on the west side of Tioga branch, immediately 
opposite our encampment. A number of Indians undercover of a high mountain, advanced 
on a large meadow or flat of ground, on which our cattle and horses were grazing. Unfor- 
tunately, two men were there to fetch some horses, one of which was killed and scalped, 
the other slightly wounded, but got clear. One bullock was likewise killed, and several 
public horses taken off. My regiment was ordered in pursuit of them ; we accordinq-ly 
crossed the branch and ascended the mountain, marched along the summit of the same for 
upwards of two miles in order to gain their rear ; but the enemy having too much start 
got clear. After scouring the mountains and valleys near the same, we returned, much 
fatigued, about 5 o'clock, P. M. 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 153 

Monday, i6th. — The detachment under General Poor's command, agreeable to orders, 
moved this day, i o'clock, P. M., up the Susquehanna for the purpose of forming a junc- 
tion with Gen. Clinton. 

Several of our out continentals alarmed the camp by firing off several guns about i 
o'clock in the morning, in consequence of which light corps stood under arms. Several 
patrols were sent out to reconnoitre the front of encampment, returned near day-break, 
but made no discoveries — alarm proved premature. Gen. Hand, being ordered with the 
detachment under Gen. Poor, the command of light corps devolved on me during his 
absence. 

Tuesdav, lyih. — Seven o'clock, P. M., a firing was heard about five hundred yards 
immediately in front of light corps' encampment. A party of fifty men was immediately 
detached to endeavour to find out the cause of it ; returned at 8 o'clock, P. M. ; reported 
that a party of Indians, eleven in number, had way-laid a few pack horsemen, who were 
just returning with their horses from pasture ; that they had killed and scalped one man, 
and wounded another ; the wounded man got safe to camp, and the corpse of the other 
was likewise brought in. 

An alarm was fired by a continental about 1 1 o'clock, P. M . but proved false. 

Wednesday, i8lh. — In order to entrap some of those savages who keep sneaking about 
the encampment, the- following parties ordered out for that purpose, and to be relieved 
daily by an equal number until we leave this ground, viz : one subaltern and twenty men 
on the mountain opposite the encampment ; one subaltern and twenty men on the islanS, 
about a mile and half above the encampment, on Tioga branch, and one subaltern and 
twenty men in the woods, about a mile and a half immediately in front of light corps' 
encampment, with orders to waylay and take every other means to take them. 

This day, by particular request of several gentlemen, a discourse was delivered in the 
Masonic form, by Dr. Rogers, on the death of Captain Davis of the nth Penn., and 
Lieutenant Jones of the Delaware regiments, who were, on the 23d of April last, most 
cruelly and inhumanly massacred and scalped by the ssvages, emissaries employed by the 
British king, as they were marching with a detachment for the relief of the garrison at 
"Wyoming. 

Those gentlemen were both members of that honourable and ancient Society of Free- 
men. A number of brethren attended on this occasion in proper form, and the whole was 
conducted with propriety and harmony. Text preached on this solemn occasion was the 
first clause in the 7th verse of the 7th chapter of Job, " Remember my life is but wind." 

Thursday, igth. — Nothing remarkable this day. 

Friday, 2otk. — This day arrived Lieut. Boyd, of Col. Butler's regiment, with accounts 
of Gen. Clinton's movements on the Susquehanna, and that a junction was formed by him 
with Gen, Poor's detachment, C/!<j/'on««/, about thirty-five miles from this place. Rain very 
heavy chief part of the day. 

Saturday, 21st. — The detachments under Gens. Clinton and Poor, on account of the 
very heavy rain yesterday, did not reach this encampment as was expected. 

Sunday, 22d. — This day, 10 o'clock, A. M., Gens, Clint6n and Poor's detachments, 
with about two hundred and twenty boats, passed light corps' encampment for the main 
army, about one and a half miles in their rear. On their passing, they were saluted with 
thirteen rounds from the park ; the light corps being Hkewise drawn up, and received 
them in proper form, with Col. Troctor's music, and drums and fifes beating and playing. 

Monday, 2jd, — This day a most shocking affair happened, by an accident of a gun, 
which went off, the ball of which entered a tent in which was Capt. Kimball, of Gen. 
Poor's brigade, and a lieutenant ; the captain was unfortunately killed, and the lieutenant 
wounded. 

Gen. Clinton, having formed a junction with the army at this place yesterday, the fol- 
lowing alterations in the several brigades were ordered to take place, viz. ; Col. Court- 
land's regiment to be annexed to General Clinton's, Colonel Older to General Poor's, and 
Colonel Butler's regiment, with Major Parr's corps, to General Hand's brigade. 

20 



154 JOURNTALS OF OFFICERS, 

Tuesday, 24th. — This day employed hands to make bags for the purpose of'carrying- 
flour ; hands employed all day and night in this business. 

Agreeable to orders a signal gun was fired for the whole army to strike tents, 5 o'clock, 
P. M., and marched some distance in order to form the line of march. Seven o'clock, P. 
M., another signal gun was fired for the army to encamp in proper order, and to be in 
readiness for an immediate march. Col.^Butler's regiment, with Major Parr's riflemefn, 
joined light corps, and encamped with them this day, 7 o'clock, V. M. 

Colonel Shrieve took command of Fort Sullivan this day agreeable to orders. Flying 
hospital and stores were moved this day to the garrison. 

Wednesday, 2jt/i — This morning was entirely devoted to packing up and getting every 
thing in readiness for an immediate march. A heavy rain fell in at 11 o'clock, continued, 
greater part of the day, which prevented our movements. 

Thursday, sbth — The army not being perfectly ready to march at 8 o'clock, A. M., 
agreeable to yesterday's orders, the signal gun for a march was not fired until 11 o'clock,, 
when the whole took up the line of march in the following order, namely : Light corps, 
commanded by General Hand, marched in six columns, the right commanded by Colonef 
Butler, and the left by myself. Major Parr, with the riflemen, dispersed considerably in 
front of the whole, with orders to reconnoitre all mountains, defiles, and other suspicious, 
places, previous to the arrival of the army, to prevent any surprise or ambuscade from 
taking place. The pioneers, under command of a captain, subaltern, then followed after, 
which preceded the park of artillery ; then came on the main army, in two columns, in 
the centre of which moved the pack horses and cattle, the whole flanked on right and left 
by the flanking divisions, commanded by Colonel Dubois and Colonel Ogden, and rear 
brought up by General Clinton's brigade ; in this position the whole moved to the upper 
end of Tioga flats, about three miles above Fort Sullivan, where we encamped for this 
night. 

This day disposed of one of my horses to Mr. Bond, captain, on account of his indis- 
position, obtained leave to continue either at Fort Sullivan, or go to Wyoming, until the- 
return of the regiment from the expedition. 

Friday, Aitgust 2yth. — On account of some delays this morning army did not move 
until half past eight o'clock, A. M. Previous to the march the pioneers, under cover of 
the rifle corps, were advanced to the first and second defile, or narrows, some miles in 
front of our encampment, where they were employed in mending and cutting a road for 
the pack to pass The army marched in saine order of yesterday, the country through 
which they had to pass being exceedingly mountainous and rough, and the slow move- 
ments of the pack considerably impeded the march. About 7 o'clock, P. M., we arrived 
near the last narrows, at the lower end of Chemung, where we encamped in the following 
order : Light corps near the entrance of the defile or narrows, and in front of some very 
extensive corn-fields, some refugee Tories, now acting with the favour of the main army, 
about one mile in our rear, and immediately fronting the corn-fields. After encamping 
had an agreeable repast of corn, potatoes, beans, cucumbers, watermelons, squashes, and 
other vegetables, which were in great plenty, (produced) from the corn-fields already men- 
tioned, and in the greatest perfection ; distance of march this day, six miles. 

Saturday, Aiif;ust 28th. — Fore part of this day being employed by the general and prin- 
cipal officers of the army in reconnoitering the river and finding out some fording place 
for the artillery, pack horses, and cattle to cross, to gain Chemung, the defile or narrows 
mentioned in my yesterday's journal being so excessively narrow, and, indeed, almost 
impracticable for them to pass. 

The following disposition for the marching of the army took place accordingly, namely : 
The rifle corps, with General Maxwell's brigade, and left flanking division of the army, 
covering the park, pack horses, and cattle, crossed to the west side of the river, and about 
one and a half mile above recrossed the same, and formed a junction on the lower end of 
Chemung flats with the light corps, Generals Poor and Clinton's brigades, and right flank- 
ing division of the army, who took their route across an almost inaccessible mountain, oa 
the east side of the river, the bottom of which forms the narrows already mentioned. 



LIEUT.COL. ADAM HURLEY. 155 

The summit was gained witli tlie greatest difficulty ; on the top of the mountain the 
lands, which are level and extensive, are exceedingly rich with large timber, chiefly oak, 
interspersed with underwood and excellent grass. The prospect from this mountain is 
most beautiful ; we had a view of the country of at least twenty miles round ; the fine, 
extensive plains, interspersed with streams of water,, made the prospect pleasing and ele- 
gant from this mountain. We observed, at some considerable distance, a number of 
clouds of smoke arising, where we concluded the enemy to be encamped. 

Previous to the movement of the army this day; a small party of men were sent across 
the river in order to destroy some few Indian huts, which were immediately opposite our 
encampment. Before the business was quite effected they were fired upon by a party of 
Indians, who, after giving the fire, immediately retreated ; the party executed their orders, 
and all returned unhurt to the army. 

The scout sent out last evening to reconnoitre the enemy near Newtown, (an Indian 
village so called,) returned this day, and reported they discovered a great number of fires, 
and that they supposed, from the extensive piece of ground covered by the fires, the enemy 
must be very formidable, and mean to give us battle. They likewise discovered four or 
five small scouting parties on their way towards this place, it is supposed to reconnoitre 
our army. Since our arrival here a great quantity of furniture was found by our sojdiers 
which was concealed in the adjacent woods. After forming the junction above mentioned 
we took up the line of march, and moved to the upper Chemung town, and encamped 
about 6 o'clock, P. M., for this night. Distance of march on a straight course, about two 
miles. 

From the great quantities of corn and other vegetables here and in the neighbourhood, 
it is supposed they intended to establish their principal magazine at this place, which 
seems to be their chief rendezvous, whenever they intend to go to war ; it is the key to 
the Pennsylvania and New York frontier. The corn already destroyed by our army is not 
less than 5,000 bushels upon a moderate calculation, and the quantity yet in the ground 
in this neighborhood, is at least the same, besides which there are vast quantities of beans, 
potatoes, squashes, pumpkins, &c., which shared the fate of the corn. 

Sunday, August 2gih. — This morning at 9 o'clock the army moved in the same order of 
the 26 ; the riflemen were well scattered in front of the light corps, who moved with 
the greatest precision and caution. On our arrival near the ridge on which the action 
of the 13th commenced with hght corps, our van discorered several Indians in front, 
one of whom gave them a fire, and then fled. We continued our march for about one 
mile ; the rifle corps entered a low marshv ground which seemed well calculated for form- 
mg ambuscades ; they advanced with great precaution, when several more Indians'were 
discovered who fired and retreated. Major Parr, from those circumstances, judged it 
rather dangerous to proceed any further without taking every caution to reconnoitre 
almost every foot of ground, and ordered one of his men to mount a tree and see if he 
could make any discoveries ; after being some time on the tree he discovered the movements 
of several Indians, (which were rendered conspicuous by the quantity of paint they had 
on them,) as they were laying behind an extensive breastwork, which extended at least 
half a mile, and most artfully covered with green boughs and trees, having their right 
flank secured by the river, and their left by a mountain. It was situated on a rising 
ground — about one hundred yards in front of a difficult stream of water, bounded by the 
marshy ground already mentioned on our side, and on the other, between it and the breast- 
works, by an open and clear field. Major Parr immediately gave intelligence to General 
Hand of his discoveries, who immediately advanced the light corps within about three 
hundred yards of the enemy's works, and formed in line of battle ; the rifle corps, under 
cover, advanced, and lay urlder the bank of the creek within one hundred yards of the 
lines. Gen. Sullivan, having previous notice, arrived with the main army, and ordered 
the following disposition to take place : The rifle and light corps to continue their posi- 
tion ; the left flanking division, under command of Colonel Ogden, to take post on the 
left flank of the light corps, and General Maxwell's brigade, some distance in the rear, 
as a corps de reserve, and Colonel Proctor's artillery in front of the centre of the light 



156 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

corps, and immediately opposite the breast-work. A heavv fire ensued between the rifle 
corps and the enemy, but little damage was done on either side. In the meantime. Gen- 
erals Poor and Clinton's brigades, with the right flanking division, were ordered to march 
and gain, if possible, the enemy's flank and rear, whilst the rifle and light corps amused 
them in front. Col. Proctor had orders to be in readiness with his artillery and attack the 
lines, first allowing a sufficient space of time to Generals Poor, &c., to gain their intended 
stations. About 3 o'clock, P. M., the artillery began their attack on the enemy's works ; 
the rifle and light corps in the meantime prepared to advance and charge ; but the enemy, 
finding their situation rather precarious, and our troops determined, left and retreated 
from their works with the greatest precipitation, leaving behind them a number of blank- 
ets, gun covers, and kettles, with corn boiling over the fire. Generals Poor, &c., on 
account of several difficulties which they had to surmount, could not effect their designs, 
and the enemy probably having intelligence of their approach, posted a number of troops 
on the top of a mountain, over which they had to advance. On .their arrival near the 
summit of the same, the enemy gave them a fire, and wounded several olificers and sol- 
diers. General Poor pushed on and gave Ihem a lire, as they retreated, and killed five of 
the savages. In course of the day we took nine scalps, (all savages,) and two prisoners, 
who were separately examined, and gave the following corresponding account : that the 
enemy were seven hundred men strong, viz , five hundred savages, and two hundred 
Tories, with about twenty British troops, commanded by a S'eneca chief, the two Butlers, 
Brandt, and M' Donald. 

The infantry pushed on towards Newtown ; the main army halted and encamped near 
the place of action, near which were several extensive fields of corn and other vegetables. 
About six o'clock, P. M., the infantry returned and encamped near the main armv. 

The prisoners further informed us that the whole of their party had subsisted on corn 
only for this fortnight past, and that they had no other provisions with them ; and that 
their next place of rendezvous would be at Catharines town, an Indian village about 
twenty-five miles from this place. 

Distance of march (exclusive of counter-marches) this day, about eight miles. 

Monday, Aiif^nst joth. — On account of the great quantities of corn, beans, potatoes, 
turnips, and other vegetables, in destroying of which the troops were employed, 
and the rain which set in the after part of the day obliged us to continue on the ground 
for this day and night. The troops were likewise employed in drawing eight days 
provisions, (commencing ist day of September.) The reason of drawing this great 
quantity at one time was, (however inconsistent with that economy which is absolutely 
necessary in our present situation, considering the extensive campaign before us, and 
the time of consequence it will require to complete it,) the want of pack horses for trans- 
porting the same, and in order to expedite this great point in view, are obliged to sub- 
stitute our soldiery for carrying the same. 

From the great and unparalleled neglect of those persons employed for the purpose of 
supplying the western army with everything necessary to enable them to carry through 
the important expedition required of them. General Sullivan was at this early period under 
the disagreeable necessity of issuing the following address to the army, which was com- 
municated by the commanding officers to their corps separately, viz.; 

GENERAL Sullivan's aiidress. 

"The commander-in-chief informs the troops that he used every effort to procure 
proper supplies for the army, and to obtain a sufficient number of horses to transport 
them, but owing to the inattention of those whose business it was to make the necessary 
provision, he failed of obtaining such an ample supply as he wished, and greatly, fears 
that the supplies on hand will not, without the greatest prudence, enable him to complete 
the business of the expedition, 

" He therefore requests the several brigadiers and officers commanding corps to take 
the mind of the troops under their respective commands, whether they will, whilst in this 
country, which abounds with corn and vegetables of every kind, be content to draw one 



LIEUT.COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 157 

half of flour, one half of meat and salt a day. And he desires the troops to give their 
opinions with freedom and as soon as possible. 

" Should they generally fall in with the proposal, he promises they shall be paid that 
part of the rations which is held back at the full value in money, 

"He flatters himself that the troops who have discovered so much bravery and firm- 
ness will readily consent to fall in with a measure so essentially necessary to accomplish 
the important purpose of the expedition, to enable them to add to the laurels they have 
already gained. 

" The enemy have subsisted for a number of days on corn only, without either salt, 
meat, or flour, and the general cannot persuade himself that troops, who so far surpass 
them in bravery and true valour, will suffer themselves to be outdone in that fortitude and 
perseverance, which not only distinguishes but dignifies the soldier. He does not mean 
to continue this through the campaign, but only wishes it to be adopted in those places 
where vegetables may supply the place of a part of the common ration of meat and flour, 
which will be much better than without any. 

" The troops will please to consider the matter, and give their opinion as soon as possi- 
ble." 

Agreeable to the above address, the army was drawn up, (this evening,) in corps sepa- 
rately, and the same, through their commanding officers, made known to them, and their 
opinions requested thereupon, when the whole, without a dissenting voice cheerfully agreed 
to the request of the general, which they signified by unanimously holding up their hands 
and giving three cheers. 

This remarkable instance of fortitude and virtue cannot but endear those brave troops 
to all ranks of people, more particularly as it was so generally and cheerfully entered into 
without a single dissenting voice. 

Tuesday, August jist. — Took up our Hne of march in usual order at g o'clock, A. M. • 
marched about four miles and a half through a broken and mountainous country, and an 
almost continuous defile on the east side of Cayuga branch, the west of the same for that 
distance was an excellent plain, on which large quantities ,of corn, beans, potatoes, and 
other vegetables stood, and were destroyed by us the preceding day. We then crossed 
Cayuga branch, where it forks with a stream of water running east and west, and landed 
on a most beautiful piece of country remarkably level. On the banks of the same stood a 
small Indian village, which was immediately destroyed. The soldiers found great quanti- 
ties of furniture, &c., which was buried, some of which they carried off, and some was 
destroyed. About 2 o'clock, P. M., we proceeded along the path which leads to Catha- 
rines town, (an Indian village,) and leaves the Cayuga branch on its left. About 5 
o'clock, P. M., we encamped on a most beautiful plain, interspersed with marshes, well 
calculated for meadows. Wood chiefly pine, interspersed with hazel brushes, and great 
quantities of grass ; distance of march this day, lo miles. 

Wednesday, September ist. — About 9 o'clock, P. M., whole army moved in good order on 
a level piece of ground. About ii o'clock, A. M., we entered an extensive hemlock 
swamp, not less than six miles through ;' the path through almost impassible, owing to the 
number of defiles, long ranges of mountains, ravine after ravine, interspersed with thick 
underwood, &c. The infantry, with the greatest difficulty, got through about half past 
nine o'clock, P. M. The remainder of the army, with the pack horses, cattle, &c., were 
chiefly the whole night employed in getting through. 

As the infantry were approaching Catharines town we were alarmed by the howling of 
dogs and other great noise. A few of the riflemen were dispatched in order to reconnoitre 
the place. In the meantime we formed in two solid columns, at fixed bayonets, with pos- 
itive orders not a man to fire his gun, but to rush on in case the enemy should make a 
stand ; but the riflemen, who had been sent to reconnoitre the town, returned with the 
intelligence the enemy had left it. We then immediately altered our position on account 
of the narrowness of the road, and marched in files through the first part of the town, 
after which we crossed the creek : in a field immediately opposite, where there stood a 
number of houses also, where we encamped, and substituted the timber of the houses in 



158 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

room o£ fire-wood. On. our arrival, we found, a number of fires burning, which appeared 
as if they had gone off precipitately. This day's march completed rz miles. 

Thursday, Sept. 2d. — The dismal situation of our pack horses and cattle, of which sev- 
eral were killed by falling into ditches, and several otherwise disabled in getting through 
this horrid swamp last evening, prevented our march this morning. The fore part of this 
day was entirely employed in collecting them, which, from their scattered and dispersed 
situation, was attended with the greatest difficulty. 

We this morning found an old squaw who, we suppose, by reason of her advanced 
age, could not be carried off, and therefore was left to our mercy. On examining her_ 
she informed us that the Indians, on our approach last evening, went off very precipi- 
tately ; that the women and children had gone off in the morning to take shelter in 
some mountains, until the army had passed them ; that Colonel Butler promised he would 
send back some warriors, who should conduct them by bye-ways to some place of safety. 
She futher adds, that, previous to the squaws going off, there was great contention with 
them and the warriors about their going off ; the former had determined on staying and 
submitting to our generosity ; the latter opposed it, and informed them that, by such a 
step, the Americans would be able to bring them to any terms they pleased ; whereas, did 
they go off, they would have it in their power to come to more favourable terms, should a 
treaty of any kind be offered. 

Catharines town is pleasantly situated on a creek, about three miles from Seneca lake ; 
it contained nearly fifty houses, in general, very good — the country near is very excellent. 
We found several very fine corn-fields, which afforded the greatest plenty of corn, beans, 
&c., of which, after our fatiguing march, we had an agreeable repast. After getting 
everything in perfect readiness, we took up our line of march at 7 o'clock this morning. 
The roads from this place for about one mile were rather difficult and swampy. We then 
ascended a rising country, which was, in general, level, excepting a few defiles which we 
had to pass, but were by no reason dangerous or difficult. . The lands are rich, abounding 
with fine, large, and clear timber, chiefly white oak, hickory, walnut, and ash ; bounded 
on the left for about three miles with excellent marsh or meadow ground, after which pro- 
ceeds the beautiful Seneca lake, which abounds with all kinds of fish, particularly salmon, 
trout, rock, that which resembles perch, as also sheep-head. 

Previous to our leaving this place, the squaw which was taken here, was left, and a hut 
erected, of which she took possession, A quantity of wood was also gathered and carried 
to the hut for her use ; she was also provided with a quantity of provisions. All these 
favours had such an effect on her that it drew tears from her savage eyes. 

It is about three miles in breadth, and about forty miles in length. Upon the right, 
though considerably up the country, is another dehghtful lake, called Kayuga lake ; 
abounds with all kinds of fish also, and is about forty-six miles in length. 

We proceeded along this beautiful country about twelve miles, and encamped near a 
corn-field, on which stood several Indian cabins ; bearing between the light corps and 
main army an advantageous ravine, and, bounded on our left by Seneca lake. 

Previous to our arrival here the Indians who occupied the cabins already mentioned, 
probably discovered our approach, pushed off precipitately, leaving their kettles with corn 
boiling over the fire. During our march this day we discovered several trees with the 
following characters newly cut on thern by those savages commanded by Brandt and the 
Butlers, and with whom we had the action on the 29th ultimo. 

Saturday, Sept. 4th. — On account of the rain this morning the array did not move until 
10 o'clock, A. M. We passed through a delij,htful level country, the soil of which very 
rich, the timber fine and large, interspersed with hazel bushes, fine grass and pea vines. 
On our march we discovered several fires burning, which fully intimated some of the sav- 
ages were not far off in front of us. We destroyed several fields of corn, and, after a 
march of thirteen miles, we encamped in the woods, in the front of a very large ravine, 
and about half a mile from Seneca lake. On account of some difficulties with the pack- 
horses, &c., the main army did not reach so far as the infantry, and encamped about two 
miles in their rear. 



ta 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 159 

Sunday, Sept. jt/i. — About g o'clock this morning the army moved through a country 
■much the same as yesterday. About I2 o'clock we arrived at Canadia, about three miles 
from the last encampment, where we encamped for this night. Previous to our arrival we 
•entered several corn-fields, and furnished the men with two days allowance of the same. 
The riflemen, who were advanced, retook a prisoner who was taken last year by the sava- 
ges on the east branch of the Susquehanna. An Indian, who lay concealed, fired, but 
without effect on our riflemen, and immediately fled. 

Oil examining this prisoner, he informed us that Brandt, with near a thousand savages, 
including Butler's Rangers, left this town last Friday, seemingly much frightened and 
fatigued — that they were pushing for Kanadauaga, and Indian village, where they mean to 
make a stand and give us battle. He further informs us that, exclusive of a considerable 
number of savages killed and wounded in the action of the 29th, seven Tories were killed ; 
"that all their wounded, with some dead, were carried in Canoes up the Cayuga branch — 
that they allow they sustained a very heavy loss in that action. 

Canadia is much the finest village we have yet come to. It is situated on a rising 
.ground, in the midst uf an extensive apple and peach orchard, within half a mile of 
Seneca lake ; it contains about forty well-finished houses, and every thing about it seems 
neat and well improved. 

Monday, Sept. 6th. — The fore part of the day was entirely employed in hunting up our 
horses and cattle, a number of which were lost. About 2 o'clock we took up our line of 
march, and moved about three miles, where we encamped on a beautiful piece of wood- 
Hand, (interspersed with vast quantities of pea vines, which served for food for our horses,) 
our rear covered by the lake, our flank by considerable ravines. 

On the fourth, whilst on our march, several officers' waiters, who had delayed in the 
rear, lost the path along which the army moved, and, towards night, found themselves 
near an Indian village, which had been previously evacuated. They found a quantity of 
plunder, which they brought off,^ first putting the town in flames. A captain and a party, 
■on missing, being sent in pursuit, and fell in with them as they were returning to the 
-encamping place occupied by the army the preceding day, and conducted them safe to the 
.army at Canadia. 

An express from Tioga, with packets, &c., for the army, arrived this day at head 
quarters — received several letters from my friends. 

Tuesday, Sept. yth. — At half-past seven o'clock the army moved and arrived at the head 
■of the lake about 2 o'clock, P. M. The country we passed through was exceedingly fine, 
-and cniefly along the water for eight miles and a half. 

About 3 o'clock, P. M., the rifle and infantry corps crossed at the mouth of the lake, 
about knee deep, and not above thirty yards wide. On our arrival on the opposite shore, 
we immediately entered a dangerous and narrow defile, bounded on the left by the head of 
Seneca lake, and on our right by a large morass and flooded at intervals, well calculated to 
form an ambuscade. From every circumstance, both as to intelligence and the great 
-advantage the enemy might have had from its situation, we fairly expected an attack. 
However, we moved through in files, supported by the two flanking divisions, and gained 
the other side. The main army then crossed, and took our place. We then moved 
through a second defile, as difficult as the first, and formed again until the main army 
possessed themselves of the same ground we had just left. We then marched and passed 
a third defile, and formed in a corn-field, near a large house, which was beautifully situ- 
iited on the head of the lake, and generally occupied by Butler, one of the savage leaders. 
The light corps, flanked by two flanking divisions, received orders to move and gain the 
rear of the town. The main army took the path, and marched immediately in front of 
the same ; but the enemy no doubt having previous notice of our movements, had aban- 
doned the town, which we entered about dusk, leaving behind them a number of bear and 
deer skins, and also a fine white child of about three years old. 

This town is called Kanadasaga, and appears to be one of their capital settlements ; 
about it is a fine apple orchard and a council-house. There was in the neighbourhood a 
great quantity of corn, beans, &c., which, after taking great quantities for the use of the 



160 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

army, we totally destroyed ; burned the houses, which were in number about fifty, and 
girdled the apple trees. Distance of march this day, about 12 miles. 

Wednesday, Sept. Sth. — This day we lay on our ground ; the rifie corps, with several 
other parties, were detached down the lake to destroy a small village, called Gaghsiungua, 
and a quantity of corn, &c., in this neighbourhood, and the army prepared for a march 
" early to-morrow morning. 

Various opinions prevailed between many officers about our proceeding any further on 
account of our provisions ; but General Sullivan, with a number of officers, nobly resolved 
to encounter every difficulty to execute the important expedition, and determined, not- 
withstanding the horrid neglect in not furnishing us with provision, horses, &c., sufficient 
to enable us to carry through the expedition, even to proceed on with the scanty pittance, 
and accomplish the arduous task of destroying the whole Seneca country. 

Thursday, Sept. gth. — On account of a number of pack horses which had gone astray 
and could not be found, the army did not march at 6 o'clock agreeable to yesterday's 
orders. A command of fifty men, under a captain, returned from this place to Tioga to 
escort the sick and those who were not able to proceed without retarding the march of the 
army, which is now under the necessity on account of our wants to be as expeditious as 
possible to complete the expedition ; all those pack horses which were lame, or otherwise 
reduced, likewise returned. 

About twelve o'clock the army marched ; their first route was over bushy land, inter- 
spersed with remarkably wild high grass, and appeared to have been formerly cleared. 
We then descended into an extensive maple swamp, which was very rich, and well calcu- 
lated for meadow. After marching seven miles, we came to a creek, known by the name 
of Flint Creek, which the whole, excepting Clinton's brigade, crossed, and encamped on 
a plain which had been occupied by the enemy but a few days before for the same purpose. 
Distance of march, seven miles. 

The rifle corps who yesterday went to destroy Gaghsiungua this evening returned. 
They report it was a fine town, well improved, with a great quantity of corn near the 
same ; likewise, an abundance of beans, water-melons, peaches, and all kinds of vegeta- 
bles, the whole of which they totally destroyed. 

Friday, Sept. loth. — At 8 o'clock this morning the army took up their line of march in 
the usual order. Their route, about four miles, continued through the swamp, which, in 
some places, was miry, and difficult for pack horses, otherwise the foot would not have 
been much retarded. We then arrived on very fine ground for marching, which, to all 
appearance, was old cleared fields, as they contained a great quantity of wild grass as high 
as the horses in many places. The land continued in this manner (alternately having a 
strip of wood between) for about four iniles, when we arrived at a lake, (the name I could 
not learn,) which appeared to be a mile wide, and six or seven miles in length. We 
marched half a mile along this lake, and came to the mouth, which we crossed ; the water 
was not knee deep, and about thirty yards over ; but it narrowed so fast that, about twenty 
yards from the mouth, it was not in width more than five, but much deeper. We then 
moved up a fine country from the lake, and in half a mile came to Kanadalaugua, a beau- 
tifully situated town, containing between twenty and thirty houses, well finished, chiefly 
of hewn plank, which we immediately burned, and proceeded about half a mile on our 
right, where we found a large field of corn, squashes, beans, &c. At this place we en- 
camped, but were very badly off for water, having none but what we sent half a mile for, 
and that very bad. The Seneca country, from its extreme flatness, having no good 
springs, which is extremely disagreeable for a marching army. Distance of march this 
day, 9 miles. 
r In this town a dog was hung up, with a string of wampum round his neck, on a tree, 
! curiously decorated and trimmed. On inquiry, 1 was informed that it was a custom 
I among the savages before they went to war to offer this as a sacrifice to Mars, the God of 

LWar, and praying that he might strengthen them. In return for those favours, they 
promise to present him with tlje skin for a tobacco pouch. 

Saturday, Sept. i itli. — Agreeable to orders we took up our line of march this morning 



, LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 161 

precisely at 6 o'clock. We moved through a thicket and swamp near one mile before we 
gained the main path. The infantry, on account of this difficult swamp, could not possi- 
bly march in the usual order, without being considerably dispersed. We moved along 
this path for about three miles, after which we ascended a rising ground ; the country 
remarkably fine and rich, covered chiefly with pine, oak, and hickory timber. At intervals 
we crossed considerable clear fields, with remarkably high, wild grass. About i o'clock 
we descended into a most beautiful valley, within one mile of an Indian village, known by 
the name of Anyayea, situate on a fine plain, within about half a mile of Anyayea lake, 
which is but small and very beautiful, and abounds .with ail kinds of fish. This town 
contains about twelve houses, chiefly hewn logs. About it are several large corn-fields, 
and a number of apple and other fruit trees. We encamped about two o'clock for this 
day, after completing a march of thirteen miles. 

Sunday, Sept. 12th. — In order to expedite our march, and prevent the enemy from 
making off with their effects from Jenese, their capital, and -last town in the Seneca 
country, it was determined a garrison of fifty men, with those soldiers who were not very 
able to march, should continue at this post, in order to guard our stores, viz., ammunition 
and flour, until our return. 

The rain having set in very heavy this morning, we could not move until about twelve 
o'clock. We then began our march, but, on account of a defile which we had to cross, 
could not march in the usual order. After passing the same, we took up our line of march 
as usual, and ascended a rising piece of ground. After marching about five miles, we 
came to a lake, which we crossed at the mouth, being about knee deep, and about ten 
yards over. We then ascended another rising piece of ground, composed of exceedingly 
fine, rich land, with large oak and hickory timber, and, at intervals, with marsh or swamp, 
well calculated for meadow ground. After arriving within half a mile of Kanaghsas, a 
small Indian village, which was previously destined for this day's march, night set in, and 
the main army being at least a mile in our rear, we received orders to encamp for this 
night, which was in the woods, and exceedingly ill calculated for that purpose, no water 
being nearer than half a mile. This day's march completed twelve miles. 

After we encamped, Lieutenant Boyd, of the rifle corps, some volunteers, and as many 
riflemen, made up six and twenty in the whole, were sent up to reconnoitre the town of 
Jenesse, having for iheir guide an Onieada Indian, named Hanyost, a chief of that tribe, 
who has been remarkable for his attachment to this country, having served as a volunteer 
since the commencement of the war. 

Monday, Sept, ijth. — This morning before daylight we left ; the general beat, on which 
the tents were immediately struck, and in half an hour the army marched into the town of 
Kanaghsas, which contained ten houses, situate on a flat near the head of a small lake. 
The flat contained a great quantity of corn, and vegetables of all kinds, which were 
remarkably well tended. At this place we halted to draw provisions, viz., beef, (half 
allowance,) and to destroy the town, corn, &c. 

Four men of Lieutenant Boyd's party this morning returned, bringing information of 
the town of Gaghsuquilahery (which they took for Jenese) being abandoned. About 12 
o'clock we were alarmed by some Indians firing and giving chase to Mr. Lodge and a few 
men who went forward to survey. They wounded a corporal, who died next day, and 
chased them until one of our camp sentinels fired on them and stopped their career. 

Lieutenant Boyd having retired from the town of Gaghsuquilahery to wait for the arrival 
of the main army, which was detained longer than he expected, he sent back two men 
to know the cause ; these two men had not gone far before they discovered a few Indians 
ahead. They then retired and informed Lieutenant Boyd, who immediately, with his 
party, gave chase, and followed them within about two miles and a half from the main 
army, where a body of savages, of at least four or five hundred, lay concealed, and prob- 
ably intended giving the main army (the ground being favourable on their side) a fire, and 
push off according to custom, who immediately surrounded him and his party. He nobly 
fought them for some considerable time ; but, by their great superiority, he was obliged 
to attempt a retreat, at the same time loading and^ firing as his party ran. 

21 



162 . JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

The Indians killed, and in the most inhuman manner, tomahawked and scalped six that 
were found. Nine of the party have got safe in ; but Lieutenant Boyd and Henjost, (the 
Indian already mentioned,) with seven others, are yet missing, one of whom we know is 
a prisoner, as one Murphy, a rifleman of the party, who made his escape, saw him in 
their possession. This Murphy is a noted marksman, and a great soldier, he having 
•billed and scalped that morning, in the town they were at, an Indian, which makes the 
three and thirtieth man of the enemy he has killed, as is well known to his officers, this 
war. 

There being a swamp or morass totally impassable for our horses, in front of Kanagh- 
sas, the infantry and rifle corps passed over, and ascended the hill, wherein Indians lay, 
in hopes to come up with them ; but they had fled, leaving behind them upwards of one 
Ijundred blankets, a great number of hats, and many other things, which we took, and 
then halted until the main army arrived, they having first been obliged, in order to enable 
them to move, to throw a hedge over the morass. 

The whole then took up their line of march, and proceeded to the town of Gaghsuquil- 
ahery, through the finest country I almost ever saw, without exception. Before dusk we 
arrived within sight of the town. The Indians, having thrown themselves in a wood on 
the opposite side, the following disposition for an attack was immediately ordered to take 
place, viz. : The infantry, with the artillery, to push on in front ; General Maxwell's bri- 
gade, with the left flanking division, to endeavour to gain the enemy's right ; General 
Poor's brigade to move and gain their left ; the right flanking division, and two regiments 
from General Clinton's brigade to move round Poor's right flank ; the infantry to rush on 
in front, supported by the remainder of Clinton's brigade. We then moved forward, and 
took possession of the town without opposition, the enemy flying before us across a branch 
of Genese river, through a thicket, where it was impossible for us to follow, we not being 
acquainted with the country, and night having set in. We received orders to encamp, 
after making a march of eight and a half miles. 

Ttiesday, Sept. 14th. — Previous to our march this morning parties were ordered out to 
destroy the corn, which they did, plucking and throwing it into the river. About 11 
o'clock we took up our line of march and proceeded for Jeneise, the last and capital set- 
tlement of the Seneca country ; the whole crossed a branch of the Jenise river, and moved 
through a considerable swamp, and formed on a plain the other side, the most extensive I 
ever sa:w, containing not less than six thousand acres of the richest soil that can be con- 
ceived, not having a bush standing, but filled with grass considerably higher than a man. 
We moved up this plain for about three miles in our regular line of march, which was a 
beautiful site, as a view of the whole could be had at one look, and then came to Jenise 
river, which we crossed, being about forty yards over, and near middle deep, and then 
ascended a rising ground, which afforded a prospect which was so beautiful that, to 
attempt a comparison, would be doing an injury, as we had a view as far as our eyes could 
carry us of another plain, besides the one we crossed, through which the Jenise river 
formed a most beautiful winding, and, at intervals, cataracts, which rolled from the rocks, 
and emptied into the river. 

We then marched on through a rough but rich country, until we arrived at the capital 
town, which is much the largest we have yet met with in our whole route, and encamped 
about the same. 

At this place we found the body of the brave but unfortunate Lieutenant Boyd, and one 
rifleman, massacred in the most cruel and barbarous manner that the human mind can pos- 
sibly conceive ; the savages having put them to the most excruciating torments possible, 
by first plucking their nails from their hands, then spearing, cutting, and whipping them, 
and mansfling their bodies, then cutting off the flesh from their shoulders by pieces, toma- 
hawking and severing their heads from their bodies, and then leaving them a prey to their 
dogs. We likewise found one house burned, in which, probably, was a scene as cruel as 
thejor.ner. 
r This evening the remains of Lieutenant Boyd and the rifleman's corpse were interred 
with military honours. Mr. Boyd's former good character, as a brave soldier, and an 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 163 

honest man, and his behaviour in the skirmish of yesterday (several of the Indians being 
found dead, and some seen carried off,) must endear him to all friends of mankind.. May 
his fate await those who have been the cause of his. Oh ! Britain, behold and blush. 
Jenise town, the capital of the Seneca nation, is pleasantly situated on a rich and exten- 
sive flat, the soil remarkably rich, and great parts well improved with fields of corn, beans, 
potatoes, and all kinds of vegetables. It contained one hundred and seven well-finished 
houses. 

IVednesday, Sept. ijtk. — This morning the whole army, excepting a covering party, 
were engaged in destroying the corn, beans, potatoes, and other vegetables, which were 
in quantity immense, and in goodness unequaled by any I ever yet saw. Agreeable to a 
moderate calculation, there was not less than two hundred acres, the whole of which was 
pulled and piled up in large heaps, mixed with dry wood, taken from the houses, and con- 
sumed to ashes. About 3 o'clock, P. M., the business was finished, and the immfediate 
objects of this expedition completed, viz., the total ruin of the Indian settlements, and the 
destruction of their crops. The following is a part of the orders issued this day, viz.: 

"The commander-in-chief informs this brave and resolute army that the immediate 
objects of this expedition are accomplished, viz.: total ruin of the Iijdian settlements, and 
the destruction of their crops, which were designed for the support of those inhuman bar- 
barians, while they were desolating the American frontiers. He is by no means insensible 
of the obligations he is under to those brave officers and soldiers whose virtue and forti- 
tude have enabled him to complete the important design of the expedition, and he assures 
them he will not fail to inform America at large how much they stand indebted to them. 
The army will this day commence its march for Tioga." 

Previous to our leaving Jenise, a woman with a child came in to us, who had been taken 
prisoner last year near Wyoming, and fortunately made her escape from the savages. She, 
with her bantling, was almost starved for want of food ; she informs us that the Indians 
have been in great want all last spring — that they subsisted entirely on greqn corn this 
summer— that their squaws were fretting prodigiously, and continually teasing their war- 
riors to make peace — that by promises by Butler and his minions, they are fed up with 
great things that should be done for them— that they seem considerably cast down and 
frightened ; and, in short, she says distress and trouble seem painted on their counte- 
nances. Distance of march this day, six miles. 

Thunday, Sept. i6th. — After destroying several corn-fields, we took up our line of 
march about 11 o'clock, A. M., and proceeded towards Kanaghsas. Previous to our 
arrival there, parties were ordered out to reconnoitre the woods, and gather the bodies of 
those soldiers who fell in the skirmish of the 13th. Fourteen, including those six men- 
tioned in my journal of the 13th, were found, and buried with military honours. The 
sight was most shocking, as they were all scalped, tomahawked, and most inhumanly man- 
gled. Amongst those unfortunate men was Hanjost, the volunteer Indian, who fared 
equally with the rest. About six o'clock we arrived at Kanaghsas, and encamped. We 
found several corn-fields, which were immediately laid waste. Our march this day, 9 miles. 

Friday, Sept. ijth. — About 5 o'clock this morning the general beat, the tents were 
struck, and the line of march taken up about 6 o'clock. We arrived at Anyeaya about 12 
o'clock, being the place our stores, with a garrison, was left. It was not with a little sat- 
isfaction that we found everything safe. We were not without our apprehensions about 
them, on account of the intelligence we were fearful the enemy might have collected from 
the unfortunate prisoners who fell in their hands on the 13th. We encamped in the same 
order and on the same ground as on the nth inst. 

Saturday, Sept. iSth. — This morning about 8 o'clock the army moved ; the rear was 
ordered (before they left the ground) to kill all such horses as were unable to move along, 
lest they should fall into the enemy's hands. On our route we fell in with several Oneida 
Indians, (our friends,) who seemed much rejoiced at our great success against the Seneca 
nations. We arrived about 6 o'clock, P. M., at the east side of the Kanadaugua lake, 
where we encamped, after completing a march of thirteen miles and a half. 

Sunday, Sept. jgth. — The army moved at eight o'clock this morning in the usual order ; 



164 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

— excepting a few obstructions tliey met with passing through several swamps, they 
marched remarkably steady. On our route we were met by an express from Tioga, who 
brought a number of letters and papers informing us of Spain declaring war against 
Great Britain. They also brought us the agreeable intelligence of a good supply for the 
army having come on to Newtown, (about twenty miles above Tioga,) to meet us. ' This 
agreeable intelligence conspired to make us exceedingly happy, as we had not only been 
a long time entirely in the dark with respect to home news, but the disagreeable reflection 
of half allowance was entirely dispelled. 

We pursued our march until we arrived at Kanadasaga, which was about dusk. When 
the infantry got up ; we encamped on the same ground, and in the same position, as on 
the yth, after completing a march of fifteen miles. 

I Monday, Sept. soth. — The greater part of the day was employed at head-quarters in 
holding a council in consequence of the intercession made by some Oneida Indians, (our 
friends) in favour of the Cayuga tribe, who have been for some time past in alliance with 
the Senecas, and acted with them, and are now desirous to make peace with us. The 
council determined no treaty should be held with them, and a command of five hundred 
infantry, with Major Parr's rifle corps, were immediately detached and sent to Cayuga lake, 
on which their settlement lay, with orders to lay wait and destroy theii' towns, corn, &c. , 
and receive none of them but in the characters of prisoners of war. Col. Smith, with two 
hundred men, was also dispatched down the north side of the Seneca lake in order to 
finish the destruction of Gausiunque, an Indian village about eight miles below Canadasaga 
Colonel Gainsworth, with one hundred men, was likewise detached, and sent to Fort Stan- 
wix for some business, from whence he is to proceed to head-quarters on the north river, 

' and join the main army. 

About 4 o'clock, P. M., the array took up their line of march, and moved steadily. 
About half-past five they reached and crossed the outlet of Seneca lake, and encamped 
about one mile beyond the same. 

Tuesday, Sept. 21st. — The army marched this morning about eight o'clock, and con- 
tinued moving steadily until we passed Canadia about two miles, where we encamped, 
near the lake. Previous to our marching this morning. Colonel Dearbourn, with a com- 
mand of two hundred men, marched to destroy a town on the north side of Cayuga lake. 
Distance of march this day, 13 miles. 

Thursday, Sept. sjd. — About 8 o'clock this morning the army marched, and arrived at 
Catharines town about 2 o'clock, P. M., where we made a small halt. We found at this 
place the old Indian squaw who was left here on our march up the country. General Sul- 
livan gave her a considerable supply of flour and meat, for which, with tears in her sav-" 
age eyes, she expressed a great deal of thanks. During our absence from this place a 
young squaw came and attended on the old one ; but some inhuman villain who passed 
through killed her. What made this crime still more heinous was, because a manifesto 
was left with the old squaw positively forbidding any violence or injury should be com- 
mitted on the women or children of the savages, by virtue of which it appears this young 
squaw came to this place, which absolutely comes under the virtue of a breach of faith, 
and the offender ought to be severely punished. 

I went to view, in company with a number of gentlemen, a very remarkable fall of 
water, which is about one mile above this place. Its beauty and elegance surpass almost 
anything I ever saw. The fall is not less than two hundred feet. About 3 o'clock the 
army moved about three miles further, and encamped on a plain at the entrance of the 
great swamp, after completing a march of thirteen miles and a half. 

Friday, Sept. 24th. — This morning precisely at 8 o'clock the army moved, and continued 
their route through the hemlock swamp mentioned in the tst inst., meeting with much 
lewer obstructions than we expected, owing to the very dry weather which we have had 
for this month past. After passing through the same we came to a fine open country, 
and soon arrived at Kanawaluhery, where there was a post established with a reinforce- 
ment of stores, which was a most pleasing circumstance, as the last was issued, and that 



LIEUT.-COL ADAM HUBLEY. 165 

at half allowance, at Kanadaraga. On our arrival, the garrison saluted with the discharge 
of thirteen cannon, which compliment was returned them by the array. 

Saturday, Sept. z^th. — In consequence of the accession of the King of Spain to the 
American alliance, and the generous proceedings of the present Congress in augnienting 
the subsistence of the officers and men of the army. General Sullivan ordered five head of 
the best cattle, viz. : one for the use of the officers of each brigade, with five gallons of 
spirits each, to be delivered to them respectively, thereby giving them an opportunity of 
testifying their joy on this occasion. 

In the evening, the whole was drawn up and fired a feu-de-joie, thirteen cannon being 
first discharged. The infantry then commenced a running fire through the whole line, 
which, being repeated a second time, the whole army gave three cheers, viz. , one for the 
United States of America, one for Congress, and one for our new ally, the King of Spain. 

The army being then dismissed. General Hand, with the officers of his brigade, at- 
tended by the officers of the park or artillery, repaired to a bowery, erected for that pur- 
pose, where the fatted bullock was served up, (dressed in different ways,) the whole seated 
themselves on the ground around the same, which afforded them a most agreeable repast. 
The officers being very jovial, and the evening was spent in great mirth and jollity. 

After dinner the following toasts were drank, the drums and fifes playing at intervals. 

1st. The thirteen states and their sponsors. 

2d. The honourable, the American Congress. 

3d. General Washington and the American army. 

4th. The commander-in-chief of the western expedition. 

5th. The American navy. 

6th. Our faithful allies, the united houses of Bourbon. 

7th. May the American Congress, and all her legislative representatives, be endowed 
"with virtue and wisdom, and may her independence be as firmly established as the pillars 
of time. 

8th. May the citizens of America, and her soldiers, be ever unanimous in the recipro- 
cal support of each other. 

gth. May altercations, discord, and every degree of fraud, be totally banished the 
peaceful shores of America. 

loth. May the memory of the brave Lieutenant Boyd, and the soldiers under his com- 
mand, who were horribly massacred by the inhuman savages, or by their more barbarous 
and detestable allies, the British and Tories, on the 13th inst., be ever dear to his country. 

nth. An honourable peace with America, or perpetual war with her enemies. 

I2th. May the kingdom of Ireland merit a stripe in the American standard. 

13th. May the enemies of America be metamorphosed into pack horses, and sent on a 
western expedition against the Indians. 

An express, with dispatches for General Sullivan, from Philadelphia, arrived this morn- 
ing, by whom 1 received a packet enclosing the commissions for my officers. 

About ir o'clock, A. M., the command under Colonel Dearbourn, who left us the 21st 
of June to proceed to Cayuga lake, returned, bringing two squaw prisoners ; he having, 
in his route, destroyed several towns and a great quantity of fine corn. 

Monday, Sept. 2'jth. — The detachment ordered to march yesterday moved this morning 
up Tioga branch to an Indian village, about twelve miles from this place, with orders to 
destroy the same. 

Coleman and Caldwell, two of my soldiers, who, by some means, lost the regiment at 
Kanadaugua lake, on the eighteenth, after wandering for seven days in the wilderness, 
found and joined us at this place. They subsisted, during their absence, on the hearts 
and livers of two dead horses which they found on the path along which the army had 
marched. 

At dusk this evening, the detachment which marched this morning returned, after 
destroying a considerable quantity of corn, beans, and other vegetables, sixteen boat loads 
of which they brought with them for the use of the army ; they also burned a small vil- 
lage. 



166 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Tuesday, Sept. 28th. — Several commands were ordered out this day, viz., one up and 
the other down the Tioga branch, for the purpose of destroying corn, &c., of which there 
was a quantity left on our march towards the Seneca country. 

All the lame and sick soldiers of the army were this day ordered to go to Tioga in 
boats, and the pack horses least able for other duty. 

Colonel Butler, with his command, after laying waste and destroying the Cayuga set- 
tlements, and corn, &c., of which there Was a very great quantity, returned, and joined 
the army about 10 o'clock this morning. 

Wednesday, Sept. 2gth — ^The army marched this morning about 8 o'clock, and contin- 
ued moving steadily until we passed Chemung about one mile, where we encamped on the 
same ground, and in the same position, as on the 27th. The two commands ordered out 
yesterday morning returned, and joined the army at this place about 9 o'clock, P. M., 
after destroying large quantities of corn, beans, and other vegetables. 

Thursday, Sept. jotk. — This morning about 8 o'clock the army moved. About 2 o'clock 
they arrived at Tioga plains, near Fort Sullivan, where the whole formed in regular line 
of march, and moved into the garrison in the greatest order, when we were received with 
military honours, the garrison turning out with presented arms, and a salute of thirteen 
rounds from their artillery, which complement was returned them from the park of artil- 
lery with the army. '' 

Colonel Shrieve, governor of the garrison, had an elegant dinner provided for the gen- 
eral and field officers of the army. W e regaled ourselves, and great joy and good humour 
was visible in every countenance. Colonel Proctor's band, and drums and fifes played in 
concert the whole time. 

Friday, Oct. ist. — This morning the horses belonging to the officers of the brigade 
were forwarded to Wyoming. We also sent our cow which we had along with us the 
whole expedition, and to whom we are under infinite obligations for the great quantity of 
milk she afforded us, which rendered our situation very comfortable, and was no small 
addition to our half allowance. 

This afternoon Colonel Brewer, General Sullivan's secretary, set off to Congress with 
the dispatches, which contained a relation of the great success of the expedition. 

Saturday, Oct. 2d. — This day the commander-in-chief made an elegant entertainment, 
and invited all the general and field officers of the army to dine with him. 

In the evening, to concludethe mirth of the day, we had an Indian dance. The offi- 
cers who joined in it putting on vizors, (alias Monetas.) The dance was conducted and 
led off by a young Sachem of the Oneida tribe, who was next followed by several other 
Indians, then the whole led off, and, after the Indian custom, danced to the music, which 
was a rattle, a knife, and a pipe, which the .Sachem continued clashing together and sing- 
ing Indian the whole time. At the end of each, the Indian whoop was set up by the whole. 

Sunday, Oct. 3d. — Agreeable to the orders of yesterday, the garrison of Fort Sullivan 
this dav joined their respective corps, and the fort was demolished. The stores and other 
baggage with the park of artillery were put on board the boats, and every other matter 
put in perfect readiness to move with the army, on their route to Wyoming, to-morrow 
morning at 6 o'clock. 

The young Sachem, with several Oneida Indians, relatives and friends of the unfortun- 
ate Indian Hanjost, who bravely fell with the party under command of the much lamented 
Lieut. Boyd on the 13th ult., who faithfully acted as guide to the army, left us this day, 
well pleased, (after bestowing some presents on them,) for their native place, the Oneida 
country. 

The German regiment, which composed a part of the flanking divisions of the army, 
was this day ordered to join and dp duty with the third Pennsylvania brigade, commanded 
by Gen. Hand. 

Monday, Oct. 4th. — This day about 8 o'clock the army took up their line of March. We 
arrived at Wessaukin about 6 o'clock in the evening, after completing a march of fifteeii 
miles. On account of the rain, marching was rather disagreeable this day. 



LIEUT.-COL. ADAM HUBLEY. 167 

On my arrival at this place I received a letter, with some newspapers, &c., from his 
excellency, President Read, which contained agreeable news, &c. 

Wednesday, Oct. 6th. — About 8 o'clock this morning the whole embarked again, and 
moved, paying no attention to order down the river. 

Thursday, Oct. "jth. — Embarked about 6 o'clock, and kept on steadily until we arrived 
at Wyoming. About 3 o'clock, P. M., the whole army landed and encamped on the same 
ground, and in the same order, as on the 30th of July. 

Thus, by the perseverance, gobd conduct, and determined resolution of our comman- 
der-in-chief, with the assistance of his council, and the full determination of his troops to 
execute, have we fully accomplished the great end and intentions of this important expe- 
dition ; and I flatter myself we fully surpassed the most sanguine expectations of those 
whose eyes were more immediately looking to us for success. 

The glorious achievements we have exhibited in extending our conquests so far, and. 
at the same time, render them so very complete, will make no inconsiderable balance 
even in the present politics of America, Its future good consequences I le-i^'e to ihe elo- 
quence of time to declare, which will, in ages hence, celebrate the memory of those brav ^ 
sons who nobly risked their liv6s, disdaining every fatigue and hardship, to complete a 
conquest, the real good effects and advantages of which posterity will particularly enjoy. 

Whilst I revere the merit and virtue of the army, I am sorry 1 am under the necessity 
of mentioning that there was an unparalleled and unpardonable neglect, (and which ought 
not to pass with impunity,) in those whose business it was to supply them with a sufficient 
quantity of necessaries to carry them through the expedition, instead of which not more 
than twenty-two days flour, and sixteen days meat was on hand when it commenced. 
And, although the army possessed a degree of virtue, perhaps unparalleled in the annals 
of history, in undertaking an expedition on half allowance, which was in every instance 
hazardous and imperious, yet, had we not been favored with the smiles of Providence, in 
a contipuation of good weather, the half allowance itself would not have enabled us to 
perform what, from that circumstance, we have. 

THE END. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 



Lieut. Jenkins was born in New London, Conn., at Gardner's Lake, 
27th November, 1751, 0. S. He was a surveyor and conveyancer, school- 
teacher, constable, agent for the Susquehanna Company at Wyoming, 
farmer, merchant and iron-monger. He came to Wyoming Valley, with 
his father Judge John Jenkins a native of East Greenwich, R L, in 1769, 
and at once took an active part in the Pennamite and subsequently in 
the Revolutionary wars. He entered into the service of the United 
States, 26th Aug., 1776, was taken prisoner by the Indians and Tories 
in the latter part of November, 1777, carried to Niagara where he re- 
mained during the winter and in the spring was taken to Montreal and 
Albanjr, whence they proposed taking him to Kanadaseago, to a, grand 
Indian Council for final disposition. On the way he escaped and after 
great fatigue and suffering from hunger, reached home on the 2d of June, 
1778, previous to the adi,'ent of the forces under Butler and Brant, of 
whose coming he brought intelligence. He was in command of Forty 
Fort when the settlers marched out to meet and turn back the invadei's. 
He subsequently joined (6th July, 1778), Captain Spalding's Company as 
Lieutenant; went with Col. Hartley to Tioga Point in the latter part of 
September, 1778. 

The next year, in April, he waited on General AYashington at his re- 
quest giving liim important information relating to the Indian country. 
He served throughout the Sullivan campaign as a guide to the army, 
and received the thanks of Gen'l Sullivan in general orders, for "the ser- 
vices rendered the same by his vigilance and exertion," in the Battle of 
Newtown, 29th Aug., 1779. On his return from that eani})aign he re- 
mained on duty at Wyoming until 25th Februarj-, 1781, where he set 
out with his company to join General Washington at Headquarters on 
the Hudson, and arrived on the 10th of March. He was engaged in the 



LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 169 

■battle of King's Bridge 3d July, 1781, and when the at my marched for 
Yorktown accompanied them ; was at the surl-ender of Cornwallis, 17th 
Oct., 1781, serving under Baron Steuben. Returning with the army 
to the Hudson that same fall, and the war being virtually at an end, he 
on the 1st of March, 1782, resigned his commission and returned home 
to the defense of his family and friends. 

He was an active, leading man in all the struggles of the settlers, firm 
and unyielding in his adherence to their rights, never compromising, never 
surrendering. 

After the Revolutionary war, he settled in Exeter, on the battle field 
of Wyoming, where he died 19th March, 1827. He married Bethiah, 
daughter of Jonathan Harris of Colchester, Conn., on the 23d June, 
1778, and by her had eight children. She survived him and died 12th 
August, 1842, aged 90 years. 

From the 5th of June, 1778, up to the time of his joining Washing- 
ton on the Hudson, he kept a journal of events, with which he was con- 
nected. So much of it, is here given, as relates to the Sullivan Campaign. 

The original manuscript, is in the hands of his grandson, Hon. Steuben 
Jenkins, Wyoming, Pa., to whom we are indebted for the following copy 
and the foregoing biographical sketch. It has never before been pub- 
lished. 

JOURNAL 

OF LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS, CONNECTED WITH THE CAMPAIGN OF 
GEN. SULLIVAN, AGAINST THE SIX NATIONS.— lyjg. 

AVRIL 1st. I set off for head-quarters, by order of Gen. Hand. Met Capt. Spalding 
in the swamp. 

April 6. Waited on Gen. Washington and had a long interview with him in relation 
to the Indian Country, on the head waters of the Susquehanna, and around the Lakes, 
and, the facilities for an expedition into that country. 

April 8th. Set out for Wyoming. 

April nth. Arrived at Wyoming with Major Birchard who commanded 400 men. 

April 23d. This day Major Powell with a party of men coming in were waylaid by the 
Indians near Laurel run. Capt. Davis, Lieut. Jones and three men were killed and two 
others were missing. About the same time the ■ Indians drove off six cows from 
Shawnee. 

May 8th. General Hand came to Wyoming. 

June 23d. General Sullivan came to Wyoming. 

June 30th. Two Tories condemned. One of them was Executed, the other was re- 
prieved and sent to his family near Easton. 

22 



170 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Saturday, July 31st. 

The army under command of. Major Gen. Sullivan consisting of three brigades, com- 
manded by Gens. Hand, Poor and Maxwell, left Wyoming and marched 'as far as 
Lackawanna, and encamped on the north side of the creek. The light corps, to which 
I was attached, taking the advance about a mile in front of the main body. We en- 
camped at about 43^ o'clock, P. M. The boats did not come up by reason of the sinking 
of one of them loaded with ammunition, and damaging another. 

August ist. Continued at Lackawanna, waiting for the boats until afternoon. The 
army marched about 3 o'clock and encamped about seven in the evening at Wyolutimunk.. 
I left a horse at Lackawanna, by reason of his lameness. 

August 2d. The army lay still in the encampment. David Brown was wounded in 
the Side by accident, with a tomahawk. The rear guard lost seven tents, by reason of 
being detained in the night. 

August 3d. The army marched as far as Tunkhannock, and encamped near Wort- 
man's. Two Indians discovered on the west side of the river. 

Aug't 4th. The army marched at 5 o'clock in the morning, and encamped at night at 
Van der Lypp's. The boats did not come up which detained our march until late the next 
day. 

Aug't 5th. The army marched about 10 o'clock and encamped at night at Wyalusing. 
I left a bay mare at Van der Lypp's, on account of her being lame and not able to go fur- 
ther. One of the men belonging to Stewart's bullock-guard, was unwell, and was left in 
the encampment. One of the boat men fell out of the boat and was unfortunately 
drowned. After we encamped at night a Sergeant, belonging to the New Jersey troops, 
died very suddenly. To-day we passed over the ground where the battle was fought be- 
tween Col. Hartley and the Indians last fall, from DePui's farm on up some distance. 

Aug't 6. — The army remained at Wyalusing to refresh themselves. A party was sent 
back to Van der Lypp's. They found the man dead that was left there the day before, 
and brought him up and buried him near Kingsley's house. Orders .given to march at 
five o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Aug't. 7th. The weather was stormy last night, and this morning, which detained our 
ma.rch, and we lay in camp all day. 

Aug't 8th. The army marched at 5 in the morning and encamped at night at Wysox. 
General Sullivan came on in the boats, being unwell, which detained him so that he did 
not come up to the light troops, but he encamped at the Standing Stone, about three miles 
in the rear. 

Aug't gth. The main body of the army came up to Gen. Hand about 10 o'clock when 
the whole army advanced and encamped at night on the upper Sheshequin flats. This 
day in passing a narrow defile in break-neck hill, three of our oxen fell off and were 
killed. At night one of the small boats loaded with flour was stove, and the lading lost. 

Aug't loth. The weather was stormy and in consequence of this and the boats not 
coming up in season, we remained in camp. 

Aug't nth. The army marched at 5 o'clock in the morning, passing near Queen 
Esther's palace, which we destroyed last fall at the time of our expedition under Col. 
Hartley. After crossing the river we encamped on Tioga plains. 

At night, I was sent with Capt Cummings to reconnoiter Chemung. 

Aug't 12th. Returned from Chemung, in the afternoon. We discovered an ndian 
village at that place, about 12 miles from camp. About 8 o'clock in the evening a large 
party marched in order to destroy that settleme'nt. 

Aug't 13th. The party arrived at Chemung about 5 o'clock, in the morning, but found 
that the enemy had left the town. We followed them about one mile, and as our advance 
party, under command of Gen. Hand was ascending a small hill, the enemy fired upon 
them from the top. After a spirited contest, the enemy fled taking with them their dead 
and wounded. We had three brave officers, — Capt. Henry Carberry, Capt. John Frank- 
lin and Lieut. William Huston wounded, together with a number of men — and six men 
killed. After gaining the summit of the hill, we halted for some time and then returned 
to the town, and set it on fire, and destroyed about fifteen acres of corn. 



LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 171 

As Uen. Poor was going into a piece of corn with his brigade, the Indians fired on 
them from across the river, killing one of his men and wounding three others, who are 
likely to recover. The army then returned to Tioga, to our encampment. 

Aug't 14th. The army lay in the encampment until night, and buried the dead, that 
had been killed yesterday, with military honors. 

Aug't 15. A detachment of nine hundred men, with ammunition and provisions for 
eight days, was made, to be commanded by Gens. Hand and Poor, with orders to march 
at six o'clock on the morning of the i6th, to go up the Susquehanna to meet Gen, Clinton, 
who is marching to join us. A small party of Indians came near the camp on the west 
side of the Tioga creek and killed three men, scalped young Elliot and wounded another, 
and another that was in company with Elliot was missing. They also killed an ox and 
drove off several horses. 

Aug't i6th. The party marched about 11 o'clock in order to meet General Clinton, and 
encamped at night about ten miles from Tioga, at a place called Mauckatawangum. or 
Red Bank. Sergeant [Asa] (Chapman and [Justus] Gaylord were sent to m_eet Gen. Clin- 
ton and inform him of our advance to meet him. 

Aug't 17th. The party marched at six o'clock in the morning and encamped at night 
on Owego flats near the river, where there was an Indian town. The Indians had left 
the town however, some time before our arrival. 

Aug't i8th. The party marched at 7 o'clock and encamped at night at Choconut flats. 
On the opposite side of the river, was a beautiful piece of land which the Indians had 
desolated and left the day before. In the evening we heard the Indians prowling about 
our camp. 

Aug't 19th. The party marched early in the morning in hopes of meeting the army 
under Gen Clinton. After we had marched about one mile we received orders to return 
to our camp. Soon after Gen. Clinton and our party joined and returned as far as 
Owego. 
Aug't 20th. The army lay still by reason of a very heavy rain. 

Aug't 21st. Marched at 7 in the morning and encamped about 3 in the afternoon, at 
Mauckatawangum. 

Aug't 22d. The army marched at 6 in the morning and returned to the encampment 
at Tioga, at about twelve o'clock, at which time General Sullivan honored us with the 
discharge of thirteen pieces of cannon. 

Aug't 2.3d. Lay in camp all day. Capt. Kimball of Col. Cilley's command, was killed 
by the accidental discharge of a gun, and a Lieut, wounded. 

I drew 21 pairs of shoes and delivered them to the following soldiers : — 
John Swift, Nathan Stark, 

Harvey Harding, Frederick Eveland, 

Thomas Baldwin, Richard Halstead, 

William Kellogg, Justus Gaylord, 

Daniel Denton, Thomas Parks, 

Elisha Garrett, Elijah Walker, 

Palmer Ransom, Lawrence Keeney, 

William Conover, Stephen Skiff, 

Isaac Benjamin, Timothy Hopkins, 

Asa Smith, William Smith, 

James Welles. 
Aug't 24th. The army was engaged in preparing to march from Tioga into the Indian 
country. A man was wounded by the accidental discharge of a gun. At 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon, the light troops marched off of the old encampment and encamped about 
100 rods in advance, at which time Col. [William] Butler joined our corps, and encamped 
at 7 o'clock, p. M. 

AuGT 25th. The army lay still in camp, preparing for a march. About 11 o'clock it 
■began to rain very hard, which continued till late in the afternoon. Three Indians came 
to our encampment, supposed to be friendly Indians from Oneida. Ordered to march at 
8 o'clock to-morrow morning. An express from Fort Pitt came in this evening. 



172 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Aug't 26th. The army marched about 11 o'clock and halted near a fording place in 
Tioga creek, waiting for the creek to fall as it was very high on account of the recent 
heavy rains. 

Aug. 27th. The army marched about 6 o'clock and encamped on a beautiful flat about 
6^ miles from Chemung. This day in passing a narrow defile, one of our wagons loaded 
with ammunition broke down and fell from the top of a high hill. I, with Lieut. Stevens, 
destroyed the enemy's encampment. Clinton did not march which delayed our further 
progress till late on Saturday the 28th instant. 

Aug't 28th. The army was busy preparing for a further advance, reconnoitering the 
country and selecting the route for the march. Repaired Col. Proctor's carriages for the 
artillery, which were taken yesterday and destroyed by the enemy. We cut down about 
30 acres of corn, which was supposed to have been planted by the Tories, and left some 
time before. 

We destroyed Chemung. 

The army marched about 12 o'clock. As the advance guard of riflemen was crossing 
the river a small party of Indians fired on our boatmen, but did no damage. A small 
party, with two of our Indians were sent out, who discovered small parties of Indians, 
and heard them at work on their encampment. This day the army marched about two 
miles and encamped' at Chemung, on the bank of the Tioga creek. 

HATT1.K OF NrWTOW.N. 

Sunday, August 29th, 1779. The array marched at 8 o'clock in the morning. After 
our advance parties had marched about two miles they frequently discovered Indian spies, 
about 200 yards distant in front of them, and a small party of the enemy on the west 
side of the river. The further we advanced the bolder these hardy fellows became, one 
of whom fired on our advance party but did no damage, and then ran off at great speed. 

We continued our advance and discovered several more Indians, who fled before us. 
At the distance of about four miles from Chemung we discovered a very extensive and 
formidable breast-work, advantageously situated on a rising piece of ground. The rifle 
corps drew up and formed at the distance of about 300 yards from the enemy's works, 
and then, advancing to within 120 yards, kept up a brisk and scattering fire on the enemy 
for two hours, while Gens. Poor and Clinton endeavored to gain their rear, and our 
artillery could be properly placed for an engagement. In the meantime about 400 of the 
enemy sallied out on our advanced parties, but finding our troops determined to maintain 
their ground, thought best to return to their works. Soon after our cannon began to play 
upon them, they ran off and left their breastworks, in the most precipitous manner, 
leaving their packs, blankets, tomahawks, spears, &c., behind them. At the same time we 
took possession of the enemy's ground and fortifications. As the enemy were retreating 
their left flank fell in with Gen. Poor. A sharp fight ensued from both parties but the 
enemy were obliged to give way. In this engagement we lost in killed five men, and 
thirty-four were wounded. Among the wounded were Major Titcomb, Capt. Clayes, and 
Lieut. McCoUey. Poor's party took a Tc-y prisoner, and 12 Indian scalps. The riflemen 
took a negro, prisoner, in the evening about two miles from the enemy's works, and then 
returned and encamped near a very beautiful flat where the enemy had planted and tilled 
about 120 acres of corn. 

Augt 30th. The army lay still and sent out reconnoitering parties, and buried the 
dead. Having destroyed about 120 acres of excellent corn, beans, &c., prepared to pro- 
ceed after the enemy. Our wounded, heavy artillery and wagons were sent back to Tioga 
in boats. This day in examining the prisoners they said that Butler and Brant com- 
manded, and that the enemy consisted of 700 men, — 503 Indians and 200 Tories, and 
they had lived for two weeks on green corn, without bread or salt. The General asked 
the negro what their officers said when our cannon began to play upon our works. He 
answered, " As the Indians ran away, so did the white people run too. The rangers run, 
and the officers hollered, ' top rangers !' ' top rangers !' but rangers not top." 



LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 173 

This day the Lieutenant wounded yesterday, died of his wounds. Our soldiers found 
a large number of the enemy's packs, blankets, and some young horses, and brought 
them in. 

This day the whole army agreed to live on half rations to subdue their cruel and impla- 
cable enemies the Indians and Tories. 

None of the Indians were seen to-day. 

Aug't 3 1st. The army marched at lo o'clock past Newtown, where our soldiers found 
a large quantity of pewter, iron kettles, &c., then crossing a branch of Tioga creek, trav- 
elled over a fine beautiful tract of land and encamped near the Tioga branch on a level, 
open piece of ground. This day we discovered the enemy going up the main branch of 
Tioga with boats and canoes. Major Parr with the riflemen and a company of infantry, 
were sent after them. This party did not return to-day. 

An Indian was found dead near our encampment, supposed to be one of those wounded 
at the breastworks and brought on until he died, and was then abandoned. The two pris- 
oners taken on the 2gth inst., informed us that we had killed three Indians, and wounded 
a number near Chemung when that town was destroyed. 

Wednesday, Sept. ist. The army marched at 8 o'clock in the morning, and with con- 
siderable difficulty reached Catharines town, or Cheoquock, at 7 in the evening, and 
found it had beSn evacuated by the enemy a few hours before. The pack horses and 
baggage did not reach here until Thursday morning. 

Major Parr returned to the army about lo o'clock to-day, and informed us that he could 
not come up with the Indians' with their canoes, but that he burned a number of buildings 
and destroyed 30 acres of corn, and that the enemy had made a quantity of hay. 

Thursday, Sept. 2d. This morning some of our soldiers found an old squaw, that had 
not been able to travel, so as to make her escape. She said that Butler and the Indians 
held a great council of war, and the old Indian chiefs had a mind to make peace, but But- 
ler told them that the rebels would kill them all, and they had better run off in the woods. 
Upon the whole they concluded to leave this town before we could reach it. The army 
lay still. Col. Butler went out with a party but made no discovery. Our soldiers found 
considerable plunder, horses, cows, hogs, &c. We lived very plentifully for a few days. 
This town is situated on a very fine and beautiful bottom of land about 3 miles south of 
Seneca lake. 

Sept. 3d. The army marched at 8 o'clock in the morning. This day we passed over a 
fine beautiful country of land adjoining Seneca lake on the west, and the Cayuga lake 
on the east. The army encamped about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, near a small Indian 
settlement, where we found plenty of Indian corn, beans, squashes, &c., which the army 
made use of for themselves and horses. This day our right flank discovered our Indian 
spy, who ran off as soon as discovered. This settlement the Indians left with the fires 
burning in their houses. 

Sept. 4th. The army marched about 10 o'clock in the morning, passed several houses 
and cornfields which we destroyed. To-day we marched over a fine, beautiful, level 
country of land, pleasantly situated on the east side of Seneca lake. The light troops 
encamped about 3 miles from Kindauga, and about two miles in front of the main army. 
This day our soldiers caught a number of fine horses. 

Sunday, Sept. 5th. Then-.ain army came up to the light troops about 10 o'clock, and 
the whole moved about 11 o'clock, passing one house, and several cornfields, and arrived 
at Candaia at 2 o'clock, which place the enemy had left some days before. In one of the 
out houses, about one mile from the town, a party of our riflemen found Luke Sweiland, 
who was taken by the Indians near Nanticoke in August, 1778, and brought to their town 
and given to an old squaw who kept him as her son, and he fared as well as the rest of the 
family. lie informed us that Butler left this place the Thursday before, with the whole 
of his army of 700 or 800 men, — about 300 Tories and 500 Indians, and that he under- 
stood by some of the Tories that the rebels had defeated Butler and Brant, and they had 
lost some men killed, and a large number wounded, and that a number of our old neigh- 
bors were down to fight against us, who looked very much ashamed when they returned 



174 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

from Newtown, where we defeated them. This day we destroyed the cornfields, pulled 
down and burnt the houses, &c. 

Sept. 6th, Monday. This day the army was detained until late by reason of their los- 
ing some of the horses and cattle, which were not found until late, but the army marched 
about 2 miles and encamped on the bank of Seneca lake, in a very beautiful country well 
timbered with oak. This day an express arrived from Wyoming. 

Sept. 7th. — The army marched at 7 in the morning passing a defile near the lake with- 
out much difficulty, and arrived at 6 o'clock in the evening at Canadasago, the capitol of 
the Seneca country, which we found evacuated and left by the enemy. This is a very 
beautiful town, situate on a rising piece of ground about one mile from the mouth of the 
lake. It contained about sixty houses and was surrounded with apple and peach trees. 
Our soldiers lived very bountifully on vegetables, &c., while here, as the enemy had plenty 
of such things for their own support, but being hurried off they left them behind. 

In this town we found a white child about 3 years old, which we supposed to have 
been taken by the Indians from some of the back settlements. 

Sept. 8th. The army lay in camp, washed their clothes and collected vegetables, &c., 
&c., preparing to march to-morrow. This day Major Parr, with his rifle corps, and a 
number of volunteers, went to destroy a small town 7 miles from this place, on the west 
side of the lake, called Shenawaga, where he found a large quantity of corn, and sent 
back for assistance to destroy it. A large fatigue party destroyed the corn here, and cut 
down the fruit trees. Orders were given to march for the Genessee at 6 o'clock, to-mor- 
row, except a Captain's command, which was detached to return to Tioga with the inva- 
lids. 

Sept. gth. The array marched at 12 o'clock over a very level country, 7 miles, without 
crossing any running water, and encamped at night on the west side of Flint creek. 
Major Parr, returned to the army this evening, and reported that he had destroyed a large 
quantity of corn and other vegetables, and burned 20 houses, at Shenanwaga, where the 
enemy had hogs, fowls, apples, peaches, &c. Yesterday Col. Harper, with a number of 
volunteers, destroyed a small town called Scauwaga, about ten miles from Canadaseago. 
This town was left by the Indians some time before. 

Sept. loth. The arrny marched at 8 o'clock in the morning and in seven miles came 
to a very beautiful small lake, where the Indians had a few houses on the north side, 
and about a half mile from it, a town of 23 houses, called Canadaigua. This town was 
set on fire at two o'clock, and then we marched one and a half miles further to a conven- 
ient place to encamp, where the Indians had about 50 acres of corn and a great quantity 
of beans and other vegetables, all of which were destroyed soon after our arrival by our 
soldiers. Orders were given to march at 5 o'clock to-morrow. 

Sept. ii. The army marched at 5, in the morning. After marching 13 miles over a 
very pleasant level country, came to a town called Anayayea. Pleasantly situated near 
a small lake, where the enemy had plenty of corn, beans, &c. The army lived in great 
plenty off of these vegetables, and we thought ourselves happy to find so much good liv- 
ing in a savage country, and the enemy fleeing before us. Order to march at 5 o'clock 
in the morning. At this town the Indians had about 12 houses and 20 acres of good corn, 
which the soldiers were ordered to destroy. We here left a part of our stores, with a 
detachment under command of Capt. Cummings. Our sick also remained here in one 
of the block houses. 

Sept. 12th. 

Last evening about 8 o'clock began a very heavy rain, which continued till late in the 
forenoon, and detained our marching agreeably to the order of yesterday. Marched about 
II o'clock, and after marching about 12 miles passed a lake called Canadagua and en- 
camped near an Indian town called Canaghsoos. This evening Lieut. Boj-d, with a party 
of 23 men went to a town on the Genessee, and found it evacuated. 

Sept. 13th. The army marched at 5 o'clock, went into the town where they halted and 
cooked breakfast, while the pioneers were buildiijg bridges and cutting a road through the 
swamp. Mr. Lodge, a surveyor, with his assistants, without the sentry's rising, advanced 



LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 175 

up a hill, were fired upon by a party of Indians who lay concealed on the hill for that 
purpose. One of his men was wounded, the rest made their escape. As Lieut. Boyd 
was returning to camp this morning he was attacked by a large party of Indians, himself 
and i6 of his men were killed or taken. One of his party, who made his escape, in- 
formed us that this morning in the Genessee town they killed and scalped an Indian who 
rode a good horse, and had three guns, supposed to be going to join their main party. 

After the army was alarmed, by the firing on Mr. Lodge, the riflemen and light troops 
immediately took possession of the height, where the enemy were posted. On the ap- 
proach of our advance party the enemy left the ground, and about 150 of their packs, 
hats, blankets, tomahawks, &c., and fled before us without giving us one shot. We took 
possession of one of their towns on the Genessee, about 6 o'clock this evening without 
any opposition where we found a great plenty of corn and other vegetables. 

Sept. 14th. This morning the man wounded yesterday died. A fatigue party of 2000 
men was ordered out at 6 o'clock to destroy the corn which they completed at 12 o'clock. 
The army then marched about 5 miles to the capital town on the Genessee. This town is 
situated on the west side of the, river, on the most beautiful flat I ever saw, which town 
we entered without opposition and found two of our men, taken by the enemy yesterday, 
■dead. They were brought to this place, killed and cut to pieces in the most barbarous 
and cruel mariner that savages were master of. One of the.se men supposed to be Lieut. 
Boyd, the other a soldier of his party. These men were buried immediately, with the 
honors of war in as decent a manner as our situation would admit of. 

Sept. 15th. This morning the whole of the army was ordered to parade at 6 o'clock in 
order to destroy the corn of this place, which was judged to be upwards of 200 acres, 
and a vast quantity of beans, squashes, &c. This we completed by about 2 o'clock, by 
throwing it into the houses, which were set on fire. Some threw it into the river, and 
■others built fires in the fields and burned it there. This forenoon Mrs. Lester, who was 
taken last November, by the Indians, came to our camp and brought with her one of her 
children. 

RETURN OF THE ARMY. 

Sept. i6th. Large fatigue parties were sent out this morning to destroy the corn, which 
they accomplished at 10 o'clock. The whole of the army marched at 11 o'clock. When 
we came near the ground where Lieut. Boyd was attacked by the Indians, on the 13th 
inst., several reconnoitering parties were sent out and found 14 of his men dead, and 
scalped and cut in a most savage manner. An Indian that went out as a guide to Lieut. 
Boyd was found cut to pieces ; — all of whom we buried as decently as we could in our sit- 
uation, and then the army proceeded as far as Canaghsoos, where the whole encamped at 
night. 

Sept. 17th. The army marched at 6 o'clock in the morning, and marched 12 miles to 
Hanayayea, where we left our stores and the sick, which we find all well. We arrived at 
the town at i o'clock when the army encamped and drew provisions. 

Sept. i8th. Marched at 6}4 in the morning and after a march of 13 miles came to a 
small lake near Canandaigua. This day we met on the road two Indians from Oneida 
■with dispatches for Gen. Sullivan. In the town we left this morning, and on the road, we 
killed about 20 pack horses that were not able to travel. 

Sept. igth.— The army marched at 7 o'clock and with some difficulty reached Canadasago 
at 6 in the evening, where we encamped. This day an express met the army with letters 
from Gen. Washington. Information was brought that Col. Shreve had forwarded a 
great plenty of provisions and liquor to Newtown for the use of the army. 

Sept. 20th. The army lay in camp until 4 in the afternoon, and then the whole 
marched four miles, crossed the outlet of the lake, and encamped about 7 in the evening. 
This day several large parties were sent off to the different places. Lieut. Gore went on 
a command with Col. Butler, to the Cayuga lake, to destroy several towns and the corn 
belonging to the Cayuga nation, who a few days ago sent a request to the General, to 
have their crops saved. 



176 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Sept. 21st. The army marched at 7 in the morning, and encamped at night near Ken- 
dawa, a distance of 18 miles. 

Sept. 22d. We marched at 8 in the morning and advanced 14 miles. This morning 
Nathaniel Church sent to Wyoming. 

Sept. 23d. The army marched at 8 in the morning, and came to Shequaga (Catha- 
rines town,) at 2 in the afternoon, where we found a squaw dead, and the old squaw that 
we left on our way up, alive in her hut. This night the army encamped on the flats about 
two miles from the town. 

Sept. 24th. The army marched at 6, and arrived at the Tioga Broom, where we found 
plenty of provision and liquor, under the care of Capt. Reed. 

Sept. 25th. The army lay in camp at Fort Reed, where we had the news confirmed in 
general orders concerning Spain declaring war against England. This day was spent very 
joyfully, and at 5 o'clock a few de joie was fired by 13 rounds of cannon. Three 
cheers were then given. One for the Continental Congress, one for the King of Spain, 
and one for the King of France, after which there was a good supper provided for the 
troops of 5 oxen barbacued, and a great plenty of liquor to drink. The officers of Gen. 
Hand's brigade had 13 fires and 13 candles burning, and drank the following 13 toasts 
given by Gen. Hand, to wit : 

1. The 13 Sister States and their Sponsors. 

2. The Honorable Continental Congress 

3. Gen. Washington and the American Army. 

4. The Commander-in-Chief of the Western Expedition. 

5. The American Navy. 

ft. Our faithful allies the House of Bourbon. 

7. May the American Congress and all her legislature representatives be endued with 
virtue and wisdom, and may our Independence be as firmly established as the pillars of 
time. 

8. May the citizens of America and her soldiers be ever unanimous in the reciprocal 
support of each other. 

9. May altercations, discord, and every kind of fraud be totally banished the peaceful 
shores of America. 

10. May the memory of the brave Lieut. Boyd, and the soldiers under his .command, 
who were horribly massacred by the inhuman savages, or by their more barbarous and 
detestable allies, the British and Tories, on the 13th inst. , be ever dear to their country. 

11. An honorable peace with America or perpetual war with her enemies. 

12. May the Kingdom of Ireland merit a stripe in the American Standard. 

13. May the enemies of America be metamorphosed into pack horses and sent on a 
western expedition against the Indians. 

Sept. 26th. This day the army lay in camp at Fort Reed. At 12 o'clock. Col. Dear- 
born returned to camp from the Cayuga Lake, with 2 squaws he had taken prisoners. 
He reported that he had destroyed five towns on the west side of the lake, and a large 
quantity of corn and other vegetables. These towns were situated near the lake, in a fine 
fruitful country. He also destroyed a fine plantation belonging to Hendrick Markle, a 
Tory, who fled from the frontier town and settled among the Indians rather than live an 
honest life among a people he called rebels. 

Sept. 27th. This day the army lay in camp. A large fatigue party was sent up the 
river 9 miles, where they loaded nine boats with corn and other vegetables, and brought 
them down. This evening Mr. Lodge and five men from C9I. Butler's party, came in and 
informed us that the Colonel was about 10 miles from camp. A soldier belonging.to the 
New Hampshire troops died to-day. 

Sept. 28th. The army lay in camp. Several large parties sent out this morning to 
destroy corn and other vegetables. Col. Butler returned to camp from the Cayuga coun- 
try, and informed us that he had destroyed five towns, and about 150 acres of most 
excellent corn, and a large quantity of beans, potatoes, and .other vegetables. One of his 
party died very suddenly this morning, before he reached camp. 



LIEUT. JOHN JENKINS. 177 

Sk)"I'. 2gth. The army left ForL Reed and marched lo miles toward Fort Sullivan pass- 
ing Butler's breastworks. We encamped at night on a flat 2 miles below Chemung. This 
evening Capt. Spalding returned from a command up the Tioga branch where he de- 
stroyed a small town and about lo acres of corn, the fences, &c. This town appeared to 
have been built by white people. ' 

Sei'I'. 30th. 'I'his morninti the army marched at 7 o'clock and arrived at Tioga about 
2 o'clock in the afternoon, and each brigade encamped on the old ground. 

Oct. 1st. The army lay in camp. One or two small parlies sent to Wyoming. T has'e 
been very unwell for some days. 

Oct. 2nd, Sunmiav. Continued in t'ort Sullivan. Order to march Mr)nday at 6 o'clock: 
for Wyoming. 

(.)("i'. 3rd. Continued at Tioga. 

Oc'i". 4th. .^Marched for AVyoming. Encamped at night at Wyso.><. 

Oct. 5th. The army went on board the boats, and came down as far as IJcPews. 

Oct. 6th. Came to Lackawanna. 

Oct. 7lh. The army came to Wyoming. 

( )CT, loth. The army left this place and raarched for Easton. 

Oct. 2i)lh, The German regiments marched for Sunbury. 

I)i,c'u iglh. Capt. Selin set out for f'hiladelphia. 



23 



JOURNAL OF CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVEKMORE. 



Daniki, LivKRiMORK, Cuptaiii iu the Third New JLiinpshire Hegi- 
inent. lie wms horn in Watertown, Mass., in 1749. After serving an 
appreiitieeshi}) to u house (-irpenter at Coneord, N. H., he continued there 
working at his trade until the commencement of the revolution, vfhen, 
in June, 177."), he was commissioned as P^usign in Third New Hampshire 
Reg't and in January, 177(1, was appointed as First Lieutenant, and not 
long after wius appointed Captain, and commanded a company of foot in 
the Sullivan expedition, during which time the following journal was 
written. Oct. 10th, 17H3, Captain Livermorc was promoted by Congress 
to rank of Majoi' liy brevet and Dec. 10, 1783, he retired from the army 
and returned to Concord where he continued to reside until his death, 
June 22, 179S. 

His journal was published in the New Hampshire Historical Collec- 
tions, Vol. VI, page 308, having been furnished by Joseph B. Walker, 
Esq., of Concord. The following is taken therefrom : 

^ JOUKXAL OF THE MARCH OF GE.V. POOR'S BRIGADE, FROM 
SOLDIER'S FORTUNE, OIV THE WESTERN 
' EXPEDITION, MA V /;, 7779. 
By Daniel Livkrmore, Captain in the Third New Hami'shire Regiment. 

JOURNAL. 

Monday, May 17, 1779. This day at eight o'clock the remaining part of Gen. Poor's 
brigade leave Soldier's Fortune and march on the Western Expedition. At three o'clock, 
p. M., halt at Fishkill, where we din?, twelve miles from oar ol(l quarters. At five P. M., 
march for the Ferry^ which we make about sunset ; five miles from town. Col. Read's 
regiment cross the North River this evening, Col. Dearborn's take quarters for the night 
on the east side. Nothing reraarl<able happens during the day, 17 miles. 

Tuesday, May i8th. This morning the weather being fair we proceed to conveying 
our baggage and stores over the river, to Newburg Landing, which was completed at 
about twelve o'clock. Here the troops refresh. At two o'clock, p. M., are ready to 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 179 

march, near which time Gen. Poor arrives from New Hampshire. The troops now pro- 
ceed on their march by the way of New-Windsor, three miles ; thence to Bethlehem, 
nine miles. Put up at Maj. Deboyse's. This place is in the State of New ^'ork, and 
county of Orange. The country is not very good in general, although some of the farms 
are very fine. Nothing material has happened this day. 12 miles. 

WiiDN'ESDAY, May ig. This morning the troops march, at seven o'clock, through a 
very fertile part of the country, and make a short halt at Bloomsgrove Church, five miles. 
From thence proceed on our march five miles, to a small village called Chester. Here we 
halt an hour. The weather proves rainy, but we proceed on the march three miles, and 
are then obliged to put up for the night, by reason of the bad weather, in very disagree- 
ble quarters. The country during this day's march is exceedingly good, but the inhabi- 
tants are not friendly. Nothing remarkable happens this day. 13 miles. 

Thursday, .M,\v 20. This morning the weather still continues rainy ; necessity obhges 
us to continue the march. The travelling is exceedingly bad. At nine o'clock make a 
halt at a small village called Warwick, six miles, Here we take breakfast at Beard's tav- 
ern, from whence we proceel on the march to Hardiston, seven miles. During this' days 
march we went past but few farms of any consequence. 'I"he land is not fertile, but on 
both sides of the valley very mountainous and broken. At about four i'. .M., we arrived 
at the afore mentioned place. The weather continues rainy. Put up at Ilinksman's form- 
erly a tavern, but now a torified house. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 
13 miles. 

Friday, May 21. The weather continues rainy. The troops lie by in their disagree- 
able quarters. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 

Saturday, May 22. This day the troops lie by for want of provisions, and are 
employed in washing and drying their clothes, Nothing remarkable happens this day 
except a dispute which arose between the landlord and some of the officers, on account of 
the uncivil treatment they received from him, which was carried to no small height. N. 
B.— A Tory. 

Sunday, iMay 23. This morning the troops march at five o'clock. Proceed on their 
march seven miles, to the sign of the Pall. Here make a short halt. This is about two 
miles from New York line, in the State of New Jersey. We soon march on a few miles 
farther, and halt four hours in the heat of the day. At two o'clock proceed on the march 
through a mountainous, poor country, having but few inhabitants. At six o'clock arrive at 
Sussex State House, where we put up for the night. This is a small village consisting of 
about ten decent houses, with a large State House, built of Stone. In the north-east part 
of the town the people are chiefly of the English descent, but the greater part are not 
friendly to our cause. We put up at Prentice's tavern, and had very good treatment. I 
passed the evening very agreeably with our own corps of officers, and Mr. Abial Frye. 
Nothing remarkable happens during this day. So ends the twenty-four hours. 22 miles. 

Monday, May 24. This morning, at about seven o'clock, the troops proceed on their 
march forEaston. We make but very few halts during this day's march. At about five, 
p. M., we arrive at a small village called Moravian Mills or Oxford. This place is pleas- 
antly situated, lying on a small river, on which stands the most curious corn mill I ever 
saw. The inhabitants are of that denomination of people, called Moravians. They are 
of a kind and benevolent disposition. The curiosities of this place are worthy of notice , 
their water-works in particular form a large fountain opposite the town, on a hill. The 
water is carried under ground down the hill and through the bottom of the river, to a 
considerable of an eminence on the opposite side. During the preceedinir day's march 
we travelled through an indifferent country. The people were chiefly of the Dutch 
descent. Nothing remarkable happens during this day's march. 16 miles. 

Tuesday, May 25. This morning the troops march early. Make a short halt at Carr's 
Tavern, five miles ; from whence we proceed on the march and make but fen- stops till we 
halt for the night. The troops encamp on the edge of a wood, on the left hand, near Col. 
Bond's. This night we lie on the groundin the open air. Sometime in the night it rains 
and makes it very uncomfortable. During the preceeding day's march the weather was 



180 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

very hot. The country on the right hand is fertile, .Some exceeding fine farms between 
the road and the river Delaware, which is from five to two miles distant. During the 
day's march nothing remarkable happens, 17 miles. 

Wkdnesd.w, May 26. This morning the troops march early. At eight o'clock arrive 
at Easton, l<"erry, five miles. We then proceed to conveying the troops and baggage over 
the Delaware, which is completed at about ten o'clock. This day ihe troops are supplied 
with tents, and encamp on the south-east side of the town on the banks of the River 
Lehigh, which empties itself at this place into the Delaware. The town of Easton is- 
pleasantly situated, on a level flat of ground, on a point made by the 1 lelaware and I^ehigh. 
The buildings in this place are plain, and built of stone. Their State House is built in 
the centre of the town, where four roads meet. It is built of stone and lime, and makes 
an elegant appearance. They have one house of worship, near the State House. It is 
built of hewn stone ; large and elegant, with a large organ. The inhabitants are chiefly 
Low Dutch, and they worship wholly in that way. There are some few Jews living here, 
who are the principal merchants of the place. 

Thursday, May 27 ; Friday, 28 ; Satv;rday, 2g, and Sunday, 30. Nothing material 
happens. We lie by having little to do. Spend our time in fishing and other sort of 
diversions. 

Monday, May 31. This day I set out on a party of pleasure, to Bethlehem, in com- 
pany with a number of gentlemen, officers of the brigade. Had an elegant dinner, after 
which we walked out and took a survey of the town and its curiosities. The town of 
liethlehem is a small, compact town, lying on the river Lehigh, about twelve miles from 
Easton. It lies on a small descent towards the south-east, and is pleasantly situated. 
The inhabitants are all Low Dutch, and of that denomination called Moravians. They 
are much bigoted in their ways of worship, as also in their method of living. Their 
buildings are not elegant though decent, and built wholly of stone and lime. They have 
but one place of public worship, and perform in the Dutch language and one house of 
entertainment, which is supplied out of the public fund. Nothing extraordinary happens 
this day. 

Tuesday, Junk i. Nothing remarkable happens this day. We lay in camp having 
little exercise. 

Wednesday, June 2 ; Thursday, 3 ; Friday, 4 ; Saturday, 5 ; Sunday, 6, ^nd Mon- 
day, 7. Nothing remarkable happens. 

Tuesday, June 8. This day the troops are reviewed by Gen. Sullivan. They parade 
on the banks of the river Lehigl;, about one mile from the town, on very disagreeable 
ground. Nothing remarkable happens during the day. 

Wednesday, June g. This day the two remaining regiments of Gen. Poor's brigade 
decamp and move up the river about one mile. There encamp on the banks, on good 
ground. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 

Thursday, June io. This day the troops parade at four, i'. m., for exercise ; march to 
town and go through various manueuvers, in forming and displaying columns, crossing 
dehles, &c. Nothing remarkable happens this day. 

Fkidvy, June ii. This day, at four o'clock, the troops march to town for e.xercise, 
and perform several manoeuvres of displaying columns and reducing platoons to rank 
entire, and forming the same. Nothing remarkable happens this day. So ends the 
twenty-four hours. 

Sati hday, June 12. This day, at four, p. M., the troops parade to attend the execu- 
tion of three criminals, inhabitants of this State, convicted of murder and highway rob- 
bery. They were tried before the civil authority, and have been under sentence eleven 
months. Nothing more worthy of notice this day. 

Sunday , June 13. This day, one of the criminals e.xecuted yesterday was dug up and 
dissected of which I was a spectator. Nothing further worthy of notice this day. 

Monday, June 14 ; Tuesday, 15 ; Wednesday, lO, and Thursday 17. Nothing worthy 
of notice happens. We follow our diversions while we stay at this place. 

Friday, June 18. This morning, at four o'clock, the troops strike their tents and load 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 181 

their baggage, in order for inarching at seven o'clock. With much regret we take our 
leave of that pleasant town, and pursue our intended expedition. We march on seven 
miles, through an indefferent part of the country. Here the troops halt and take break-, 
fast. We then pursue our march, and travel through the poorest country I ever saw — so 
bad that even bushes can't grow thereon, .\bout five, i-. M., we encamp near Hill's tav- 
ern, in Hillstown. Nothing remarkable during this day's march, 12 miles. 

SAiiiKDAY, June ig. This morning the troops march early, and pass the wind-gap, 
so called, for its being the only pass for a number of miles through the long chain of 
mountains that extend to the southernmost part of the continent, called the moun- 
tains. We continue our march through a \erv barren and mountainous part of the coun- 
tr\', and make a halt at Brihker's Mills, seven miles. Here we breakfast, from whence 
we proceed on the march and make a few halts till we halt for the night at Leonard's tav- 
ern, in I'oconogo, nine miles, and the last house on that road till we came within seven 
miles of .Susquehanna. Nothing remarkable happens during this day's march. l6 miles, 

,SrNi>\Y, Junk 20. This morning the troops march at eight o'clock ; lease I'oconogo, 
and proceed to chowder Camp, where we encamp for the night, five miles. This day we 
march through a barren, m;)Lmt:unous, country, and uninhabited. Nothing remarkable 
■during this day's march. 5 miles. 

MoND.'W, JtT.S'K 2f. This morning I mount guard. The troops march at sunrise, and 
soon enter the great swamp. Proceed seven miles and take breakfast. Here we cross 
the small river called Tunhannunk, which empties itself into the Delaware at Kaston. 
We now proceed on our march through the swamp, which is a dark and dismal place, being 
covered with a growth of large pines and hemlock, and small brush so thick that a man 
•can't be seen a rod from the road. This swamp is not level, but has some considerable 
hills and ledgy mountains in it ; and by accounts it extends between forty and fifty miles, 
north and south, and from twelve to twenty in width. In about seven miles we cross 
another small ri\'er, called the Tobahanna, much smaller than the former. We still pro- 
ceed on the march, making few halts. About two come to Locust Hill, but, there being 
no water, obliged us to continue the march ; the travelling very bad and the troops much 
fatigued. At about four, i'. >t., we cross considerable of a river, which is the principal 
branch of the river Lehigh. At about six, P. M., arrived at Barren Hill, alias Burnt 
Plain, much fatigued with our day's march. Here we encamp for the night. Nothing 
remarkable happens during this day's march, ig miles. 

TuFSDW, JuN'K 22. This day the troops lie by till twelve o'clock, at which time we 
move off the ground, myself in the rear guard. The troops were scarcely gone when two 
savages were seen by our friendly Indians, and the first that had been discovered by our 
party during the march. At about five we arrive at Bullock House, where we encamp for 
the night. Nothing extraordinary this day. 5 miles. 

Wednesday, June 23. This morning the troops march at seven o'clock, and pass the 
Bear Swamp and a place called the Shades of Death, by its being a dark, lonesome place. 
The sun is scarcely to be seen for the trees and bushes. Not far from this place is where 
Capt. Davis and Lieut. Jones from Pennsylvania, were inhumanly murdered April i8th, 
I77g, by the savages. During the whole of our march from Easton we travelled through 
the most barren part of the country I ever saw for so far together. Rocky mountains, 
sunken swamps and burning plains the whole of the way. At about two, P. .\i., we ar- 
rived at Wyoming;, which lies on the east branch of the .Susquehanna river. Mere is a 
fertile country, but the town wholly destroyed by the savages ; and, if I mistake not, 
about this time, tweUe months ago, their settlements were verj' extensive both up and 
down the river. There are two hundred and fifty widows in the place, whose husbands 
were slain in Col. Butler's battle, about the time the town was destroyed. The principal 
townwason the east side of the river. This was a county town, in the County of Westmore- 
land. The inhabitants are w'aolly from the State of Connecticut, and hold their land by 
its grant. The troops march about half a mile down the river and encamp. Nothing re- 
markable happened this day. 7 miles. 

TiiUKSDAY, June 24. Nothing remarkable happens this day. We lie by in our tents, 
having little or no duty to do. So ends the twenty-four hours. * 



182 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS, 

Friday. June 25, and Saturday, 26. Nothing worthy of notice happens. All peace 
and quietness. So ends the forty-eight hours. 

Sunday, June 27. This day the two regiments of Gen. Pool's brigade, 2nd and 3rd, 
cross the river, and move about three miles up stream and encamp on its banks, near a 
large picket fort, known by the name of Forty Fort. This fort derives its name from its. 
being built by forty persons, original proprietors of the tract of land lying on that side the 
Susquehanna, and containing forty rights. The land here is very fertile, and the intervale 
or meadow extends near four miles from the bank of the river. Nothing extraordinary 
happens during this day. 3 miles. 

Monday, June 28 ; Tuesday, 29 ; Wednesday, 30; Thursday, July i ; P'riday, 2, and 
Saturday, 3. Nothing remarkable happens. Scarcity of provisions, which makes uneasi- 
ness among the troops. 

Sunday, July 4. This day being the anniversary of the Independence of America 
and being Sunday, the celebration'was put off till tomorrow. This day we are joined by 
the other — 2nd regiment — belonging to the brigade. Col. Cilley New-Hampshire troops ; 
Col. Courtland, New York troops. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 

Monday, July 5. This day General Poor makes an elegant entertainment for all the 
officers of his brigade, with a number of gentlemen from other brigades, and from the 
town. Gen. Hand and his retinue were present. The dining room was a large booth, 
about eighty feet in length, with a marquee pitched at each end. The day was spent in 
civil mirth and jollity. The company consisted of upwards of one hundred who graced 
the feast with a number of good songs. After dinner the following toasts were drank, to. 
wit : 

1st. The United States. 

2nd. The Fourth of July, '76 : The memorable era of American Independence. 

3rd. The Grand Council of America. 

4th. Gen. Washington and the army. 

5th. The King and Queen of France. ^ 

6th. (ienl. Sullivan and the Western Expedition. 

7th. May the Counsellors of America be wise, and her Soldiers invincible. 

8th. A successful and decisive campaign. 

gth. Civilization, or death to all Savages. 

loth. To the immortal memory of those heroes who have fallen in defence of Ameri- 
can I>iberty. 

nth. May the husbandman's cottage be blessed with peace, and his fields with plenty. 

I2th Vigor and virtue to the sons and daughters of America. 

13th. May the new world be the last asylum of freedom and the arts. 

Tuesday, July 6. This day nothing of notice happens. 

Wednesday, July 7. — This day I sat on a court martial. Nothing remarkable happens 
this day. So ends the twenty-four hours. 

Thursday, July 8, ani5 Friday, 9. Nothing worthy of notice happens. 

.Saturday, July 10. This day I ride to town for recreation. Towards evening ride 
down the river four miles to a place called Shawney. The land is e.\ceedingly good and 
pleasant. 1 return home late. Visit the guards at twelve o'clock at night. This day 
Capt. Frye and Capt. Ellis set out on their command to Brinker's Mills. 

Sunday, July ir, and Monday, 12. Nothing happens worthy of notice. 

Tuesday, July 13. This day anumber of gentlemen and ladies from town ride up to- 
take a survey of our encampment; Col. Butler, Capt. Spalding and others, with their 
ladies. 

Wednesday, July 14, and Thursday, 15. Nothing worthy of note happens. 

Friday, July 16. This day I dine with Gen. Poor, in company with the Hon. Major 
General Sullivan and his Suite. The day was spent very agreeably. Nothing remarkable 
happens during the day. 

.Saturday, July 17. Nothing worthy of notice happens this day. 

Sunday, July 18. This day, at ten, a. m., the brigade attend divine service. This 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 183 

afternoon considerable of a cannonade is heard down tJie river, the reason of which is not 
known. Nothing extraordinary. 

Monday, July 19 Nothing happens worthy of notice this day. So ends the twenty- 
four hours. 

Ti rsD.-w, July 20. Nothing this day to be mentioned. 

Wkdmcsday, July 21. This evening, by order of Gen, Poor, I sat out from Camp for 
Easton, in Company with Lieut. Hoite. At ten, v. m., leave Col. Butler's and enter the 
Shady Cjrove. At day break we arrive at Locust Hill, from whence wp proceed, and at 
eleven o'clock Join Col. Read at Brinker's Mills; halt two hours, and then proceed to 
Easton. Nothing remarkable happens during Wednesday night and Thursday. So ends 
the thirty-six hours. 

Friday, July 23. This morning I feel the effects of my late journey ; am employed in 
preparing for returning to camp. Nothing material during this day. 

Satuuday, July 24. This day 1 set out for I'^aston. Nothing remarkable happens 
this day. 

SUND.w, July 25. This day, after sending the party on I stop in company with Dr. 
Barnet and other gentlemen, and take breakfast ; from whence we proceed on the journey 
and make a halt at Miller's tavern, Plainfield, twelve miles from Easton, Here we halt 
for the night. Nothing remarkable happens this twenty-four hours. 

Mondvy, July 26. This morning the weather still proves rainy, but we proceed on 
the journey to Brinker's mill ; there dine ; move on to Leonard's tavern and put up for 
the night. A dispute arises between Capt. Peatt and myself. So ends the twenty-four 
hours. 

Tuesday, July 27. This day we move on the march through the woods and swamp. 
This evening, at seven o'clock, come up with Col. Read's party at Bullock's house, and 
there stay during the night with Capt. Frye, No more this day. 

Wednesday, July 28. This morning 1 march early in, and leave Col. Read on the 
ground. At nine I arrive at Wyoming, and find the brigade have moved on to the east 
side of the river. 

Thursday, July 2y. Nothing remarkable during this day. 

Frjday, July 30. This day I am busy in preparing for the march. 

Saturday', July 31. This day^the troops march from' Wyoming. They march on 
the east side of the river. At about sunset arrive at Lakawaonunk, ten miles. This was 
a new settlement, but destroyed by the savages. The land is very fertile, and bids fair 
to have made a very fine town. The river here takes a turn to about a west point. Noth- 
ing remarkable happens during this day's march. 10 miles. 

SuNDVY, August i. This day the troops march at twelve o'clock. The road here 
soon leaves the upland and takes the beach ; the mountains here shutting close down on 
the river till we come to Quilutimunk, seven miles. Here encamp for the night on the 
intervale, the finest I ever saw. Nothing remarkable this day. 7 miles. 

MoN'DAY August 2. This day I improve in fishing with the .seine, and catch some 
bass and other fine fish. So ends the 24 hours. 

TiKSDVY August 3. This morning, at 7 o'clock, the troops leave Quilutimunk ; pro- 
ceed on the march, up the river, which we soon leave and take the upland. The country 
is very mountainous for near 10 miles. Here we encamp for the night at a small settle- 
ment called the Tunkhannunk. 10 miles. 

Wednesday, August 4. This morning the troops march early through a barren coun- 
try. March 10 miles to a small river called ; make a short halt and refresh, and 

then proceed 5 miles to Vanderlap's Ford. Here encamp for the night. The finest black 
walnut timber grown on the ir.tervale that I ever paw. This place is desolated, and the 
owner gone to the enemy. Nothing remarkable this day. 15 miles. 

Thursday, Auglsi- 5. Thi's day the troops leave Vanderlap's desolated farms. I 
march on the flank guard, over the most mountainous country f ever travelled. Here the 
mountains shut down close on the river for 7 or 8 miles. ^ At 6 o'clock we arrive at Wye- 
luting. Nothing remarkable happens this day. 10 miles. 



184 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Friday, Au(;iist'6. This day the troops lie by for washing their clothes. Nothing 
remarkable happens during this day. This place is remarkable for its fertility. It is a 
considerable spot of intervale, extending up the river about 2 miles, but not exceeding 
half a mile back from the river. This place was settled by a denomination of people 
called Moravian Indians, by the Moravians having missionaries among them. They are 
all gone back at present, and are with the enemy. 

Sai'URDAY, Aucust 7. This day the weather proves rainy. The troops lie by. 

Si'NDAV, August 8. This morning the troops' proceed on their march up the river ; the 
country not extraordinary, and the mountains shutting in on the river on both sides most 
of this day's march. At t o'clock halt at the Standing Stone, so called by their being a 
large rock on the side of the river standing on end. Here we encamp for the night on 
the intervale, there being considerable of a tract of good land at this place. Nothing 
remarkable during this day. II miles 

MoNiiAV, AUGU.sr 9. This morning the troops proceed on the march and make a short 
halt at 4 miles. Here is a considerable of a body of intervale, the finestT ever saw ; the 
■wild grass and wild beans higher than a man's head. Here are the finest button wood trees 
I have seen in my travels, growing as tall and straight as any pine trees that I ever saw, 
and equally as large. We now proceed on the march, leaving the river and taking the 
upland, and travel through a very indifferent country. At 6 o'clock arrive at Sullivan's 
Farms, formerly .Shegekanunk Flats. Mere encamp on the flats, twelve miles. Nothing 
remarkable during this day. 16 miles. 

TuRSDAY, ArcrsT 10. This day the troops lie by on the flats. Nothing remarkable 
happens this day. 

WFDNr.srjAV, Aur.usT 11. This morning the troops march up the river i mile, and 

there ford the branch, and march up on the south side of the river ; and in marching 

about 2 miles come to where (^^^leenchester palace was destroyed. It is a fine, open, level 
country. Here we cross the south branch of the river, into the old Indian town called 
Tieg^, which lies in the arms of the two rivers. Their wigwams were all destroyed by 
themselves about a year ago, when they left the place. 

Thursday, August 12. The troops lie by this day. At 6, v. m , orders come for 
marching to Chemung. At 9, this evening, set out on the expedition. The night is very 
dark and the road very indifferent ; nothing more than a foot path, and in many places 
none at all. .\t daybreak we come to the town of Chetnung, which consists of about 
seventeen Indian houses, or wigwams, deserted by the enemy. The land on the east side 
is but indifferent. On the west the intervale appears to be considerably extensive, ^t 
this place are some fine fields of Indian corn, which we destroyed by lire. Gen. Hand, 
■who marched in front, lost 6 men on the field, and Col. Cilley i. Major Franklin', from 
Wyoming, is badly wounded. 

Friuav, .August 13. We still lie on the ground until twelve o'clock, when we begin 
to move for our old quarters, Tiego. Col. Shrewler's regiment of Jersey, and Col. Dear- 
born's of New-Hampshire, form the left flank on our march back. .Vt g o'clock in the 
evening we arrive at Tiego, where our tents and baggage were left, much fatigued with 
our march. So ends the 24 hours. 

Saturday, xVugust 14. This morning I feel much fatigued with my late command, 
but, nothing of notice turning up, we lie by and rest. 

Si \'D\Y, Auuusr 15. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 

^Io^■D\^', iViGUsr 16. This day a detachment of 900 men is sent up the east branch 

to join tjen. Clinton, who is expected to be on his march from lake . the head ot this 

river. The country during this day's march is poor, being chiefly pine plain with some 
considerable hills. At sunset we encamp on the banks of the river, on the west side. 
Nothing remarkable this day. 13 miles. 

Tuesday, August 17. This day the troops march early. I -march on the flank guard. 
The country is very mountainous, with some fertile valleys. At 4, r. M., we arrive at a 
considerable Indian town, called 1 'wai;o, 14 miles. Here is a very good tract of land on 
both sides of the river. The town consisted of about twenty houses, which we destroyed, 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 185 

together with considerable Indian corn, which is in the milk just lit to roast. The town 
appears to have been evacuated but a little time. 14 miles. 

Wki)\esi),\\-, Arr.usT 18. This morning we march early. During this day's march 
we travel through a broken, barren country, having no path of consequence, but picking 
our way over mountains and through sunken swamps, "the most disagreeable travelling I 
have seen. At 4, p. m. arrive at Churamuk, a considerable Indian town on the east side 
of the river, consisting (if about — houses, which we destroyed. Here we found corn and 
cucumbers in abundance, The land here is exceeding fine ; a large flat of 400 or 500 
acres clear run over to English grass, so thick and high it was with difficulty a man could 
travel through. Here we encamp for the night. At sunset we hear a cannon up the 
river, which we supposed to be at Gen. Clinton's encampment. Two men are sent off 
this evening as spies. i8 miles. 

Thursday, Ai-crsr ly. This morning we hear another gun up the river, but, no 
intelligence arriving, the troops are ordered to march, and proceed about one mile, when 
flur spies, sent off last evening, meet us with intelligence of Gen. Clinton's being near. 

We then return to the place of our last encampment. At lo, A. .M., Gen. Clinton 
arrives with about — boats and 1500 men. We immediately proceed on the march for 
Tiegd. At sunset arrive at the old encampment at Ovvago, and encamp. Nothing mate- 
rial happens this day. 14 miles. 

Frid.w, Auc.ust 20. 'I'his day it proves rainy. We suffer much by reason of the 
Weather and want of tents. 

Saturday, Augisi' 21. This morning the troops march early. Make but few halts 

•during the day. At 5, P. M., encamp on the banks of the river opposite Farm, 

about 17 miles from ( 'wago. Nothing remarkable this day. ig miles. 

Sunday, August 22. This morning the troops march early for the old encampment 
at Tiego, which we make at about ir, A. >[. Nothing remarkable during this day. 8 
miles. 

Mo.vday, .August 23. This day a very melancholy accident happened. A soldier in 
snapping his gun, insensible of its being loaded, it went off and shot Capt. Benjamin 
Kimball through the heart. The same shot went through two more tents, where were a 
number of soldiers, with no further hurt than slightly wounding a man in the leg. 

Tuesday, .August 24. This morning the remains of Capt. Kimball were interred 
with the honors of war. The troops are paraded and all the baggage loaded. Every 
thing is made ready for the excursion into the Indian country. .At sunset all unloaded, 
and tents pitched on the old ground. The morning gun, to be the signal for marching 
tomorrow morning. 

Tiego, Wednesday, Augusi' 25. The day is very rainy, which prevents the troops 
marching. They lie by on the ground. Nothing remarkable this day. 

TiEGii, Ti[URSDA\ , .\U(;ust 26. Thismorning at 11, A. M., the troops march from 
Tiego, making our course about northwest, over a thick pine plain, clearing the road be- 
fore us, and following the Allegana branch. Encamp at 3, P. M., near the river, by a 
large plat of intervale. Nothing remarkable this day. 4 miles. 

Friday. .Vugusp 27. This morning at 8 o'clock the army proceed on the march in two 
•columns, about half a mile in distance and about a west course. The .-Vrtillery deters our 
march this day, having the road to clear before us through an uncultivated Avilderness. 
The difficulties of this day prevent the troops from encamping till 12 o'clock at night, at 
which time we encamp on a large flat of intervale, called Old Chemung. Here is a vast 
■quantity of corn and vegetables which we destroy. There are no buildings at this place, 
the town being built about 3 miles up the river. 6 miles. 

Saturday, .August 28. Having despatched the business here, at 11, a. m,, march 
forward, and at sunset encamp at Chemung town, near the banks of the river. This 
evening several smokes and fires are discovered at some distance before us, supposed to 
be the enemy. 6 miles. 

Chemung, Sunday, August 2<). .\t 10 o'clock this morning the troops proceed on 
the march in the usual order. .At about 12 o'clk. our vanguard come in sight of the 
24 



186 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

enemy's lines, thrown up by our left from the river, half a mile in extent, on a very ad- 
vantageous piece of ground ; the infantry beginning a slow attack on their flanks and 
advance parties, while Gen. Poor's brigade is sent round their left fiank, to gain the 
enemy's rear, which he nearly completed, falling in with their fiank, or rather their main 
body, lying off in the woods in order to cut off our rear. A very warm action ensued be- 
tween about 600 chosen savages, commanded by Brant and Capt. Butler, of the Queen's, 
rangers, and Poor's brigade, commanded by himself in person. The brigade marched on 
with coolness, with charged bayonets, not a gun being fired till within a short distance, 
when the enemy were obliged to give back, leaving their dead on the ground, amounting 
to about twenty. We took three prisoners. At .sunset, after a complete victory, encamp 
near the field of action, carrying off our dead and wounded. Among the latter was 
Major Titcomb, Capt. Cloyes, and Lt. McCawley, and about thirty others. The killed 
amounted to but four or five. During the whole of the action Col. Reed's and Col. Dear- 
born's regiments fared the hardest. 6 miles. 

Near Newton, Monday, August 30. This day Lieut. McCawley dies of his wounds. 
The whole of the army lie by and are employed in destroying the corn and vegetables at 
this place, which are very plenty. The wounded are sent down the river this evening ta 
Chemung, and the remains of the dead buried. This evening the whole of the army by 
their voluntary consent are reduced to half allovvance ; half a pound of beef and flour. 

Newto.\, Tuesday, August 3c. This day the army proceed on the march in the 
usual manner. At 2, r. m., arrive at the forks of the river ; the Allegana branch keeping 
J^s former course, and the Tiego branch twining near a north-west course. Ilere are the 
principal improvements in Newton, and some good buildings of the English construction, 
some very large flats of intervale, and great quantities of corn, which were destroyed yes- 
terday. Here the troops take dinner aud burn the town. -At 4, P. m,, proceed on the 
march. At sunset encamp on a beautiful plain. We keep about a north-west course, fol- 
lowing the Tiego branch. 12 miles. 

Pleasant Pi ain, Wednesday, Sep i This morning at y, A. .m., the troops proceed 
on the march, the traveling continuing good, about 4 miles ; then, crossing a mountain ; 
from thence into a swamp, about 8 miles through, very thick with bushes, and exceedingly 
bad travelling. Not finding an agreeable spot to encamp on, travelled till 12 o'clock at 
night, over the most disagreeable road I evere travelled. At 12 o'clock we arrived at an 
Indian Town called French Catherines, deriving its name from from a French lady 
debauched by an Indian chief ; afterwards marrying him, and made queen of the place. 
It is a small town, consisting of thirty houses and large fields of corn — The inhabit- 
ants leaving the town at our approach, in the greatest confusion. We take two squaws 
at this place, who inform us that the Indians are in the greatest confusion, not knowing 
what to do ; that the old Indians and squaws are for making peace on any terms, but that 
Butler and Brandt would not let them, telling them that they would all be scalped if they 
attempted any thing of that nature. Here is a small river that runs due north and 
empties itself into Seneca Lake, the head of which comes within 4 miles of Tiego branch, 
which empties itself into the Susquehanna. 14 miles. 

French Catharines, Thursday, Sept. 2. This morning a small scout is sent out 
to reconnoitre the woods. They discover Butler and his party about eight miles off, on 
the opposite .Side of the Lake of Seneca. The troops lie by on the ground, and are em- 
ployed in destroying the crops. We leave the squaws taken prisoners yesterday, they 
being old and unable to do us any harm — leaving with them a sufficiency of food till we 
should return 

French Catharines, Friday, Sep. 3. This morning the troops march early. In 
marching about 3 miles we come to the Seneca Lake, which we follow on the east side. 
This lake is very pleasant, being from 3 to 5 miles in width. The land ascends gradually 
and appears to be of the best quality. At night the troops encamp in the woods near the 
lake, having travelled about 12 miles. Nothing remarkable during this day. 

Saturday, Sep. 4. This day we proceed on the march down the lake, passing by 
small Indian town called Appletown. During the day's march we travel over a fine level 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 187 

tract of land, and at night encamp near the lake. Nothing remarkable this day, having 
travelled about 12 miles. 

Sunday, Skp. 5. This day we continue the mirch as usual, the country continuing 
very good. At 3, P. m., come to an Indian town called Conday. Here the troops encamp 
for the night. This is considerable of a village, consisting of about twenty houses, which 
were burnt, and appears to be an ancient settlement by the number and bigness of the fruit 
trees. Nothing remarkable during our stay here, except taking a soldier that had left the 
enemy. 4 miles. 

Tuesday, Hkpt. 7. This morning the troops march early, following the lake 11 miles, | 
where we come to the outlet, which empties itself into Cayuga Lake. We cross this out- 
let and march along on the beach on the lower end of the lake which is very pleasant, 
having a prospect of the whole length, which is 42 miles. Near the end of this lake ii 
the famous town of Kanadagago, the metropolis of the Seneca Nations. It is an old Set- 
tlement, Consisting of about go houses, very irregularly built, the land being much run 
over, to bushes. Their corn fields are planted in bye places in the woods, at considera- 
ble distance from town, and very extensive. At this place we found in one of their 
hou.ses an image which I think might be worshipped without any breach of the second 
commandment — not having its likeness in the heavens above or in the earth beneath, &c. 
Here we find a young boy the savages had left, and in the evening his mother comes in, 
having deserted the enemy this daw She was an inhabitant of Wyoming, taken about a 
year ago at the capitulation of the fort at that place — her husband being killed at the bat- 
tle of Wyoming. Here is a large burying place, with several large monuments raised 
over some of their chiefs The enemy left this place the morning of our arrival. ThjsJ 
town lies near 3 miles from the lake. 14 miles. 

Kanadagago, Wedxesday, Sei't. 8. This day the army lie by, and a detachment is 

sent up the lake 7 miles on the west side, to a large town called , where they find 

vast quantities of corn, beans, peas, and other vegetables, the town consisting of about 
20 houses, which were destroyed together with the crops. 

Kanadagago, Thursday, Sei>t. 9. .\t 10 o'clock the army decamp and pursue the 
march for Genesee river. Steering our course about south-west through an open country, 
hundreds of acres together with scarcely a tree on it, and the grass as high as a man's 
head. We march 9 miles and encampj Nothing remarkable this day. 

Friday, Sept. 10. At 10 o'clock the troops march. We travel over a fine tract of 
land, supposed to be an old Indian town, the grass being higher than our heads and but 
few trees to be seen. At 4, v. M., come on a large pond or lake, having but one outlet, 
which empties into Lake Ontario. We cross the outlet, near which is a fine Indian town 
called Canandaigua. Their improvements are two miles from the town. The town con- 
sists of between thirty and forty buildings, some of them the best 1 have seen on the 
march, which were destroyed by fire, together with the crops. Nothing remarkable dur- 
ing the stay here. 8 miles. 

Canandaigua, Saturday, Sept. ii. This morning the troops march early about a 
south-west point, over a country as heretofore, except being_ badly watered. At 4, P. M., 
encamp at an Indian town called Anagangoan. It is an old settlement, almost evacuated, 
having but about 20 houses left in the place, and the appearance but indifferent. 14, 
miles. 

Can.vndaigi A, Sunday, Sept. 12. The preceding night the weather proves rainy ; 
and there is very severe thunder and lightning. At i, p. m,, the troops march, leaving a 
small garrison of 100 men and 2 pieces of small artillery, the chief of the ordnance 
stores, with the whole of our flour for the army, except four days' half rations, which we 
take on with us. We travel over a fine tract of land this afternoon. At sunset encamp 
near a small town called ^'orkjough. II miles. 

Monday, Sept. 13. This morning the army march early and soon pass by \'orkjough, 
a small. Indian town, consisting of about 30 buildings, evacuated this morning by the 
enemy. Ccjnsiderable crops are growing at this place. The troops halt and refresh ; 
likewise to repair a bridge the enemy had destroyed at their going off. Last evening Lt, 



188 . JOURNALS OF (JFFICERS. 

Boyd of the Pennsylvania line was ordered forward to make discoveries. This morning, 
in attempting to return to the main body, he is attacked by the savages and a severe 
engagement ensues. The savage party being much superior, surrounded Boyd and his 
party. Three only of 27 escaped, Boyd and the rest of the party were either killed or 
made prisoners — The latter of whom were afterwards barbarously murdered, two of 
whom I saw myself — Boyd, and one Parker, a sergeant in the rifle corps, Boyd's head 
was cut off, his ears cut oft, his tongue plucked out, his right eye likewise put out, and 
himself stabbed in twenty places, and Parker used in the same manner. The next day 13 
more were found mangled in the same manner — the most horrid sight I ever saw. At 12 
o'clock the troops get under way and march over a fine tract of land, and at sunset arrive 
at New Genesee, a small town pleasantly situated on the north branch of the Genesee 
River. Here the enemy stay until our coming in sight gives us reason to expect a battle, 
but on our near approach they disperse without making any resistance. Here we encamp 
for the night. 8 miles. 

Tuesday, .Si-.I'I , 14. This morning the troops cross the east branch, coming on to the 
i^ats called Genesee Flats,. — the most beautiful flats I ever saw, being not less than 4 miles 
in width, and extending from right to left as far as can' be seen ;. supposed to be 15,000 
acres in one clear body. On the opposite side of this flat is the main branch of the Gen- 
esee. The two make a junction about 4 miles down the river, near which is the old town 
of Genesee, which is the best town f have seen. It consists of upwards of 100 houses 
The fields of corn are beyond account, there being not less than 700 acres in the place. 
The river that runs here empties into Lake Ontario, and good bottoming almost any time 
of year, and does not exceed 25 miles to the lake 6 miles. 

Genesee, Sept. 15. This day the troops are employed in destroying the crops and 
buildings at this place. At 2, p. M., orders are issued for the march back to Tiego, and 
to our great joy at 3 get under wa}- — returning by the same route we came — having fully 
accomplished the end of the expedition, and encamp at New Genesee, 

New Gkn'esei',, Skpt. 16. This morning the troops get under wav, after destroying 
100 acres of corn, not found on the march up. March about 5 miles and encamp at 
Yorkjough. 

\'(iRKj0UGH, Sp.I'I'. 17. This day the troops make a rapid march. At 2, r, M,, encamp 
at .\nnagaugaw. 

Saturday, Sept. iS, This day, at ir. A, m, the troops march, and at sunset encamp 
.near New Canandaigua. Nothing remarkable this day. 

SUND.VY, Sept. ig. this morning at g the troops march. At sunset encamp on the 
old ground at Canandaigua. 

Monday, Seit. 20. This day a detachment is sent up to Fort Stinwix, under the 
command of Col. Van Chort. Another detachment is sent off this day to Tiego f^ake, 
commanded by Col. Butler, to make excursions in to that part of the country. The troops 
march late in the day, cross the outlet of Seneca Lake, and encamp near its banks. 

Thursday, Sepi'. 21. This day Col. Dearborn takes the command of a detachment sent 
to Tiego Lake, to follow the west side, while Col. Butler and the party scour the east side. 
The troops proceed on their march as usual, travel about 12 miles, and encamp. Noth- 
ing remarkable this day. 

Wednesday, Sept, 22, This day the troops march about 14 miles and encamp. Noth- 
ing remarkable this day. 

Thursday, Sei'T 23, This day the troops march early, nothing remarkable happening 
during the day. At 12 make a short halt at French Catherines, then move on about 4 
miles, and encamp in the edge of the swamp. 

Friday Se['T. 24. This day the troops make a rapid march through the swamp. At 
4, P. M , arrive at Fort Reed. 

Saturday, Sept. 25. This day the troops lie by on the ground, and a feu de joie is 
fired on the news of the declaration of war by His Catholic Majesty the King of Spain 
Thirteen pieces of artillery are fired, with a running lire from right to left of the line. 



/Q/fiui^' 



CAPTAIN ,^J»«>N- LIVERMORE. 189 

Each brigade has a present of a fat ox. The day is closed with civil mirth. So ends the 
24 hours. 

Sunday, Sept. 26. The troops continue on the ground this Jay. Nothing remarkable 
liappens. 

MiiND.VY, Sei'I. 27. This morning a detachment of 5C0 men is sent up the Allegana 
Branch, and thirty boats, myself commanding the latter. The difficulty of gelling the 
boats up so rapid and shoal a river prevented the party by land proceeding more than 5 
miles. Where the boats landed we find some large fields of corn, with a few houses — 
The mountains closing nearly to the river on both sides. Here the boats are loaded with 
corn, beans, pumpkins, and other vegetables. At sunset I .set out with my whole fleet, 
and at g arrive at Fort Reed, fatigued with my days march. 

Tuesday, Sei'T. 2S. The troops cuntinue on the ground, and at 11 o'clock the de- 
tachment under Col. Butler, sent out the 20th. inst., arrives. Orders are issued for 
marching tomorrow morning. 

Wednksd.'VY, Ski'T. 2g. This morning at 12 o'clock the troops march from Fort Keed 
passing over the field of action, and at 12 arrive at Cheming, and make a short halt; 
from whence we march to old Chemung, about 3 miles below, and encamp, having 
marched about 11 miles. Nothing remarkable happens this day. 

Thurmiay, SeI'T 30. This morning at 8 o'clock the troops march. At 12 arrive at 
Tiego, in sight of Fort Sullivan. After making a short halt, the troops march in, dis- 
playing all the honors of war and glories of victory. The fort saluted us with 13 pieces 
of cannon, and the compliment was returned by our corps of artillery. An elegant din- 
ner is cooked by those left in the fort for our reception. All marks of joy appeared in 
the face of every soldier, having his brother messmate by the hand, appearing as happy as 
a prince. The day is closed with civil mirth. 

TiEco, Friday, Oct. i, and Saturda\', Oit. 2. The troops lie by and nothing 
remarkable happens. 

Sunday, Oct. 3. This day a fatigue partv is employed in destroying F'ort Sullivan 
and other fortifications at this place, and preparing the boats. A sermon is preached this 
day by the Kev. Dr. Evans, chaplain to the brigade, and suitable to the time. 

Monday, 0( r. 4. This day at g the troops leave Tiego, having demolished all the 
fortifications at that place, and cross the river, marching about 15 miles, and encamp. 
Nothing remarkable happens this day. 

TuESD.VY, Oct, 5. This morning the troops chiefly go on board the boats, myself 
going by land. I keep in front of the boats the whole of the day. At night encamp 
near Vandalap's desolated farms in front of the boats. 

Wednesday, Oct. 6. This morning at day break I move on my journey, keeping 
in sight of the boats the chief of the day. I travel about 30 miles and encamp near 
Tackawannuk. 

ThL'ksday, Gci'. 7. This day t pursue my journey. At 8, ,\. M., I arrive at Lacka- 
wannuk ; where the boats he by for the rear to come up. Myself and company go on to 
Wyoming, where we arrive at 12 o'clock. The boats soon heave in sight and are saluted 
from the fort with 13 pieces of cannon, and the compliment returned by our fleet. 

F-RiDAY, Oi;t. 8. and Saturday, Gci. 9. The troops lie by at this place, cleaning 
their arms, washing their clothes, and preparing for marching tomorrow. 

Sunday, Oct. 10. This day at 12 o'clock the troops get under way for Easton. Late 
in the evening we arrive at Bullocks desolated farm, where we encamp for the night. 

Monday, Oct. ii. This day the troops march early, and move but slow, by reason of 
the bad roads. At 4, P. .M., incamp near Locust Hill, having marched about n miles. 

Tuesday, Oi t. 12. This morning the troops proceed on the march through the 
swamp. The latter part of the day proves rainy, and make the travelling exceedingly 
bad. At night encamp at Chowder Camp. 

Wednesday, Oci. 13. This morning the troops pursue their march. At 4, p. «., 
encamp at Brin coup's mills. 

Thursday. Oct: 14. This morning the troops march at about 11, .\. m., and encamp 
at 3, t. m., at Killer's Tavern. 



190 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

FRinAV, Oct. 15. This morning tlie troops marcti early from Ililler's Tavern at i P. 
M,, arrive at Easton. From tiiis day to tlie 23rd. the troops lie by at this place, where 
nothing remarkable happens. 

.Saturday, Oct. 23. This day the troops cross the ferry in Jersey, march about 4 
miles, and encamp near Col. Bond's. 

Sunday, Oct. 24. The troops lie by on the ground. Nothing remarkable. 

Monday, Oct. 25. This day the troops lie by. 

TuKSDAY, Oct. 26. This day the troops lie by, and a brigade court martial is called, 
of which Maj. Titcomb is President, for the trial of Capt. Isaac Frye, of the third battal- 
ion of New Hampshire forces, of which I was a member. The charge brought against 
Capt. Frye was ungentlemanlike behaviour, and defrauding the officers of the regiment of 
public stores. The charge was not supported, and Capt, Frye is acquitted. 

Wednesday, Oct. 27. This day the troops march towards Sussex. We proceed 
about 8 miles and encamp. Nothing remarkable happens during this day. 

Thursday, Oct. 287^ This day the troops pursue the march, mostly through Moravian- 
town, where wp make a short halt and refresh ; from whence we proceed to a place called 
Log Goal, and here encamp for the night. 

Friday, Oct. 2g. This day the troops pursue the march for Sussex, where we arrive 
at 2, r. M., and encamp for the night. 

Saturday, Oct. 30. This morning the troops leave .Sussex about g o'clock and march 
on towards Warwick, about 14 miles, and encarnp at Flagsborough. Nothing remarkable 
this day. 

•Sunday, Oct. '31. This day the troops proceed on the march, and at night encamp 
near Warwick church. Nothing remarkable this day. 

Monday, Nov. i. This day for want of wagons the march is deferred till 12, o'clock, 
when we proceed on the march. Being ordered to alter the route for Pumpton, we pro- 
ceed over the mountains towards that place^ — the travelling very bad. At night encamp at 
Stirling, a place noted for making the best pig iron on the continent. Here is a fine 
furnace for casting cannon balls, &c. 

Tuesday, Nov. 2. This day we get through the mountains, and at 3, p. M., arrive at 
, where we encamp for the night. Nothing remarkable happens this day. 

Wednesday, Nov. 3. This day the troops lie by on the ground. Nothing remarkable 
this day. 

Thursday, Nov. 4. This day the troops he by. Myself, in company with Maj. 
Whiting, Capts. Reed, Ellis and Dennet, ride out to .Smith's Tavern, and stay over night. 
Nothing remarkable during the twenty-four hours. 

FRn)AY, Nov. 5. This day in the afternoon we return to camp. Receive orders for 
marching tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock. Nothing remarkable this day. 

SAruRDAY, Nov. 6. This day Gen. Hand's brigade and the artillery march off the 
ground. The other two — Poor's and Clinton's — stay for want of waggons Gen. Sulli- 
van likewise sets out for Pumpton this afternoon. 

Sunday Nov. 7. This day Gen. Clinton's brigade march for Pumpton. Gen Poor's 
lie by for want of wagons 

Monday, Nov. 8. This day Gen Poor's brigade march for Pumpton, where we arrive 
at 4, 1' M. and encamp near the fort. 

Tuesday, Nov. ij. This day the troops he by. His Excellency pays us a visit from 
head quarters — this day being the first since our arrival from the Indian country. The 
weather is exceedingly unco.mfortable and cold about this time. 

Wednesday, Nov 10, and Thursday, Nny, 11. The troops lie by. Nothing worthy 
of notice. 

FuHiAY, Nov. 12. This day the troops shift their quarters. March about two miles 
south-east in a thick wood, on the east side of the river. 

Saturdav, Nov, 13, This day we lie by. Nothing remarkable. 

Sunday, No\', 14. This day the officers of Gen'ls "Clinton's and Poor's brigades 
meet at Gen, Poor's quarters on business of a public nature. 



CAPTAIN DANIEL LIVERMORE. 191 

Monday, Nov. 15. From this time to tlie 24tii. the troops lie by, and nothing remark- 
able happens. 

Weunksday, Nov. 24. This morning the troops match from Pumpton on the way to 
Kings ferry. At night encamp at , near .Smith's tavern travelling about i6 miles. 

Tnuu.snAV, Nov. 25 This morning the troops march early. At 2, P M., arrive at 
King's ferry, and immediately proceed to conveying the men and baggage of the regi- 
ment over the ferry, which is accomplished about sunset. The troops march about 2 miles, 
-and encamp in the woods. 

Friday, Nov. 26. The preceding night proves stormy, and the first snow that has 
fallen this winter prevents the troops from marching this day. 

Saturday, No\'. 27. This day at 4, p. M. , the troops get under way, and march about 
six miles towards Danbury and encamp in the woods. The snow is about eight inches in 
■depth. 

Sunday, Nov. 28. This day we proceed on the march, the travelling being very bad. 
-Vt night encamp near Salem, travelling about 12 miles. 

Monday, Now 29. Thismorningwe proceed on the march. At 4, p. m., take quarters 
in houses three miles from Danbury, by reason of Gen. .Stark's brigade lying in the town 
r)f Danbury. 

TuiisiJAV, Nov. 30. The troops lie by at Muddy Brook, by reason of the weather. 

Wednesday, Dec. i. This day the troops lie by and nothing remarkable happens. 

Thursday, Dec. 2. This day, the troops proceed on the march, aind go on to the 
.ground laid out for hutting, which is in the vicinity of Danbury towards Newton. 

Friday, Dec. 3 ; Saturday, 4, and Sunday, 5. These three days the troops are busy 
in clearing and fi.xing for laying the foundations of the huts. 

Monday, Dec. 6. This day the huts go on rapidly, and in the evening the officers of 
the brigade attend at the Hon. Gen. Poor's quarters, to wait on the committee from New 
Hampshire and choose a committee to send to New-Hampshire, to settle the depreciation 
■of the continental currency. 

Tuesday, Dec, 7. This day I lay the foundation of my hut, twenty-two feet in length 
.and twelve in width. 

The journal ends here and is re-opened April 6, 1780. 



JOURNAL OF CAPTAIN THOMAS MACHIN. 



l^iioMAS Machix. C;nit;iiii ill Coloiiol Jolm Lamli's Sucdiid Rrgiment 
(N. "i'.) xVrtilleiy. From April II) to 28, 1771t. in ( iolouel Van Scliaick's 
expedition against tlie (Jnondu^tras. Pui)lislied in tlie Magazine of Amer- 
ican Histonj, N(^A'rnilier, l.sTl', and rcpublislicd Iiltc V)y permission, 
throngh tlic courtesy of ^Irs, ]\Iartlia J. Ijamli, Editor of tliat ]\[aga- 
zine. 

JOURNAL OF MARCH FROM FORT SCHUYLER.— EX P EDITION 
AGAINST THE ONONDAGAS, jjjg. 

By Thomas Machik, Cai'Tain in Col. Lamh's Skcond Rkcimknt, X. Y. Artillery. 
ConLviunicatt'd by F. II. Roof. 

J O U R N A L . 

Early on Monday morning, igth of April, 1779 — Marched from fort Schuyler with a 
Detachment of Troops, Consisting of 558 men. Including officers, and after moveing 
Eaight Days provision Into Battows, wich had been conveyed over a carying place in the 
night, and Leaving sufficient Number of Soldiers to assist the Battowe men to get the 
Boats down Wood Crick, with five officers to hurry them on — 

The Remainder of Troops marched to the old Scow place, Twenty two miles by land, 
but much more by water ; the Troops ar'ved by 3 o'clock p. m., but the Boats did not all 
arrive until lO o'clock, having been much obstructed by trees which had fallen across the 
Crick : as soon as the Boats arived the whole of the Troops Embarked, and on Entring- 
the onidahogo was much Impeded by a cold head wind. Made one halt in the night for 
the rearmost Boats to come up, and then proceeded to I'nsscrs bay, whare we Arrived at S 
o'clock in the morning of the 20th, to wait again for the Coming up of all the Boats, 
when we continued with as much Expedition as possible to the Onondago Landing, op- 
posite to old fort, and arived thereat 3 o'clock p. m ; from whence, after leaving the 
Boats with Proper Guard, we marched Eaight or nine miles on our wa)- to the Onondago 
Settlement, and lay on our Arms all Xiglil without lire, not being able to continue our 
marching. Dark. The Night cold. Very early on the 21st proceaded to the old Salt 
Lake, and at g o'clock a. m. P'orded an arm of that Lake, two hundred yards over, and 
four fefet Deep a considerable part of the way. Pushed on to the (Inondaga Breech, 
whare Capt Graham, with his Company of Light Infantry, took an Onondago Warrior 



CAPTAIN THOMAS MACHIN. 193 

prisoner, wich was the first Indian discovered — ordered Capt Graham to Endeavor to sur- 
round the first onondago Settlements, wich ware about Two miles of, and hastning on 
the troops B/ Companys as fast at he crost the Creek upon a Log, the Creek not being- 
fordable, I soon arrived with the whole Detachment at the principle Castle, but was before 
apprised of their haveing discovered our advanced Parties while they ware takeing some 
prisoners, upon which I ordered Diliferent Routs to be taken by several Different Detach- 
ments, in order to surround as [many] of their Settlements as possible at the same time, 
which Extended Eaight Miles in Length, with some scattered habitations laying back of 
the Costs, and on the opposite side of the Creek ; but notwithstanding Entred their first 
settlement in the most secret manner, and quite undiscovered by them, thay soon reed the 
alarm throughout the whole, and fled to the woods, but without being able to carry off 
any thing with them. We took thirty three Indians & one white Prisoner, & killed twelve 
Indians ; the whole of their Settlement, consisting of about fifty Houses, with a quantity 
of corn, and every other kind of Stock we found whare Killed ; about one Hundred guns, 
some of which ware Rifles, was among the Plunder, the whole of which, after the men 
had Loaded with as much as they could carry, was Destroyed, with a Considerable quan- 
tity of amunition. One Swivel taken at the Counsel House had the Trunions Broke off 
andotherways Damaged ; in fine, the Destruction of all their Settlements ware compleat ; 
after which we began our march back, Recrossing the Creek, and forded the arm of the 
Lake, along side of which we Encamped on very good ground. Haveing been once In- 
terrupted in our Return by a Small party of Indians, who fired at us from the opposite 
side of the Creek, but were soon beat off by Lieut Evens Rifle, with the Loss of one 
Killed on the part of the enemy, and none on our own. Fair Weather, all this Day. 22d, 
marched Down to the Landing. Found Bateaus in good order ; Reimbarked, and Rowed 
to the Seven Miles Island, whare we Encamp. 

Fair weather — 23d Crossed the Lake and Landed two miles up Wood Creek at two 
o'clock ; left two companies to guard and assist the Bataus Men in gifting up the/ Boats, 
marched Eaight Miles, and Encampt along side Feals Creek. 

Fair Weather, Saturday, 24th. Small showers of Rain on our march to the fort, whare 
we arrived at 12 o'clock, haveing been out five Days and half, the whole distance of go- 
ing out and Returning Being One Hundred Eighty miles, not having [lost] a Single Man — 

Tlie following in relation to Colonel Van Scliaick's Expedition again,<t 
the Onondugas is from "Tlio Oi'der Book of Capt. Leonard Bleecker, 
Major of Brigade in the early part of the expedition nnder Gen. Jame.s 
Clinton, against the Indian Settlements of Western New Yorlv in the 
Campaign of 1779." New York city, Joseph Sabin, 180.3. 

Head Quarters, Albany 
June 8, 1779 
Resolved, That the Thanks of Congress be presented to Col. Van Skaick, and the OfK- 
cers and Soldiers under his Command, for their Activity and good Conduct in the late 
E.xpedition against the Onnondagas. 

Extract from the minutes, 
[A Copy] Charles Thomson, Secretary. 

Head Quarters, Middle Brook, 
Saturday, May 8, 1779. 
The Commander-in-Chief has the Pleasure to inform the Army that a Detachment of 
Troops under the Command of Col. Van Schaick, marched from Fort Schuyler the igth 
of last Month towards (Jnnondaga, a considerable Indian Settlement on the Waters of 
Lake Ontario, which was entirely destroyed, with a large Quantity of Grain, Cattle, 
Horses, and Ammunition, except such Part as could be conveniently brought off. Twelve 
of the Savages, mostly Warriors, were killed, and four and thirty made Prisoners, the 
rest saved themselves by a precipitate Flight into the Woods. 

2."'. 



194 



JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 



This Expedition was performed in about five Days and a lialf, the Distance going and 
Teturning, one hundred and eighty Miles, without the loss of a Man. 

The good Conduct, Secrecy, Spirit and Dispatch, with which this Enterprize was exe- 
cuted, does the highest Honour to Col Van Schaick, and the Officers and Men under his 
Command, and merits the Thanks of the Commander-in-chief. 

Extract from Genl Orders, 

[A Copy] Alex. Scammel, Adjt Genl. 

The following is u copy of a table of distances in the hand writing of 
Captain Machin, found among his papers after his decease. 



Distance of places from Eastown to Chenesee Castle, taken in 1779, by actual survey : 

mii.es. totai,. 

From Eastown to Weoming 65 65 

to Lackawaneck Creek 10 75 

to Quailuternunk 7 82 

to Tunkhannunk Creek it 93 

to Meshohing Creek 9 102 

to Vanderlip's Plantation 5 107 

to Wealuskingtown 8 115 

to Wessawken or Pine Creek I4/^ ^^9)4 

to Tioga isyi MS 

to Chemung 12 157 

to Newtown S}4 ^(>Sl4 

to French Catharinestown 18 ^^3j4 

to Candaia or Appletown 27^^ 211 

tu the outlet of the Seneca lake 11 J^ 222^ 

to Kanedesago or the Seneca Castle 3)4 226 

to Kanandaque 15J-2 241}^ 

to Haunyauya ^3/4 255 

to Adjusta I2>^ 267 J^ 

to Cossau Wauloughby 7 274K 

to Chennesse Castle s'A 280 

Distance from Kanadesago round the Cayuga Lake to Newtown — Fort Reed. 

I'rom Kanadesago to Scawyace S'/i 8 ^ 

" to across the outlet of the Cayuga 8}4 J7 

to the Cayuga Castle 10 27 

" to Chonodote, a town remarkable for a number of Peach 

trees 31.2 30 >^ 

■' to the upper end of Cayuga Lake 23 53^ 

" to a town not named 5 58^ 

" and from there to Newtown, otherwise Fort Reed 27^2 86 



Thomas Machjn was born in England, March 20, IT-i-t, settled in 
America, in 1772, and took an early and active interest in the Revolu- 
tion. He was niailo Second Lieutenant of N. Y. Artillery, January 18, 
1776, and Captain Lieutenant in the second battalion of jVvtillorv on the 
1st of January, which rank he held in the Expedition to Onondaga, 
under Col. Van Schaick, and to the Genesee country, under Gen. Clinton, 



CAPTAIN THOMAS MACHIlSf. 195 

in ITTi). On tlie 21sl of August, 1780, he was appointed Gajitnin in 
the Seconil X. Y. Artillery, and one year after in the First. 

lie was employ(Ml as Engineer in constructing and placing the chain 
across the Hudson in the Highlands, and after the war, was for a time, 
engaged in (■oiiii])g money lor the States, before the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution, his works being at the outlet of a pond, five miles 
back from Ncwbnrgh. He enjoyed the confidence of Gov. Geo. Clinton, 
Gen. James Clinton, Gen's Washington and La Fayt^tte, and many other 
distinguished men of his dav. ]h: obtained patents of large tracts of 
land in the northern part oL' On(,'Lda enunty ; was_a member of the N. 
Y. State S'leiety of Cincinnati, and was sacceeded by his son Gen. 
Tliomas Afachin ol Albany. He died at Charleston, Montgomery county, 
N. Y., April 3, 1816. (F. B. Hough, in Bleeckej's Order Book) 



FIRST NEW YORK REGIMENT. 
ROSTER OF OFFICERS. 

Prepared from records at jVlbany, N. Y., and Washington, D. C, (some 
of the important military rceijrds of the State of New Ycjrk, havin"' 
been renioved to ^\"ashington, to replace records burned by the British 
army in the destruction of the National C.ipitol in ISll). See also New 
York "Balloting l^ook " jjublished in 1825, and "Calendar of New 
York Historical Afanuscrijits — Revolutionary Papers,'' published in 1868. 

The first N. Y R.'giment took part in the Onondaga Campaign in the 
spring of 1779, under direction of Gen. James Clinton, whose head- 
<{uarters were then at Albany, N. Y. The expedition was commanded 
by Col. G. VanSchaick and consisted of the iinst New York J^egiment, 
witli a detachment from the Sd N. Y liigt., in charge of Lieut Col. 
Marinus Willettand Maj. Robert Cod i ran, together with several detached 
companies from otlier regiments. See also Lieut. Beattv's journal, at 
page 16, hereof. 

In December, 1780, the consoliilation of tlie hve regiments of the New 
York line into two regiments l)egan. The hrst and third were consoli- 
dated as the first regiment, under Col. G. YanSehaiclc, ami the .second, 
I'onrth and fifth together witli C(d. Livingston's Regiment, kc, were re- 
organized as the second regiment, under Col. Philip \^anCortlaiidt. 

See autobiogi-ajiliy of Col. P. Van Cortlaudt in Magazine of Ameri- 
can Histoi-y, N. Y. City, August 1878. 

(i. S. C. 



196 



JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 



FIRST 


REGIMENT, 1779. 


Colonel, 


Goose Van Schaick. 


Lieut. Colonel, 


Cornelius Van Dyck. 


Major, 


John Graham. 


Captains, 


John n. Wendell, 


" 


Andrew Finck, 


' 


Benjamin Hicks, 


" 


Nicholas Van Rensselaer, 


" 


Charles Parsons. 


Capt. Lieutenant 


, Guy Young. 


Lieutenants, 


Barent S. Salisbury, 


" 


John C. Ten Broeck, 


" 


Adiel Sherwood, 


" 


Peter B. Tearse, 


" 


Nathaniel Henry, 


" 


Abraliam Flardenbergh, 


" 


Ephraim Snow. 


Ensign, 


Bartholomew Van Valkenburgh 


" 


Christopher Miiller, 


*' 


Pienry Van Woert, 


" 


Abraham Ten Eyck, 


** 


Jacob Henry Wendell, 


(( 


Wilhelmus Ryckman, 


'* 


Benjamin Gilbert. 



Ool. Goose Van Schaick, (son of Sybrant Gr. Van Schaick, a former 
Mayor of Albany), served as a major in the French war, under Col. 
Johnson, and was at the battle of Ticonderoga, Upon the breaking out 
of the Revolution, he was appointed a Colonel, and during most of the 
war, he commanded the First New ^'ork Continental Battalion. His 
services on the northern frontier, in the Mohawk valley, upon the Hud- 
son, and in the New Jersey campaigns, fill an honorable page in our 
Revolutionary Annals. His expedition to lay waste the Onondaga set- 
tlements in April, 1779, was decisive, and resolutions were adopted hy 
CongTess, congratulating him and his command for its sucee.^s. He 
remained to guard the valley, after the departure of Gen. L'lintonV 
army, to join Gen. Sullivan. 

Col. Van Schaick s;Tved till the close of the war. On the 10th of 
()(^t()ber, 1783, he was appointeil Brigadier General by brevet. His death 
oceuri-C(l July 4tli, 1789, at Albany, where he had resided through life. 

Marinns Willett, was l)i)i'n at Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y., July 31, 
1710. His taste for military life was acquired during the colonial wars 
under Genei-al Abeieondjie. Ib^ was at the battle of Tieondcroga, and 
in the e.vpeditiou against Fort Ki'ontenac, by General Bradstreet. In 
the war of th<' Rt'volution, lie served as Captain in the expedition 



CAPTAIN THOMAS MACHIN. 197 

against Qiiclxv, Oannda; was commissioned as Lieut. Colonel in 1770, 
and counniindi'il at Fort Constitution on tlio Hudson rivci', in 1777, and 
afterwards took part in the gallant defense of Koi't Stanwix (Seliuvler) 
against the Indians. He was a partieijiant m the l)attle of Monniontli, 
New Jersey, in 1778, and served in the Onon<laga expeilition in the 
spring of 1779, and with (lenerul Cluiton in hisni;ireli from Otsego lake. 
In the years 1780, '81 and '82, he was aetively cnmieetcd with military 
operations in the Mohawk vallev. After the elose of the war, he was 
frequently honored with important positidus in ci\'il life; was twice a})- 
pointed Sherili' of the county of New Ynrlc ; was Mayor of the City of 
New York, in 1807, and in 1824, President of the Eloctond College of 
New York. He di(>d August 2'4, 18H(), aged !)() vear.s. 



JOURNAL OF LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY, 



William McKenuki', Lieutenant and Quarter Master in Colonel 
Alden's, Sixth Massachusetts Regiment. lie was at Cherry \'alley at 
the time of the massacre and with Clinton's column in the Sullivan 
expedition. He died at Canton, Mass., in 1798. His oriiiinal journal, 
eommenciuu' witli October 25, 1777 and ending with January 3, 1780, 
is yet in existence. A copy of the same was procured \>y the late Ellis 
Ames, Esq., for the Massachusetts Historical Society, and prefixed with 
a list of diaries relating to the Sullivan campaign by A. IslcF. Davis, 
Esq., is published in the "Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, second series. Vol. II, pp. 486-478," October, lS8(i. 

Acknowledgments arc due and heartily tendered to the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society for their cheerful and prompt comjtliance with 
the request to furnish advanced sheets, from whicli that portion cover- 
ing the Sullivan campaign from June 1, 1779, is herewith jirinted. The 
portion of the journal that ])]'ec(?des, (from ( )et. 2."), 1777, to June 1, 17711 ), 
is to be found in the publication above nar)ied. 

JOURNAL. 

June 1st. Liet Day left Kort Alden for Albany on command, adjt White returnd from 
Fort Herkimin. 

Ditto 2d. Cool weather for the season — This day was informd. not many days agone 
6 Indians took two men prisoners from turlough [sic] (i2 miles from Fort Alden) carried 
them as far as Ocquaugo where two of tlie Indians left the party to go on to inform their 
brothers of their success, when the 4 that was left got asleep the two prisoners took their 
hatchets and killd. 2 of the Indians the other 2 awoke and started the white men being 
two ready for them wounded them both and the 2 Indians fled, the two late prisoners took 
the Indian's Arms of the dead c!\: those that had fled with only their lives, and made their 
escape — the Indians soon were alarmd. in that quarter and came to the ground, Set the 
woods all on fire, so that they might discover their tracks that had made their escape, but 
to no purpose the 2 lale English prisoners escapd. clear — I have had the pleasure since to 
see the man that killd. the two Indians it was Mr. .Sawyer. 

Ditto 3d. A very hard frost last night which killd. the blos.soms at this place. 

Ditto 4th. This morning 2 () Clock this garrison was alarmd. the centry had fird. on 
a man that was creeping towards him but soon ran off and wasdiscoverd no more the lines 
were mand. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 199 

Ditto 5th. P. master Tucker arrive!, in Fort Alden with clothing for the Regt. — In- 
forms that the British Troops has got to the highlands above N. \'ork — Liet. Keebody 
arrivd. in Fort Alden from Furlow. 

June 6th. (Sunday) Lt. Day arrivd in Fort Alden from Albany. 

Ditto 7th. P master Tucker gave out the cloathing to the Kegt. in this garrison. 

Ditto 8th. P master Tucker left Fort Alden with cloathing for the men at Fort Her- 

kiman. 

Ditto gth. Warm and showry. 

Ditto lOth. This day the Gentry discovd. a man creeping towards the wood choppers 
Gentry fird on him he was seen no more. 

Ditto nth. Cold weather for the season. 

" 12. A Scout was ordered from Fort Alden, returnd witliout making any discov- 
eries of the enemy. 

Ditto 13 (Sunday) Heavy rain, — this day was informed — that some days agone the 
Indiana took 6 prisoners from Germantown above German-Flatts and let one of them 
return which was an old woman. 

Ditto 14th. This day Orders came to Majr, Whitiny ftom Genl. Glinton, for the I^egt. 
to hold themselves in readiness to march at an hours warning and Genl Clinton was to 
make his Head quarters in Cennagoharry for a few days. 

Ditto 15th. The Provisions in l^ort Alden all condemd. Comy Woodman went to Mo- 
hawk River after provisions for the Garrison. 

Ditto l6th. Majr. Whiting reed, a letter from Genl. Clinton to wait on him at the 
River Comy. Woodman Arrivd. from sd. Kiver. 

Ditto 17th. Majr. Whiting and adjt. White went to the river and returnd. with orders 
for the Regt. to march tomorrow for lake i )tsago. 

Ditto l8th. The Regt. marchd from Fort Alden (in Cherry Valley) n. O'Clock. A. M. 
encampt. this night in Springfield 6 miles from the Fort Majr. Whiting ordered a fatigu- 
ing party on to mend the Roads tovi^ards the Lake it was commandd. by Capt. Ballards. 

Ditto igth. The Regt. marchd. from Springfield with 8 waggons carrying the baggage 
12. O'clock A. M. Arrivd at Lake Otsago 3. O'Clock P. M : Capt. Lane had gone for- 
ward to clear the encampment — Encampt. on the heights 5 miles march this day. 

Ditto 20th. (Sunday) Cleard. the passage for the waggons to unload the stores — 60 
Batteaus arrivd. at this lake & a Quantity of provisions from the River. 

Ditto 2ist. The Light Infantry com.pany & late Col. Aldens joind the Regt. at this 
place from Fort Herkamin — a party of men was orderd. By Col. Butler to the foot of 
the lake to dam the same that the water might be raised to carry the boats currant down 
Susquehanna-River — Capt. Warren 6 Masts. Regt. commanded the party — This day a 
man was hangd. at Mohawk river taken up for a spy that was viewing the stores as they 
passd. up the River he Informd. Genl. Clinton that he was a Liet. in butler service which 
is now with the Indians also Informs that another Tory & 9 Indians came off with him. 

Ditto 22d. The late Col Aldens Regt. musterd by Capt Lush at this Lake Col. Butler 
and Majr. Whiting went to the foot of the lake to view that Post. 

Ditto 23d. A Xo. of boats Provisions arrivd. at the Lake this day. 

Ditto 24th. Boats & provisions arrives at this Lake very fast 500 waggons going 
steady — A soldier shot at the River this day for desertion. 

Ditto 25th. A committee began to inspect the provisions at this Lake found but little 
of the same damaged. 

June 26th. Col Duboises Regt. Arrivd. at this Lake and proceeded in Boats to Lows 
Mills. 

Ditto 27th. (Sunday) One of the Rifle men was fird upon by the Indians in Spring- 
field, was wounded but made his escape with the loss of his fire arms. 

Ditto 28th. Went to camp Liberty at Lows Mills (and dind at that place) Genl. Clin- 
ton gave Each officer on the ground at this post one cag of Rum containing two Gall. 

one man hangd, at Mohawk River taken up for a spy from Butler's camp thats with the 
Indians. 



200 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

June 29th. The camp was Alarmd. by the firing some Guns by officers going to camp 
Liberty. 

Ditto 30th. \othing new this day. 

July 1st. 1779. Nothing new. 

Ditto 2d. Genl. Clinton arrivd. at Lake Sago from Mohawk river, Col. Butlers Regt. 
& Col. Ganseworts arrivJ. and crossed the Lake with the Genl. and encampt. at the foot 
of sd. Lake, Col Wisenfields Regt. Arrivd at the Lake but did not cross, the Genl. or- 
derd all the Provisions to be movd. immediately to the foot of the Lake. 

Ditto 3d. Col. Wisenfields Regt. & Col. Duboises crossd the Lake and encampt. 
■with the other troops at that place, the Genl. left IMajr. Whiting with his Regt. to bring 
up the rear of the Army. 

Ditto 4th. (Sunday) P. M. Genl. & comy. Genl. arrivd at this Lake with the rear of 
the Stores, 30 Indians arrivd. at this Lake to go the expedition with Genl. Clinton, they 
were commanded by Col. Hunyary. 

Ditto 5th. The 6th. Massts. Regt. crossd the Lake with the rear of the Stores and 
encampt with the rest of the troops at that place. 

July 6th. Rainy and very windy Col Rignier began to review the troops. 

Ditto 7th. The 6th Massts. Regt. reviewd by Col. Regnier. 

" 8th. Two of our centries fired on two men in the bush, supposd. them to be 
spies — the officers drew each one Cag more of Rum. 

Ditto gth. Pleasant weather. "^ 

" loth. Nothing new. 
" nth. (Sunday) Heavy storm of Rain. 
" I2th. cool weather for the season. 

" 13 Solomon Steel soldier in 6 Massts. Regt dropt. down dead as he was roling 
provisions to the Store. 

Ditto 14th. Alarm this night by the centries, firing some Guns, supposd. the saw men 
advancing to them but soon disappeard. 

Ditto 15th. Took a tour on the Lake fishing. 

" i6th. The weather cool for the season very unholesome at this place some days 
warm and the next after cool — a No. of the troops sick with the dissentary. 

Ditto 17th. Doctr. Younglove arrivd. in camp from Mohawk river. 

Ditto i8th. (Sunday) I attended publick service at this Lake Mr. Gr^no deliverd. the 
•sermon Chaplain to Genl. Clinton's Brigd., his text was taken from 22nd Job. 21. V. 

Ditto I gth. Nothing new. 

" 20th. Major Dow arrivd. from Albany, (Capt. Parker arrivd. from furlow in this 
camp) two deserters were brought to the 6th Massts. Regt. that had left it a few days 
Agone, (Serj. Spears & Johnathan Peirce.) 

Ditto 2 1st. Three deserters brought into this camp (that had not left it many days) 
one belonging to the 4th. Pensylvania Regt. was tied up immediately and reed. 500 lashes 
it being back allowance due to him some days before he deserted and was forgave by his 
Col. 

Ditto 22d. Began to build an Oven for the Regt. 

" 23 An Indian arrivd. in this camp from Fort Schyler, Informs that 1400 
Indians and Tories were collected to intercept our march down the river. 

Ditto 24th. .Serjt. Spears whipt. 100 lashes one soldier more lOO lashes with him — 
three men sentencd to be shot by the same Genl. Court Martial Monday next. 

Ditto 25th. (Sunday) Rainy weather. 

" 26th. The three Prisoners reprievd until Wednesday next. 

" 27th. An express arrivd. in this Camp this day Informs, tliat Genl. Wane has taken 
a small Fort from the enemy at Stonny Point on North River and Captured 550 Men — also 
informs that Majrs. Hopkins with a No. of officers from Col Warners Regt. are killd. at 
.Sabbath Days point, below Crown point they were out on a Party of pleasure, ai^d 
were surprised . . by a No. of Indians. Also informs that thirty two men and oiie Liet 
are killd. and taken at the Areseo Fields near Fort Schyler, they were out making hay. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 201 

Ditto 28th. This morning 9 ( ) Clock in Camp Lake Otsago Jonathan Peirce soldier in 
'6th Massts. Reg-t. Frederick Snyder 4 Pensylvania Regt. Anthony Dunnavan 3d New 
York Regt. were all brought on the grand Parade to be Shot to death for desertion the 
two former were reprievd. and the latter Shot to death — he deserted from Saint John's 
last winter and inlisted in Albany in ye 4th N-York Regt. 

Ditto 2gth. An Express arrivd. this day informs that a body of the enemy has been 
discover'd near fort Schyler including some British troops. 

July 30th. Very pleasant weather which is something remarkable at this place. 

Ditto 31st. Liet. Peebody Arivd. from Mohawk river with fat cattle for the use of the 
■troops at this post. 

August 1st. Mr. Greno, Deliverd. a Sermon. 

" 2d. Pleasant weather eat a rarity Apples and Cucumbers the first I have eat 
"this year. 

Ditto 3d. Pleasant weather, an Indian arrivd from Onida in this camp Informs by a 
letter from Col. Lewe that two Indians from the enemy brought in the account that 50 
men had been kilid lately at the Minisinks by Indians. 

Ditto 4th. An Express Arrivd from Genl. Sullivan to Genl. Clinton in this camp — 
informs that Genl. Clinton's division will march in a few days. 

Ditto 5th. Warm days & cool Nights at this place. 
'' 6 Nothing new. 

" 7 This day all the light infantry Paraded, belonging to the several Regts. was 
"inspected by Col. Wm. Butler 4th Pensya. Regt. who is to have the command of them 
"together with the Rifle corps. . 

Ditto 8th. (Sunday) All the boats loaded ready to proceed down the river to morrow 
— this Evening 6 O'clock the sluce way was broke up and the water filld. the river im- 
mediately where a boat could pass, which was almost dry before — this Lake is 8 Miles 
long and very level was raisd. in the upper part of it by this dyke one foot perpendicular. 

Augst. gth. The Troops embarkd. on board the boats g, O Clock this morning except- 
ing those that went by land at 10 proceeded down Susquehannah River, 4th. Pensya. 
Regt. in front 3d N.^'ork in Rear and arrivd at Mr. CuUeys farm without much trouble 
by the crooks and turns in this River which are very plenty the land on the sidesof this 
River very Good and rich soil — Killd a large No. of rattle Snakes which were very plenty 
at this place, and very large came 30 Miles by water and 16 by land this day. 

Ditto loth. Rainy in the morning 2 O'Clock P. M. embarkd, and proceeded as far as 
Yokeums farm and encampt. which is 8 Miles by water and 5 by land, the form of our 
March is as follows — Rifle men and light infantry in front Comd by Col. Wm Butler, 
-detachd from each Regt. to march opposite the boats with a strong rear Guard cattle in 
centre. 

Ditto nth. Embarkd. 7 O'clock A. M. proceeded without much trouble as far as 
pgden's Farm and encampt on the right of the River 25 Miles by water and 15 by land 
this day — the land very fine at this place, the land in Genl. by the sides of this River 
"when one side is good the other is barren — The Genl orderd. each officer one Quart of 
Rum and one Gill to each other man. 

Ditto I2th. Embarkd. 7 'O 'clock AM arrivd. at the Scotch Settlement 2 . O'Clock 
P. M. 15. Miles Ogdens where I went on shore and gatherd. a quantity of berrys and 
made a Bowl of Punch — Our troops burnt two houses, Arrivd. at Unadilla 3 O'clock 
P. M. and encampt. half a mile abov^ Demini Johnston's Farm — the land very good at 
this place the houses are all destroyd. by the Indians last summer — Some Indian tracks 
<Jiscoverd by the front Guard this day. — This is the place where Genl. Hercamin held 
the first Council with Brant and the Indians after this war commencd. 

Ditto 13th. Embarkd 6 'O'clock A. M. proceeded half a mile and halted by reason of 
the Rapids proceeded on and encampt 4 . O clock P. M. on an Indian Island which had 
ben improvd. by them left hand River 25 Miles by water lo by land this day. 

Ditto 14. Embarkd. g O'clock A. M. proceeded on and Arrived at Ocquango and 
encampt. 5 O clock P. M. the land very fine at this place 10 Miles bv land 15 by water 

26 



202 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

this day — Some Apple-trees at this place this is the Indian Settlement that Colonel Wjn. 
Butler burnt last fall. 

Ditto 15th. (Sunday) Mr. Greno deliverd a sermon this day, a soldier of the 4th^ 
Pensya. Regt. died of a putrid fever and was buried under Anns with three vollies fird. 
over his Grave Genl. Clinton is waiting for some Militia to join him from the North river. 

Ditto i6th. This Onnaquaugo is pleisantly situated on both sides of the river and on 
Island in the center the Ruins of about 60 houses which appears by the cellars and wells, 
that it was a fine Settlement before it-was destroyd. considering they were Indians One 
English family lived with them 4th. Pensya. Regl. went out to escort the .Militia into this- 
place but returnd without seeing them. 

Ditto 17th. T'ird a cannon this morning to inform fhe Militia that the troops were not . 
gone, embarkd. 10 O Clock A. M. proceeded on 6 Miles and then made a halt to let the 
troops ford the River. — Burnt a No. of Indian houses at the lower end of Onnaquaugo, 
some fine Orchards with plenty of Apples in them on the banks of this River, but the 
troops were not allowd to stop and get any of them — passd. a large rapid and made a. 
halt, this river is very crooked and you will run all points in the day — it divides in some 
places into 6 different Streams — leaves one sufficient to carry a large boat. Arrivd at: 
Tiscarora village about sunset and encampt right hand of the river — The Rifle men found 
some Sides of tand. leather in a fat [.wV] in the woods — made other discoveries found a 
dead man under the roots of a wind fall (which was supposd. him to be a prisoner that 
they had lately taken) found a war post which the Indians had put up with marks cut in 
the same in token of their Scalps, and prisoners, destroyd. two houses, discoverd. a bat- 
teau painted on a ledge of Rocks left hand of the river which was a token that the Indians 
knew of their enemy's coming as the kept runners constantly before our Army — came 25 
miles by water and 15 by land this day. 

Ditto i8th. Embarked 7 O Clock A. M. proceeded one Mile and burnt one house right 
hand of the river went a little further and burnt two more, Arrivd. half a mile below 
Cheningo Creek and turnd. back to said creek and encampt the Genl. detachd. a party of 
men to go up said Creek and destroyd. Cheningo town which was don — Two men from 
Genl. Poor arrivd. to Genl. Clinton and informs that Genl. Poor will be within 8 miles of 
this camp this Night to escort (Jenl. Clintons Troops to Genl. Sullivan — came 25 Miles, 
by water And 16 by land this day — Encampt right hand of the river. 

Ditto igth. Embarkd. 8 O Clock A. M. and proceeded on one mile and burnt 7 houses, 
left hand of the river, went a few miles and burnt 2 more same side of the river. Arrivd 
at Chukkanut, 9 O Clock A M. where Genl. Poor's Division were encampt — About 11 
hundred men, burnt 5 houses at tliis place 5 miles By water and 4 by land from our last 
Encampment to this place this is a fine large Flatt chiefly on the right hand of the River 
going down the army proceeded on and arriv'd, at Owago about sunset this is a large 
Indian Settlement and fine land ; — Encampt. at this place, this is the Indian (own that 
Serjt. hunter was Carried to that was taken lolh Novr. last below Cherry Valley on this 
same River as he was returning with his Scout — heavy rain this night, the Genl. detachd. 
a party and sent them and burnt the town at this place About two Miles up a Httle Creek 
— 18 iWiles by water and 14 by land this day. 

Ditto 20th. heavy Rain this day which detained the troops from marching — 'I'here 
was but one Barrel of rum in the Store which the Genl. ordered to be equally divided 
between the officers which was one Point each — The Land which I have passd in genl. 
down this river is very good but when the flats are good on the one side the other is 
mountany and the flats narrow from the river. 

Ditto 2ist. Embarked 7 O. 'clock A. M. proceeded on our way and encampt 3 O clock 
P. M. opposite an old Indian field about 500 Acres cleard and very good — left hand of 
the riVer — saw some fine land on the sides of the river this day some pleasant mountains, 
cleard by fire — discoverd in the camp two Indian's bodies, lately buried only coverd with 
turf, and tht bones of one man that had ben burnt to death, saw the tree that they took 
the pitch splinters from, supposed him (that was burnt) to be an English Prisoner they had 
taken, and this was done in revenge for one of their Brothers that had been killd. — Two. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 203 

of our boats ran on the rapids one of which was stove, both loaded with Ordinance Stores 
— 14 Boxes ruind 27,000 Cartrigs in the Same 3 barrels of Powder We are now 6 IVTiles 
from Genl. Sullivans camp — One Fitch Jerritt had lived at this place and is now with 
Genl. Sullivan as a I-'ilate — 20 Miles by water 14 by land this day. 

Ditto 22d. (Sunday) Embarked 7 O'clock A. M. Arrivd. at Genl. Hands detachment 
of light troops g . O'clock A. M. where our troops were saluted from the land with 13 
Cannon proceeded on one Mile further and arrivd at Tioga where Genl. Sullivan's troops 
were campt on the West side of the river — Encampt ^ after 11 O Clock A M in an Old 
Indian Field a large quantity of land cleard. at this place — which is very good the Field 
oflicers all dind with Genl. Sullivan this day — All Mountains on the East siiJe of this 
River at this place — Tioga Kranch Leads from this into the Cinnaku [Seneca?] nation — 
6 miles By water & 5 by land this day. 

Ditto 23d Capt Kimbal P master to Col. CiUey's Regt. this day was accidentally shot 
to death, and two soldiers wounded by the same gun that was carelessly discharged by a 
soldier of said Regt. — New Hampshire Forces — Fine pleasant weather. 

Ditto 24fh Struck tents in the afternoon and proceeded on to our line of March. 6 
Massts. Regt. joind Genl Poor's brigade. 

Augst. 25th. The troops all ordered to March and leave the ground at 8 () clock .\. M . 
but were detaind by a heavy rain. 

Ditto 26th. n (.) clock A. M, the army marchd, and left the ground proceeded on 
about 5 miles and encampt on a pine plain by the side of a Large flatt about 500 Acres 
in the same well coverd with grass — one deer ran through the camp. 

Ditto 27th. Capt. Day and Liet Carter with 25 men from the 6th Massts. Regt. are 
left in Fort Sullivan with the baggage the Army proceeded on this morning 8 < ) clock over 
hills and mountains, made a halt for the Pack horses and waggons to pass a large defile 
some men detachd. to get them over about sunset marchd. forward and arrived at a large 
Indian settlement 11 . O clock P. M. a large quantity of corn beans and other sauce at 
this place — the land very good, large flatts — much trouble this diy with the Pack horses 
their loads often faUing off. — came 7 miles this day. 

Ditto 28th. Pleasant weather — the troops lay on this ground until 3 O clock P. M.. 
waiting for Genl. Clinton's Brigade to come on and to destroy the corn. After a signal 
of three cannon the Army movd on the first for striking tents 2d. for Loading the bag- 
gage 3d for Marching &c and proceeded over a large mountain about 2 miles high — - 
arrivd at Chemung about Sunset and Encampt near the river — came 4 Miles this day. 

Ditto 2gth. (Sunday) This morning the camp was alarmd. by the firing some guns, 
but turnd out to be the Riflemen clearing out their Arms — the Army movd. on. 8 ( ) Clock 
A. M. — at I. .P. .M. our front guard discoverd the enemy's breast-works at Newton — 
the army made a halt, and was ordered in line of Battle — the Artillery under the com- 
mand of Col. Proctor soon began to cannonade their works with Ball and Shells — Genl. 
Poor's Briga. were Posted on their left and had to clim'b a large mountain while the sav, 
ages kept a smart fire on them from the top of said mountain, but Genl. Poor's Briga. 
soon gaind the enemy's ground which were obligd to take to their heels for safety and 
leave a good deal of their bagg.ige behind them — such as blankets, packs &c. — the enemy 
was soon attackd from right to left in one hour they left their works and fled before the 
brave continental troops leaving behind them, one of their Chiefs and a No. of others 
dead in the field — making in the whole 14 Indians — one Negro, and one white man, fell 
prisoner into our hands — their breastwork was made of pine Logs coverd with green 
skrub bushes that no one might discover the same until they were quite on it — it extended 
near half a mile in length and fro:n their right to their left one mile and half — the loss of 
Genl Sullivan's army is one Liet 3 Soldiers killd. 34 wounded — including i Majr. i Capt. 
— in the 6th Massts, Regt. one man killd. 6 wounded included in the above No. • Came 
5 miles this day the name of the Liet. that was killd. was McCoUey — Encampt — large 
quantities of corn and sauce at this place. 

Ditto 30th. The army employd this day in destroying the corn. 

Genl. Sullivan requested the troops to take half allowance for the present which was agreed 



•20i JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

to by the Army as the corn and other sauce is very plenty at this place — the wounded 
with the waggons and part of the cannon, were sent down this night to Fort Sullivan. 

Augst. 31st. 1779. The Army raovd. on 11 O Clock, A. M. marchd. chiefly on plains 
& flats, had very fine marching this day — Encampt on a pine plain. 

Our Riflemen discovd some Indians- — 12 miles march to-day. 

Sept. 1st. The Army movd. on 10 . O Clock A. M. marched 5 Miles on this plain 
-and came to a defile a large marsh on the left hand — The Pack horses were detained 
some time by passing a narrow passage close under the mountain — soon arrivd at a 
long-swamp, where the Artillery and Pack horses by reason of large gulley's and miry 
sloughs found it very difficult to pass — this swamp is 9 miles through the Army arrivd 
at Queen Catherine's Castle 9 . O'clock P. M, Excepting Genl. Clintons Brigade campt in 
the swamp as it brought up the rear of the Army could not get through — Some of the 
Pack-horses Died in this swamp and a No. of them left their drivers all night, as they 
could not reach through — the Indians had left this place but a few hours, when our front 
.guard arrivd., as their fires were burning — there was a creek ran through this town, there 
was five houses one side of said Creek and six the other — the Queens Pallace was a gam- 
bril ruft house about 30 feet long and i8 wide — I campt by the side of a log on a piece 
of bark that came off one of their houses, by a fire the Indians had left, without any 
blanket, as my baggage tarried all night in the Swamp (I was very cold) the worst rout 
this day I have seen on the march — came 14 Miles this day. 

Sept. 2d. This day the troops were employd in washg. their cloathing (and lay still to 
recruit the horses) and let the rear of the Army come up &c the Genl. detachd a party of 
Volunteers to pursue the enemy, but returnd. without discovering any of them — Our 
troops found an old Indian squaw at this place that the Indians had left by reason of her 
being so old that she could not travel with them — the land is very good at this place, 
■ownd. all by this Queen — there was one Dutch family livd.here, and are gone off with 
the rest ; there was a No. of feather beds found in his house and two horses found in his 
fields. 

Ditto 3d. The army movd. on at 8' O'clock A. M. marchd in the Indian path, the 
roads very good this day — passd. some fine land timberd with Oak and Walnut — marchd 
by a creek, which ran through a large meadow — Our front guard discovd. some Indians 
in a corn field, which fled and left their Kettles on the fire — Encampt on a heighth about 
(j miles from an Indian Village — the horses had only bushes for forrage this night — 
came 12 miles this day. 

Ditto 4th. This morning the troops were ordered to march at sunrise, but were de- 
taind by reason of the rain — the Army movd. on 9 . O clock A. M. arrivd. at an Indian 
Settlement 11 : O clock A. M. where we burnt 6 houses and destroyd. some fields of corn, 
joining the Cinnaka Lake — where I had a full view of sd. Lake, and appeard. to me 
like a small Ocean ■ — ■ the Land the Army fnarchd over this day, is very fine and not 
mountany — some of the Pack-horses gave out and died under their Loads partly for want 
of forrage — Genl. Sullivan sent off two Indians as Expresses one to Col. Broadhead the 
other to Onida (those two Indians were from Onida) Encampt on a piece of fine Land, 
little or no under brush, wooded chiefly with white oak — the horses had brushes for 
foidder this night — I gathered a quantity of wild Oranges this day as large as common 
limes — the Enemy had wrote on several trees that Genl. Sullivan might pursue, but would 
soon meet with trouble. 

Sept. 5th. (Sunday) The Army movd on, 9 . clock A. M. the land our army marchd. 
over this day is very good and level. I'assd two large GuUeys which made it very diffi- 
cult for the Pack horses to pass — the Army arrivd at appletown or Saint Coy. 2 . O'clock 
I'. M. where we found 13 houses and a large old orchard and some peach trees — Three 
grand tombs where it is supposed they buried some of their chiefs, they were all painted 
very fine, and coverd with a frame and bark, on the top of the whole — some of the 
houses were made of hewd. timber and one of them had a chimney in it. 11 of those 
houses stood on a ridge about 60 rods long and 20 rods wide ; on this place stood the 
Orchard which appeard. to be planted many years — Near this Town was all bushes the 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 205- 

piece I have mentioned, only excepted, which is a custom with them to have no land cleared' 
near their houses : their corn fields were about half a mile irom the town but the corn was- 
chiefly gone before the Army arrivd. — The Army encampt at this place — A prisoner- 
came to our army informd. Genl. Sullivan that he left the Indians last friday and 
made his escape --he was taken by them last summer at Wyoming and brought to this- 
place — says that the Enemy left this town last Thursday & Kriday, and that their strength 
Now with Butler is about seven hundred Indians and Toiriesand that Butler means to fight 
us again — the Genl. orderd the apple trees all girdled or cut down which was done — 
the houses burnt — came 6 miles this day. 

Sept 5lh, This morning the army was detaind from m arching, by reason of the guards 
losing 60 or 70 head of Cattle last Xight — A party of men were sent out in quest of 
them and found about half of them — the Army marchd on at 2. O'clock P. M. pro- 
ceeded on about four miles and Encampt near the Lake which is at this place, about 8 
miles acrost the water very clear and gravelly bottom — came over fine land this day and 
level — came 4 miles this day. 

Sept. 7th. The .Army movd. on at 8 . O'Clock A. M. proceeded on 8 miles and came 
to [he foot of the Great Cinnakee Lake about 12, O'clock A. M, the army forded the out- 
let of this Lake which was two rods acrost about two feet deep the water, with a swift cur-- 
rant — the Army marchd on the beach at the foot of this lake, from one side to the other, 
which was about three miles — Swamp on the right hand and water on the left this Lake 
is 40 miles long and 8 miles wide at the widest part — the land on the west side is very 
level, and not mountany--8o miles from Tioga, to the foot of this lake — The army 
burnt two houses at the foot of this lake, was said they belonged to the Cinnakee King 
and made use of one of them as a summer seat — the .\rmy proceeded on two miles and 
arrivd. at Cannondesago the chief Cinnakee castle about dusk, where we found about 80 
houses something large — some of them built with hewd . timber & part with round timber 
and part with bark. Large quantities of corn and beans with all sorts of sauce, at this- 
place a iine Young Orchard, which was soon all girdled by the pioneers — this town lays 
very compact not more than 100 rods from outside to outside, came 10 miles this day — 
the foot of this Lake lays exact East. 

.Sept. -Sth. This day the Army lay at this place to recruit — The Genl. sent a detach-- 
ment to destroy some houses and corn, on the sides of this Lake, which was done — at 
our first arrival at this place, there was found a man child about 4 years old naked, left 
by the Savages. Mustbe the child of some white prisoner they had taken. 

Sept gth. The Troops were ordered to marcli at 6 "O'clock this morning, but were 
detained by reason of a heavy rain — Capt Reed set out for Fort Sullivan with the inva- 
lids from this place — The troops movd. on 11 . O'clock A. M. and marchd. the Artillery 
in an Indian path — the Indian fields continued near 5 miles On our way from this Castle, 
very good road this day — excepting one small swamp but passd. the same without much 
trouble — After marching 7 miles came to a brook, the first water the Army passd this, 
day — three brigades crossd. the brook half a mile and encampt — Genl Clinton's brigade 
did not cross — came 7 miles and half this day. 

Sept. loth. The Army movd on 8 Oclock A. M. proceeded on 4 and ^ miles through 
swampy gound, and then arrived at an Indian Field, which continued for some miles — 
Came to a large Lake forded the Outlet, which was two feet deep about, four rods acrost. 
proceeded half a mile and arrivd. at Cannonowago — a Ginnacee Castle where was 19 
houses about i. O'clock P. M. fire was set to then soon which consumed them to Ashes 
in a short time — the Army proceeded on 3^ a mile and encampt near their Corn, which 
was in great plenty, near a mile in length. Came 9 and }4 miles to day. 

Sept. nth. The Army movd on 6 Oclock A. M. (as the corn was destroyd. Yester- 
day) had very good roads this day the land very good and leval passd. a No. of Indian 
fields which were all covered with large quantities of Indian grass — Arrivd. 3. O clock 
P. M. to a Ginnacee Castle of 8 houses. Great plenty of corn and beans at this place, the 
Army encampt (this Castle cald. Onnayayon) this town is on a fine piece of intervale land' 
and well waterd. by fine springs and a small brook running through the same, which is 



206 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

very rare to be found in this country and in general the Towns I have passd. stand on 
poor land. — Came 13 miles this day. 

Sept. I2th. 1779 (Sunday) The troops were ordered to march this morning at 6 
O'clock, but were detaind. by the rain, the Army movd. on i clock P. M. and proceeded 
4 miles and came to a lake which was on our left hand, forded the out-let which was one 
rod acrost and one foot deep with water, (myself crossd. on a tree that was fell acrost the 
same) went 7 and j4 miles further and the Army encampt on the side of a large hill — 
where was but httle or no under brush — The Genl. left part of the Stores with one of 
the field pieces and a strong guard at the place the troops le^'t this day — The route very 
good this day — came n and }4 miles. 

Sept. 13th. The Army movd on 6 O clock A. M. proceeded on one and a half miles 
and arrivd. at Yoxsaw. a Ginnasee Town, where was 10 houses that were soon burnt — 
great plenty of corn, and all sorts of sauce at this place. Great No. of Peach trees which 
our troops soon cut down. — The Army made a halt at this place for breakfast and to de- 
stroy the corn — About 12. O'clock A. M. the Indians attackd. a party of our men that 
were sent out Yesterday as a discovering party coramandd. by Liet. Boyd. , they were re- 
turning to camp and were about one mile from the same, when the Indians discoverd 
them, with the Liet was a No. of the Riflemen some Musket men, and one Onida Chief 
making in the whole 27 men II. of the No. made their escape, the rest were killd. and taken. 
Onr troops were making a bridge acrost a Miry River at this place *(Whenden), our Army 
movd. on and arrivd. at, CosterohoUy, (a Ginnacee Castle) about sunset, where some of 
the Enemy were discoverd. but soon fled — Where was 12 houses which were soon Burnt, 
by the men that escaped in the late Action, we are informd. that a No. of the Indians 
were killd. and that their No. in Said Battle were 200 — the Onida Chief was killd. and 
cut to Pieces — came 8 miles this day. 

.Sept. 14th. I should mention that the Riflemen Yesterday took 100 Pack that the 
Indians had left in[their flight — together with their kettles and blankets. — The army was 
employd this forenoon in destroying the corn at this place, which was done by throwing 
pirt of it into the River and part was burnt — The army movd on at I. O Clock P. M. 
and forded a deep creek, crossd the large Ginnacee flatts two miles — Forded the Ginna- 
cee River 8 rods acrost. and knee deep, swift current, which made it very difficult to pass 
— came on a height the other side of this flatt, where I had a full view of the same and 
suppose there is to, 000 acres in it of cleard. land level and all coverd with grass as high 
as a man's head — ^ proceeded on over hills and swamps and arrivd. sun one hour high at 
night; — at the grand Ginnacee.Castle where was 120 houses the most of them com- 
pact together — where at otir arrival we found the body of the brave Liet Boyd, and the 
body of one of the Serjts. that was with him both of their heads cut off. the Liet. was 
all skinned, his back much bruised, his nails burnt out, and many stabs in his body ; his 
brother sufferer was in the like condition, with a knife sticking in his back — their bodies 
much eat by dogs — The Army encampt at this place — came 6 miles this day. 

Sept. 15th. This morning the whole army was ordered out to distroy the corn at this 
place -,^ at work while '{ guarded them ; — thi.i was done by carrying part into the 
houses, which were sav'd for that purpose, the biggest part was burnt in the fields, there 
was the largest quantity of corn, beans and all sorts of sauce at this Castle that I have 
seen in one place on my march, as it was their head castle It was supposd. by the army 
that there was lO'JO acres at this place, and the land very fine and rich — The land from 
Yoxsaw to this appears to be the best in this country that I have seen though in general 
all very good, but not well watered — A woman and a little child came into our camp 
this day, that the enemy had left behind them, she informs Genl. Sullivan, that she was 
taken from Wyoming by the Indians last summer, and had ben with them ever since ; 
likewise informs that the enemy are much distressd. with hunger and frighted at the 
approach of the Gen'ls. Army, and thinks he is bound for Niagara — ■ i . O clock P. M. 
the army left this place and began their march back for Tioga as they are now 150 miles 

• Perhaps an error— When done (?)— CJ. S. C. v 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 207 

from the same. — Set this Town all in (lames as there has not one house ben burnt since 
■our arrival, but as I mentioned before were referrd. to distroy the corn in — Crossd. the 
large River (I mentioned before) about sun-set and Encampt on this large flatt near Cas- 
teroholly. 

Sept. i6th. This morning the army was employd. in distroying Corn that was left 
when the Army movd. up, which was in great plenty on this flatt. The Army moved on 
at 9 O'clock A. M, and arrivd. at Voxsaw 3. O'clock P. M. where the Army halted and 
■encampt to distroy corn that was left at this place — Our dead was gathered together and 
buried, that was killd. ye. 13th. Instant, 13 white men and one Indian was found dead in 
a small compass of ground, they were all Scalpt and hakd. with Tommahawks, the Indian 
was cut almost all to pieces (it was Capt. Hunyost from Onida) in the whole 16 killd. 11 
escapd. making 27 in the party — Hard frost this night. 

Sept. 17th. The Army movd. on this morning 5 . O.Clock and arrived at Onnayauyan — 
12 ( >'clock A. M. where we found our Stores in good order, the troops that were left with 
them had made an Abbertee [abatis ?] fort for their Security against the enemy. 

Sept. i8th. This morning the Army movd on at 7'. O, clock Arrivd. at Cannonowago 
.; . O'clock I'. ,\I. fordeJ the Out-let of the Lake and encampt — a No. of Onida Indians 
with one of their Chiefs met us this day. 

Sept 19th. Sunday . . the Army movd on this morninj;' 7 . O'clock arrived at the half 
way brook 12 . O'clock A. iM. and made a halt for the troops to lefresh themselves 3, 
men as Express from Newtown, met Genl. Sullivan this day informs that there is 6 days 
provisions for the Army at that Post . . proceeded on and arrivd. at Cannondesago, sun 
half an hour high at night, and encampt on our old camping ground. 

Sept. 20th. This forenoon the Army lay at this place the Genl. detachd. a party under 
the command of Col. Gansewort to proceed for Albany after the baggage that was left at 
that place — another party up the side of the Cinnakee Lake to distroy corn — the Army 
movd. on 3 . O'clock I'. M. forded the out-let of the Lake and marchd about one mile 
and encampt. 

.Sept 2ist. The Genl. detachd a party this morning commandd. by Col. Durbin to go 
to the other l^ake to burn some houses and distroy the Corn &c. at that place — The army 
movd. on this morning at 7. O. Clock proceeded on and arrivd at Appletown 2 O'clock 
P. M. proceeded on a few miles farther and encampt near the lake where had ben an old 
Indian Settlement — 4. O'clock P. M. 

Sept 22d. The army movd. on this morning 8 . O'clock proceeded on our march 
■campt 8 miles from Queen Catlmrines Castle on a pine plain near a brook — a large buck 
ran through the camp this evening. 

Sept. 23d. This morning the Array movd on at 7. O'clock Arrivd at the Queens Castle 
12 O clock A. iM. where the Army made a halt found the same old Indian Squaw that 
was left at this place when the Army went up — the army proceedd. on 4 miles and en- 
■campt in the long Swamp 

Sept. 24th. This morning the army movd on at 8 . O clock proceeded on and arrived 
at Newtown 4 O Clock P. M. where we found the stores under the Command of Capt. John 
Reed 6 Massts. Regt The army was saluted from the fort with 13 Cannon which were 
returnd. from Col. . Proctors Artillery — the troops drew one Gill of Whiskey each man, 
and one pound and quarter of beef the first allowance the troops drew this month more 
than '/i pound beef per day Per man and ditto of flour — there has not been one storm to 
detain this army one day since they left Tioga which is 30 days. 

Sept. 2i:th. Those forks of the River at this place are called the one Tioga branch the 
■other Keugah branch, both empty into Susquehannah River. The Army lay at this place 
this day and the future joy [/<?« de joie?"] was fird in this camp at 5 O Clock P. M. The 
Genl. made a present of an Ox to the officers of each brigade and Likewise to the core of 
Artillery — each officer half a Point of Rum and each other man one Gill of Whiskey. 

Sept 26th. Sunday. This day Col. Derbin arrived with his detachment from his com- 
mand and brought two Indian squaws prisoners with him — he informs that he has burnt 
.a No. of houses and distroyed a large quantity of corn. 



208 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Sept. 27th. Col. Cortland was sent with a detachment up Tioga branch to distroy- 
corn which was in great plenty up this River. 

Sept. 28th. This morning about 9. O'clock Col. Butler arrivd. in this camp with his. 
detachment that had ben on the Frontiers of Keugo [Cayuga ?] Lake, informs that he has; 
distroyed a large quantity of corn and burnt a No. of Indian Towns — The sick were sent 
off this day from this place to Tioga, part by water and part by land, the Artillery aild 
Ordinant stores, were all sent in boats down the river to Tioga, excepting the Cowhorn 
[cohorn ?]. 

Sept 2gth. The Army movd. this morning at 8. O'clock arrivd. at Chemung 12. 
O clock. A. M. where the troops made a short hall, and then movd. on, arrivd. at the- 
camping ground, where we found the first corn going up. Encampt 4 clock P. M. 
8 miles from fort Sullivan. 

Sept. 30th. I would inform the reader that Fort Sullivan and Tioga is. one place 
The Army movd. on this morning at 8 . O'Clock passd. the large defile which was zoo. 
rods between the brink of the mountains and the river — The army arrivd. at Fort Sulli- 
van 2. O Clock P. M. and was saluted with 13 cannon from the fort — which was returned 
with 13 from Col. Proctors Artillery, the troops passd. by the Fort and marchd. on to 
their old Camping ground ; and encampt — The officers all dind. in the Fort on a dinner 
orderd. by Col. Shreefe who commanded said fort while the Army were gone on the Expi-. 
dition — The officers drew ^ a pint of rum each, the other troops one Gill of Whiskey, 
each — This day completes 36 days since the army left this grownd, and has not ben 
detained one day by storms or any other Accident. 

October 1st. 1779. Pleasant weather this day. 

" 2nd. The Genl. gave orders for the troops to march raonday Next at 6 oclock 
• — Fort Sullivan to be evacuated to morrow morning at 7 . O'C'ock, 

October 3d. Sunday. This day the troops were employed in distroying the Fort and 
throwing the pickets into the River which was near on both sides of the Fort. 

Octr. 4th. This morning the Army Marchd. and left the ground at g O Clock for 
Wyoming — came over skrub land this day — Passd a defile on the brink of the river- 
where was a narrow path on the steep side of a large mountain about 200 feet perpendic- 
ular which made it'very dangerous to pass ; and was a sollid rock three horses with their 
loads fell off and dashed to pieces in the River — Proceed, on and encampt on the point 
of the river — Some rain this day and very hard this night — Came 25 miles this day — - 
Part of the troops came in the boats 

October 5th. This morning 1 1 O Clock the troops all embarkd. on board the boats,, 
excepting a No. to drive the Cattle, and take down the pack-horses Proceeded down the 
river and encampt 7 miles below Wylucee the boats came on very well, this day passd 
some bad rapids — This river on the sides is very mountany and opposite on the other side- 
some small flatts Some of these mountains 300 feet perpendicular Came 21 miles this 
day. 

October 6th, This morning the troops movd. on at 6 O Clock proceeded down this 
river and encampt west side of the same on a piece of land that was cleared by girdling 
the trees and was coverd. with English grass — Came 30 Miles. 

October 7th. This morning the Army movd. on and arrivd. at Wyoming 12. O'Clock 
A. M. and encampt on a pine plain — the troops drew half a pint of Whiskey each — 
This river is very mountany, on the sides of it and opposite these mountains on the other 
side, some small flatts which are very rich and good land, those flatts from Tioga to Wyo- 
ming have all ben improvd. and clear'd by girdling but the houses are all burnt by the 
Indians — This Wyoming is pleasantly situated on both sides of the river and the land near 
the same very "good — Came 15 miles, making in the whole gl miles from Tigo to this 
place by water. 

October 8th. pleasant weather orders this day for the Army to March Sunday next for 
Easton. 

Octr. gth. Commissary Woodman left this place for Albany. 

October loth. (Sunday) The Army marchd. and left the grounds. O'clock P. M., for 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 209 

Easton — Came over a large mountain very rocky and some muddy sloughs, Arrivd. at 
BuUocks-Farm tt a longmfadow ii . O'clock at night where the troops Encampt — Came 
7 miles this day. 

October nth. This morning the Army movd. on at 8 . O Clock very bad roads this 
day— Crossd. the School-kill River Encampt. about sunset on a pine hill. — Came 14 
miles this day — Enterd. the Pensylvania Line. 

October 12th. This morning the army, movd. on at 7 . Oclock and came into the bad 
swamp 3 . Clock P. M. Met a No. of Waggons from Easton to help on with the bag- 
gage — Rained very hard this afternoon, got through the .Swamp 4. Oclock P. M., the 
rout very stony and mudtiy this day Crossd. the Lehi River. Encampt. about dusk on a 
pine plain — Came 16 miles this day. 

October 13th. This morning the Army movd. on at 7. O'clock proceeded on 5 Miles 
and arrivd. at Larnards Tavern, where was forrage for the use of the Array — proceeded 
on and arrivd. at Brinkers Mills 5 O'clock P. M. where the army encampt and drew pro- 
visions, as there is a Continental Store kept at this place — Came 7 miles this day — This 
place is west side the Blue Mountains. 

October 14th. This morning the army movd. on 10 Oclock and crossed the Blue Mount- 
ains at the wind gate — Encampt East side of the mountains — The Dilleware and Lehi 
Rivers runs through this Mountain — large fields of buck whfeat in this place, which the 
men and women threshis in the Fields the Land very Poor in general only some valleys 
improvd. — Came 7 miles this day. 

October 15th. This morning the troops marchd. at 6 O clock, proceeded on and arrivd. 
at Easton I . O'clock P. M. — The land the Army came by this day is very poor, chiefly 
skrub oak plains^ The army encampt on the bank of the Dilleware River — The Offi- 
cers of the 6th. Massts. Regt. dind. in town this day, that was prepared by Capt. Ballard 
as he has ben here some days — This Easton is situated between two mountains, and lays 
on Dilleware and Lehi River opposite the Gersies, the houses are chiefly built with stone 
and lime some of them very elegant — Came 12 miles this day, which makes 63 miles 
from Wyoming to this Town. 

Octr. l6th. This day I went into the Gersies after some Markee cordage — Avery 
poor place and the land very stony. 

Oct 17th. Sunday. The 6th. Massts. Regt. musterd. this day by Mr. Nehemiah Wade 
Mr. Master — the troops attended public service in the new church in this town, the ser- 
mon deliverd by Mr. Evins Chaplin to Genl Poor's Brigade. 

Octr. i8th. This day the troops were ordered to be Barrackd in town, those that had 
no tents to cover them — Capt. Daniel Lane this day was dischargd. from the Continental 
Army By Genl. Sullivan at Easton. 

Octr. 19th. This day I rode with Capt Reed and some more gentlemen of the Army 
to Bethleham a Town 12 Miles from Easton Inhabited by Moravians. Arrivd there 12 
Oclock A. M. and dind. at the great Tavern as there is but one in the town, which is kept 
by the whole place as all their stores are put in public stock — after Dinner was piloted 
through the town by a squire, went to the Nunnery where was many Curiosities carried on 
by the Nuns, this house is very large and many rooms in the same which are filled with 
women of all Ages, not mixed, but every class by themselves, in short all sort of work 
ever done by a woman carried on in this place, went into their place of worship, where 
were many Grand Pictures amongst the rest a near Emblem of the sufferings of our 
Saviour — went into their Bed Chamber where were as many beds as Nuns in the house, 
as no two of them sleeps together they are exceeding neat and clean with every thing that 
concerns them. — their custom at night is to keep on^ of themselves as a Gentry at the door 
of their Chamber, which is reheved every hour, so that they may discover any man com- 
ing near them, they see no man but every Sunday, excepting those strangers that go to see 
their curiosities, which is the time that they expose of the works that supports them — 
From this I went to the brother's house, where are many things worth seeing, but not 
equal to the Sisters, those Brothers all live in one house, but dont work in the same — 
Went to see the Smiths, Tanners, Cloathiers, and all sorts of trades, which are carried on 

27 



•210 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

in the easiest manner all by water — the water is carried through this town to every house, 
after this manner, it is taken out of a spring by three Pumps, which never stop carried by 
water, conveyed through a brass Pipe up a steep hill into a Cistern then taken 20 feet into 
the air perpendicular and from that conveyed through small pipes to all parts of the town, 
and is drew from a brass Cock that stands in the street in a pump — this town is very pleas- 
antly situated on Lehi River the buildings very elegant all Stone and Lime. These people 
put all into a common Stock and from that draws their subsistance — left this town about 
sunset. Arrived at Nazereth " O clock this evening, where we tarried this night. 7 miles 
from Bethleham. 

Oct. 20th. This morning went through this town, to see the situation of it, which is 
very pleasant but is a new place settled but 6 years — All stone houses, the water is car- 
ried through this town, in like, manner as in the other only it comes natturally from a 
spring of a heighth without the help of pumps and is carried under ground in large wooden 
pipes. 

Left this town lo'O Clock A. M. Arrived at Easton i . O Clock P. M. the land be- 
tween this place and Bethleham is very poor and sandy, they raise chiefly buck-wheat. 

October 21 and 22d. Nothing new. 

" 23d. This day Genl. Poor's Brigade crossd. Dilleware-river 10 Oclock A. M. 
marched 5 miles in the Gersies and, Encampt in the woods — Capt Lane set off for New 
Winsor on North river. 

Octr. 24th. Sunday. Pleasant weather. 

" 25 This day I crossd. the Lehi River and rode 10 miles in Pensylvania to Col. 
Larricks for horses for the Regt. and returned to camp in the evening, the land in this 
rout is very stony and rough. • 

October 26th. Rode into Greenig town with Major Whiting and Adjt. White, & P. 
Master, Tucker arrived at the Regt. with money for the same. 

October 27th. The Army marchd. on this day and Encampt in Oxford, about 8 miles 
from the ground we left, there was wood and straw provided at this place for the Army 
this place is in the Gersies. 

October 28th. The army movd. on this morning at 7 O'clock, proceeded on and 
arrivd. at Hardwick and encampt, near the Log Goal — came 15 miles. 

Octr. 2gth. The Army movd. on this morning at 7 . O'clock arrived at Sussex Court 
House in Newtown 12 . O'clock A. M. in the Gersies 39 and y^ miles. 

October 30th. This day the army movd. on and arrived at Charcole Town 12 miles 
from the Court House, and Encampt. 

Octr. 3tst. Sunday. The Army moved on this morning and Arrived at Warrick in the 
afternoon in the State of New York and Encampt — Came 15 miles this day. 

Novr. 1st. The army moved on this morning and marchd. over Sterling Mountains a 
very rocky, bad rout this day Arrived at Sterling town and Encampt near the furnace, 
which is built at the mouth of a small I^ake the land very rocky and mountany at this 
place Came 10 miles this day. 

Novr. 2nd. The Army moved on this morning, and arrived at Rammessau in the 
Clove 18 miles from Kings ferry this mountain is 17 miles very rough rout, and diffi- 
cult for Waggons to pass Encampt in the woods Came 1 1 miles this day Lord 
Sterlings division has left this two days and gone to Kings ferry. 

Novr. 3d. Blustering and Cool some squalls of Snow. 

Novr. 4th. Majr. Whiting and Capt. Reed rode into the Country for a party of plea- 
sure. 

Novr. 5th. The majr. and Capt. Reed returned to camp this afternoon, the officers 
baggage arrivd. from New Winsor with their Portmanteaus Orders to march tomorrow 
morning 8 O clock for Pumpton in the Gersies. 

Novr. 6th. Genl. Hands brigade and the Artillery marchd. this day for Pumpton the 
other two brigades were detained for want of waggons I rode into the country to see 
a sityr which was 24 inches high drest in coat Jacket and trowsers resembled a small 
Negro, would handle the fire-iock very well and go through any Manoever that his master 
bid him. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM McKENDRY. 211 

Novr. 7th. Sunday, Genl. Clinton's brigade marchd this day for Pompton. 

Xovr. 8th. Genl. Poor's brigade marchd. this morning and anived at Pumpton 3 . 
O'clock P M. and encampt in the woods, Genl. Washington arrived at Genl. Sullivan's 
Quarters this afternoon, about 2 miles from this Camp. Marchd. 12 miles this day. 

Novr. gth. This day Genl. Washington rode through this Camp. 

Novr. loth. This day the 6th Massts Kegt. and Rifle Corps were ordered to march 
tomorrow for Westpoint. 

Novr- nth. Were detained for want of waggons 

Novr. iiith. 6th. Massts. liegt. marchd. from Pumpton and arrived at Rammepo in 
New York State. 

Novr. 13th. Marchd. from Rammepo this morning and arrivd. two miles from King's 
ferry on the North river, and Encampt — Came 17 miles this day. 

Novr. 14th. Sunday, This morning crossd the North river — Arrived at Peekskill and 
encampt about dusk — Came 7 miles this day. 

Novr. 15th. This morning the Kegt. marchd. on and crossd. the river and arrived in 
Westpoint 2. O Clock P. M. and encaxpt in the bush one mile and yi down the River 
— -came 8 miles. 

Novr. i6th. Some snow this night. 

" I71h. Cold and blustering Weather. 

Novr. i8th This day the 6th. Massts. Regt marchd. and joined Genl Patterson's I3ri- 
gade very cold and blustering. 

Novr. 19th Pleasant weather. 
" 20th. This day sent the horses into the country to be kept as there was no for- 
rage on the Point. 

Novr. 2 1st Sunday, Rainy weather this day — Majr. iNIcKinster and Capt. Bussey 
came to see me. 

Novr. 22nd. This day the 6th. Massts. Regt. was mustered by Colo Varrick* Muster 
master Genl. this is the fifth day that the troops have drew no bread on this Point as there 
was none. 

Novr. 23d. Drew some bread this day — very cool weather at this place. 

Novr. 24 & 25th. Nothing new. 
" 26th. A smart snow storm this day — and the men in the tents which made it 
very tedious. 

Novr. 27th. The Snow blew very much, and made it as tedious as the storm which 
Crept into our tents very fast. 

Novr. 28th. Sunday. Pleasant weather this day and warm. 
" 2gth The Paymaster arrived with the Clothing for the Regt 

Novr. 30th. This day the chane that crossed the River was removed by hoisting the 
same whole between Boats and was taken to the shore to be laid up for the winter. 

December ist. Five men dischargd. this day from the 6th Massts. Regt. 

December 2d. A Still snow storm began this morning, which cleard off with a heavy 
rain — made it very tedious in campt. 

Deer. 3d and 4th. Nothing new. 
' ' 5th .Sunday A tedious snow storm and wind this day. 

■Deer. 6th. Liet. Carter Ensign Bagnal, Ensn. Parker, set out for home, on furlow 
from Westpoint. 

Deer. 7th. Capt Ballard left West-point on furlow — Capt Reed, P. Master Tucker 
and Liet Givins went to New Winsor. 

Peer. 8th. Capt Reed P. M. and Lt. Givins returnd to camp. 

Deer gth. Thanksgiving-day the Troops drew one Gill of Rum. 

Deer. loth. Some rain this day. 
" nth. Nothing new this day. 
k " I2th. Sunday some snow and heavy rain this day at West point. 

Deer. 13 14 . . 15 16 & 17th. Nothing new. 

" i8th. A tedious snow storm with hard wind which made it very bad in tents. 

* Colonel Richard Variok. afterwards a distinguished public officer ot New York State. 



212 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Deer. igth. (Sunday.) Went to Genl. Heath's and got my furlow. 

December 20th. Left Westpoint on furlow Lodgd at Mr. Huestins 6 miles from said 
point the weather very cold. 

Decemher 2lst Breakfast at Fishkill — Uined at Esq Storms's lodged at Col Moor- 
house's 30 miles this day. 

December 22nd. Lodgd. two miles from Lichfield came 25 miles this day. 

December 23rd. Proceeded on, the roads very bad this day, and not broke, J^odgd. 
in Symsberry at Landlord Garrets, 18 mils from I^ichfield 20 miles this day. 

December 24th. This morning proceeded on Arrived at Springfield 6 O clock P. M. — 
Lodgd at Landlord Edes 11 miles from Springfield — 41 miles this day the roads very 
good. 

Deer. 25th Proceeded on — Lodgd. this night at Landlord Tafts 6 miles West from 
Worcester 32 Miles this day. 

Deer. 26th. Sunday, proceeded on and Lodgd. at Col Mackintoshes in Needham 
Came 47 miles this day. 

Deer 27th. Proceeded on and arrived at Stoughton sunset, the weather has ben very 
cold and severe since I left camp 12 miles this day. 

December 28th. Some snow this day. 

" 2g . . 30 and 3i.st Nothing new this day. 

January ist 1780. Pleasant weather. 

" 2nd (Sunday) very cold this day and a storm of snow this night. 

Jany. 3d. Some snow and blustering this day.* 

* The original journal is now owned by Mr. William Henry McKendry, of Ponkapoag, Massachu- 
setts, of the Harvard Class of 1882. By bim it was lent to our associate, the Rev. Henry F. Jenks, 
of Canton, who has compared the proof with it, and has made the essential eorreetions in the text. 
— J. W. [Justin Winsor, Cor. Sec'y, Mass. Hist, Society.] 



^JOURNAL OF LIEUT. CHARLES NUKERCK. 



NuKERCK, CllAKLKS, Lieutcuaiit and C;ipt;i in in Colonel Van Cort- 
landt's Second New York Regiment From Mny 1, 1779, to December 
11, 1780. Captain (afterward Colonel) Nukerck was horn in Hnrley, 
Ulster County, New York. In 1776 be was serving as Second Lienten- 
-ant in Colonel Eitzema's 3d New York Eegiment, organized to gari^ison 
the forts southward of Crown Point. Undt'r the call <)f Se})teniber 16, 
1776, he entered the Second New York Regiment to serve duruif/ (he war, 
and continued with that regiment as Lieutenant and Captain until the con- 
solidation of the five New York regiments into two in Decrnihor, 1780, 
when he was assigned to the class of deranged ofB.cers, and continued in 
service to the close of the war. He afterward settled at Palatine Church, 
in the Mohawlc Valley, where he died greatly respected in November, 
1822. 

The following is a verbatim copy made from a fac simile of the orig- 
iinal in possession of General John S. Clark : 



♦This Journal hiis had a somewhat interesting history. A portion of it appeared in 1831 in CampbelPs 
ADnals of Tryon County, as "extracts from the manuscript Journal of an officer," but without 
giving the author's name. Extracts have also appeared from time to time in the writings of the late 
Thomas Maxwell of Elmira as the Journal of Colonel Gansevoort. In Colonel Stone's Life of Brant, 
1838, Introduction p. xxiii, he says " the anlhor has likewise been favoied with the manuscript diiiry 
of the venerable Captain Theodosius Fowler of this city, who was an active officer during the whole 
-campaign. In addition to the valuable memoranda contained in this diary, Captain Fowler has pre- 
served a drawing of the Order of March * * * and a plan of the great battle 
fought at Newtown^ both of which drawings have been engraved, and will be found in the Appendix," 
In the body of the work he incorporates the text as found in Campbell's Annals, including several 
interpolat'ons from Seaver'e Life of Mary Jemison, which appear in the Annals as quoted^ but in Col- 
onel Stone's work as part of the original Journal. At page 18, Vol. II, appears the '* Order of 
March " and " Order of Battle," the latter having no reference whatever to the battle of Newtown, it 
being nothing more than the general order of battle prescribed at the beginning of the campaign. 
After the death of Colonel Stune the original manuscript fell into the hands of that distfneuished 
scholar, Dr. Lyman C. Draper. Secretary of Wisconsin Hittorical Society, who purchased it at the sale, 
in^ bound volume of manuscripts. In June, 1879. he placed it in my hands for examination and 
directed my attention to the fact, of its unquestionable identity with the many fragments ascribed to* 
Captain Fowler and others. The Journal is substantially u history of the movements of the Second 
regiment from the date of the first entry, to the lime of the consolidation in 1780, when it closes. It 
■contains abundant evidence to warrant the conclusion that it must have been written by an officer of 
that regiment. This appears eSectually to dispose of the claims of the supposed authorship of Cap- 
tain Fowler, as he was made Captain of the First New York. June 21, 1778. and continued in service 
with that regiment until the consolidation in 17S0, when he was assigned to the new New York Second, 
■and continued in that position to the close of the war. It is highly probable that Captain Fowler was 
-on duty with his regiment, which remLiined to guard the Mohawk Valley during Sullivan's campaign. 



214 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

JOURNAL. 

Saturday May ist 1779 

Incamped at Jacobus Browns at Wawassinck. 

2nd & 3rd. Remained at Do. 

Do. 4. Decamped just got on our way when we was alarm'd by an Express from the 
Fontine Kill. Inform'd us the Savages were destroying that part of the Country 
Marched to their assistance and found they had left it and taken to the woods, pursued 
them and less than Half an Hour they firing at us from a high knowl in front of us and 
push'd off. 

5. Returned to Wawassinck and lay that Night at Vemoys Mills. 

Do. 6. Decamped and March'd to Mamecotton and Incampd. 

Do. 7. Decamped this day foard'd the Nawe senck twice and Incamped at Major 
Deckers. 

Do 8 Decamped and Incamp'd at Naumenaugh — 

Do. 9. Decamped in the morning and Incamped in the evening at Deckers Ferrey on 
Deleware. 

Do 10. Remained in our present Incampment. 

Do II. Pass'd the river and Incamped this Evening at .Sundown at Fort Penn. 

Do 12 & 13 Remained at Fort Penn 

Do 14. Decamped filed off to the Right about Gunshot from Fort Penn and Marched 
about five Miles into the Woods. 

Do 15 Detach'd 100 Men to mend the Roads in front Early in the Morning at 8. 
o'clock Decamp'd, March'd to Larns and Incamped in the Fields, this is the Last 
House between this and Wyoming 

Do i6. Camp Remaind at Larns with a small 2nd Guard whilst the Troops Em- 
ploy'd to work the Road in front 

Do 17th Decamped early in the Morning and Removed our Camp to White Oak Run 
about Six miles distant from Larns 

Do 1 8th, 19th, 20th, 2 1st, 22nd. The Camp Remained at White Oake Run (now called 
Rum Budge) — Much Rain during this time — Notwithstanding which worked the Road 
some distance in front. — 

Do 23rd. Decamped al 9 oclock after Marching about 3 miles entered the Great 
Swamp and Incamped between Tunkhannak and Tobyhannah about 6 Miles from 
White Oak Run. 

Do 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 2g. Camp Remained at said Incampte in the mean while the 
Troops employ'd to work the Roads in front. Built a Bridge across the Tobyhannah — 
Great plenty of Trout in these two River 

Do 30 Decamped early in the Morning and with difficulty Reached Locust Hill where 
we Incamped in the Evening — 

Do 31st & June ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th. Remained at Locust hill, in the mean- 
while made the Road in front — 

Do 7 Decamped and March'd to the Edge of the Shades of Death where we in- 
camped — 

Do 8 Marchd and Incamped between Bare Swamp and the Shades 3 miles from last 
Incampment. — 



and consequently could not have participated in the westward march, and if the author of a Journal it 
certainly cannot be the one in question, which, beyond any doubt was written by an officer actively 
"engaged in the main expedition. A careful examimition of the mjuiuscript disclosed the fact that 
unmistakably it is the hand writing of Captain Nukerck, and presnniably his Journal. On bein^ 
advised of this fact Dr. Draper addressed a note to Mrs. Miller, of Eiiglewood, N. J., a pranddauffhter 
of Captain Nukerck, who answered "that she remembered distinctly, that ber father loaned to Mr. 
Campbell the Diary of her grandfather relatint; to Sullivan's Campaign, and that afterwards it was 
loaned to an agent of Colonel Stone who failed to return it." The manuscript is in an excellent state 
of preservation, every word from beginninc; to end being plain and distinct, especially the proper 
names. At the end a single leaf is missmg, which probably contains the order of march and order of 
battle, mentioned by Colonel Stone.— J. S. Clark. 



LIEUT. CHARLES NUKERCK. 215 

Do gth & loth Remain'd at our present Incampment. — 

Do II Incamp'd at Bullocks House 7 miles from Wyoming. NB — No Pasture in 
all this distance but at the perticular places of Incampment I mentn 

Do 12 13 Remained at Bullock's and worked the road a'head — in the Evening formed 
a junction with Colo Butler who with a party had cut the Road thro' from Wyoming thus 
far.— 

Do 14 Decamped early in the Morning and Incariiped at Wyoming on the Banks of 
the Susquehannah River — 

Do 15th, i6th Remaind at Wyoming 

Do 17 — Decamped and Marched to Jacobs Plains up the river about 4 Miles from 
Wyoming and Incamped on the Banks of the river. — 

Do i8th, igth, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th and 
July 1st, znd, 3rd. Remained at Jacobs Plains. 

July 4th Decamped in the Morning P'orded the River in front of our Incampment and 
Incamped at Forty Fort where Genl Poor with the Three New Hampshire Regts had 
taken post a few days before — and to whose Brigade we was then annext. — 

5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, gth, loth, nth, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, l6th, 17th, l8th, iqth, 20th, 
2ist, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th. Remained Incampd and Forty Fort. 

N B Genl Sullivan with the Army arrived June 24th. 

July 27. Decamped in the Morning Marched to Wyoming and Incamped near the 
Town. — 

Do 28th, 29th, 30th. Remained at Do — 

Do 31st. Decamped about, one oclock and proceeded on our way to the Indian Settle- 
ments, The Boats about 150 in Number, under the Command of Colo. Proctor with all the 
Commessary and Quarter Masters Stores & Artilliry proceeded by water up the Susque- 
hannah River. The army Incamped this day at I.eghiwaunuck 10 Miles distant from 
Wyoming. — __ 

August ist Decamped and Incamped at Quilitumack. 

Do 2nd Remained at Do< — 

Do 3rd Incamped at Tulkhanuck 

Do 4th Incampeat at Vanderlips Desolated Farm 

Do 5th Incamped at Wyalusing here lies some fine Land, the property of Pawl- 
ing 

Do 6 & 7 Remained at Wyalusing 

Do 8 Incamped at Standing Stone 

Do 9 Incamped on Sheshecununck Flats about ^ of a Mile wide and Two Miles in 
Length and very Level — Lying on the Bank of the River which groes very small at this 
place Much good Land about this place. — 

Do loth Remained at Sheshecunung Flats. 

Do II Decamped early in the Morning Forded the Susquehannah River 3 Miles 
below Tioga, pass'd over Esters Plains Forded the Tioga Branch and Incamped at Tioga 
in the Forks of the River ^ 

Do 1 2th 8 o'clock at Night Marched for Shemung about 12 miles distant where we 
arrived between Light and Sunrise — The Enemy having Notice of our approach left the 
Town and lay Skulked on the Hills from which they fired and Kill'd 7 of our Men and 
Wounded as many More. — 

Do 13th. In the Morning Sot F'ire to the Town. Employed this Day in destroying 
the Corn & Beans about this place 8 oclock in the Evening Returned to our Camp at 
Tioga. 

Do 14th, 15th, i6th, 17th, i8th, igth, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th Remained at 
Tioga in the meanwhile Built a Fort about one Mile and a Quarter above the Forks 
between the Rivers which is not more than a stones throw apart 

22 Genl Clinton with his Army Form'd a Junction at Tioga — F'rom Tioga upwards — 

August 26th The Army Marched and left Tioga. Marched about 3 Miles and 
Incamped. having lost so many Horsses during our stay at this place as made it difficult 
for us to move off the Ground. — 



216 JOtJRNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Do 27 The Army Incamped within 3 miles of Shemung Near a large Corn Field. 
Clintons Brigade to which our Regt. was the annext bringing np the Rear of the Army. 
Incamped about 5 or 6 Miles in the Rear Near a Narrow defild in front which detained 
the Army from Crossing until sometime in the Night 

Do 28 About one oclock came up with the army at the Cornfield. Marched in one 
Hour after over a Large hill on the Last side of the Tioga Branch to avoid a Narrow 
defile in front thro which no more than one man could go abreast— The Pack Horses, 
Cattle and artillery Crossing the Branch with some Detatch'd Regiments as a covering 
party and Recross'd opposide Shemung where the army Incamped that Night. — 

Shemung is a Beautiful Situated Country lying on the Tioga branch 12 Miles distant 
from Tioga and large quantity of Indian Corn growing here doubtless Intended for a 
Magazine to carry on a war against our Frontiers. — 

Do. 2g Decamped in the Morning, about 10 o'clock, our advanced party fell in with 
the Enemy near Newtown about 5 Miles from Shemung after Skirmishing with them some 
time — Reconnoitering their situation found they had thrown up a Breastwork and seemed 
determined to defend it to the Last — Our Artillery Consisting of Six prs. — Three pound- 
ers and a Cohorn was soon brought to bear and Terribly frighted them from their Works 
— But previous to that Genl Clintons and Poors Brigades filed off to the right and Hands 
light Troops to the left to gain the Enemies Rear where lay a very high hill on which they 
had taken,po=t but they were soon Routed and drove from there with the Loss of 9 Indians 
Killed and left on the ground. The wounded they carried off and have reason to suppose 
they were considerable — Our Loss 3 Killed and 34 Wounded — among the latter Major 
Titcombe, Capt. Clayes of the 2nd NHampshire Regt and Lieut McColley of the ist Do 
Tvho is since Dead of his wounds. In this action took two prisoners, a Wliite man and a 
Negro their accounts nearly agree in the following manner, that Butler and Brant were 
both there and had with them 5oo Indians & 200 Hundred Tories that they had been 
there some time waiting our arrival and subsisted upon corn only. This Night Incamped 
on the Field of action — 

Do 30th Remained on the ground. Large Detachments. sent off this Morning to de- 
•stroy the Corn, Beans &c. about this place, which was not half destroyed — This Evening 
.sent off our Wounded, heavy Artillery, and Waggons in boats down the River to Tioga, 
these Boats brought forward such stores as would not be loaded on- pack Horses — This 
day put on Half allowance 

Do. 31 Decamped at 8 oclock Marched over mountaneous ground until we arrived at 
the I'orks of New Town then Entered on a low Bottom Crossed the Cayuga Branch and 
Incamped on a pine Plain about Ten miles from last Incampment much Land about 
New Town and very good here we left the Tioga Branch to our left. — 

Sept ist Decamped early in the Morning, after marching about 3 Miles entered a 
■swamp 8 or g miles across. Roads very bad and no pasture here Occasioned the army to 
make a kind of a forc'd march and arrived that Night at Dark in Catharines Town, the 
Cattle and most part of the pack Horses together with our Brigade lay that Night in the 
swamp without pack or baggage, from this Town the Enemy seem'd to have made a 
-very precipitate Retreat leaving behind them an old .Squaw. — 

Do. 2d. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon Came up with army at the Town and In- 
•camped. 

Do. 3 Removed the old Squaw out of Town and destroyed it together with the Corn, 
Beans &c — And Decamped at 8 oclock in the Morning after Marching 3 miles fell on 
the East side of Seneca Lake. This Lake runs North and South about 36 Miles in 
l^ength and between 2 & 3 Miles across — at 2. o'clock pass'd Apple Tree Town situated 
on the Banks of the I^ake. This day march'd Eleven Miles over high tho' level ground 
Timbered chiefly with white oak and Incamped in the Woods. — 

Do. 4 Marched Twelve Miles from last Incampment pass'd several Narrow defiles and 
Incamped in the Woods beside the Lake. This day and yesterday pass'd several Corn- 
fields and scattering Houses which we distruyeJ as we pass'd along. The Cayug.a Lake 
runs the same direction with this Lake and is about Ten or Twelve .Miles distant, and 
Land Tolerable good. 



LIEUT. CrtARLES NUKERCK. 217 

Do. 5 Decamped in the morning and about Twelve o'clock arrived at Kandaia a fine 
Town Lying about Half Mile from the Lake, here we lind a great plenty of old Apple 
Trees Evidently appears to be an Old Inhabited Town — Iheir Houses large and Elegant 
some butifully painted theirs Tombs likewise Especially of their Chief Warriors are 
butifuUy painted on Boxes they build over the grave of plank hewn out of Timber. — 

Do. 6— Decamped at Noon and .Marched about three iNliles where we Incamped on 
"the Edge of the Lake. Land Timberd with white and Black Oak Soil very good The 
ground Naturly descending with an easy descent towards the Lake. — 

Do. 7 — This day pass'd the North end or outlet of the Lake which is very Narrow and 
Marched thro' a Narrow defile about one Mile in Length, tho Lake on our left and a 
Morass thro which no one could pass on our Right, arrived at sundown at the north west 
'Corner of the Lake, where we destroyed a Town and some Corn — proceeded on to Can- 
nodaseago, the Capital of the Seneca where we arrived 8 oclock at Night. 

This Town lies on a Level spot of ground about one Mile and a Half north from the 
Lake and Consisted of about 6o Houses and a great p enty of Apple and Teach trees. 
The Enemy in their Retreat from this let a white Child about 4 years old and some Horses 
and Cows, &c. 

Do. 8 — The army employed this Day in destroying the Corn, Beans &c at this place 
■of which there was a great quantity — The Riflemen Detached this Morning to destroy 
Kashanguash about Eight Miles South from this. This Morning, a Capt and abput 50 
men detached with all the sick and Lame and such others a^ Could not proceed with us to 
■Chennesee — To the garrison at Tioga — 

Do 9 Decamped this morning and iNIarched over low ground soil very good, water 
very scarce and Incamped at Evening beside a Brook — this day marched about Nine 
Miles 

Do. 10 — Decamped early in the Morning, about 2 oclock fell in with a small Lake on 
•our left, at the outlet of which lies the Town Kanandague Consisting upwards of Twenty 
Houses which we sot fire to and Incampd Near the Cornfields. 

This town from the appearance of the Buildings seems to have been Inhabited by 
White People, some houses with very Neat Chimney's which the Indians have not. but 
Build a fire in the Centre around which they gather — 

Do nth Decamped this Morning earlier than usual to reach the Next Settlement 
Called Hanneyaye where we arrived in season and Incamped. The' Country from Kan- 
■andasagea excepting this days March is exceedingly Level and the soil very good, this 
Day cross several Mountains between which lies fine Rich Valleys. This Town lies at the 
Head of a small Lake in a fine Rich Valley, Consisting of 13 or 14 good Houses, and 
neatly Built, here we hkewise find great quantity of Corn, Beans &c — 

Do 12 Decamped this morning at Eleven oclock, detain'd on account of a Heavy 
rain that fell this Morning and march 'd over a rough Country, pass'd another small Lake 
Called Konyouyhyough (Narrow gutt), and arrived within two miles of Adjuton and 
Incamped in the woods — The Sick, Lame and others that were unable to March and such 
stores & the sore back pack Horses as we had occation for was left here with a detachment 
under the Command of Capt Cummings who took post in one of the Block Houses. 

Do 13 Decamped this Morning at 5 oclock — March'd to the Town where we was 
•employ'd in destroying the Corn &c untill Noon — from this Lieut Bold of the Rifle Corp 
was detached with fifteen or Twenty men to RAonnoiter the Next Town Seven Miles 
distant. Killd and Skulp'd two Indians in the Town, on his Return found his Retreat 
Cut off and surrounded by 500 or 600 Savages, defended himself untill His men were all 
-cut off But himself and one man and surrenderd whom we afterwards found in the 
Chennesse Castle — Tortured in a most cruel manner proceeded on our way and Incamped 
that Night at Gathesegwarohare, where we found the Enemy paraded before the Town 
•and seemed determined to fight us — Chntons Brigade filed off to the Right to gain the 
Enemies Rear which Could not be effected but they retreated in a very precipitate man- 
:ner — 

28 



218 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

Do 14 This morning; the whole Army paraded at Gun firing which was half past 
Three in the Morning, lay on our Arms untill sunrise expecting an attack from the 
Enemy, at 6 oclock detached large parties to destroy the Corn about this place — at 10 
— the Army pass'd a Branch of the Chennesse River and entered on the Chennesse Flatts- 
— the largest Plains I ever saw. March'd about three miles we forded the Chennesse 
River in which the Currents is very strong, one Hours Rain swells the River as makesi 
it imposible to ford it — This River in a high fresh overflows most part of this Extensive 
plain as appears from several large Trunks of Trees scattered on the same — No tree 
growing to be seen on this Flatt for several Miles— after foarding the River Rais'd a 
Considerable Hill — Timber Chiefly White Oak, entered Another Flatt, on which Stood 
the Capital of the Chennesee Consisting of upwards of 120 Good Houses regulary Build 
and vas quantity of Corn, Beans Pompkins, Potatoes &cScc— Incamped this Evening 
around the Town 

Do — 15 — This Morning the Whole Army paraded at 6 oclock to distroy the Corn &C 
about this place, which could be done no otherwaybut by gathering the Corn in the 
Houses and set fire to them. Here we likewise found a great quantity of Corn gathered 
in Houses by the Savages 

At 3 oclock in the afternoon we Completed the destruction of this place — Recross'd the 
Chennesee River and Incamped on the Flats about Half Mile North of Gathtsegwaro - 
hare — This Morning a White Woman taken prisoner at Wyoming Last ^'ear Came in to. 
us at the Chennesee Castle. 

Do i6th This morning after destroying the Corn &c on the South east Corner of the 
Flatts, Recross'd the Branch of the Chennesee River on Logs. This River is about one 
Dozen paces wide with very high Banks and the Current hardly perceivable at 10 oclock 
pass'd the Town Gathtsegwarohare lying on the Banks of this Branch and Incamped this. 
Night at Adjuton — 

Do 18 Decamped early in the Morning and arrived in good season at Hanne)'aye 
where we Incamped this Night found our stores &c as we left them — 

Do. 18. Decamped and left Hannyaye with great difficulty. The Horses left at this, 
post having stragled so far from the Village as could not be found. Consequently many 
packs would have been left on the ground, had not those officers Intitled to ride, dis- 
mounted of which Genl Sullivan was one — This day met three Aonida Indians with dis- 
patches for Genl Sullivan they Inform'd us the City of New York was laid in ashes and 
Evacuated — Arrived at Kanandaque some time before Night, pass'd the out let of the 
Lake and Incamped about One Mile from the out lett. — This Town lies about '4' of a 
Mile from a small Lake (I suppose of the same Name of the Town) and is about two 
Miles Wide and 5 Miles long — 

Do 19th Decamped this morning early proceeded on our way to Kanandasagea where 
we incamped a little before sunset — 1 

Do 20 Remain'd Incamp'd until 2 oclock when we Decamed and pass'd the out 
let of the Sone;a Lake and IncimpeJ about one Mile and half from the out let. — 
This morning Detached Colo Butler the Rifle Corp and 500 Men to the Cayuga Lake to. 
destroy the Settlements there — Colo (Jansevoart— Detach'd at the same time with 100 
Men to F'ort Schuyler — 

Do 21 Decamped in the morning, pass'd Kandaia and Incamped about Two Miles, 
above — This Morning Detached L Colo Dearborn with 200 Men to destroy the Corn and 
Settlements along the .South side of Cayuga Lake — 

Do 22 Decamped early in the Morning, pass'd several defiles and Incamped within 7 
Miles of Catherines Town. 

Do 23 Decamped and marched about 4 Miles South East of Catherines — Town at the 
Edge of the swamp & Incamp'd 

Do 24th This morning pass'd the swamp so much dreaded for its badness without 
any difficulty ; and arrived at the Forks of New Town, where Capt Heed with a detach- 
ment of 200 Men had thrown up a Breast Work lo Guard so-ne stores and Cattle brought 
forward from Tioga for the army in Case of Necessity — Saluted by thirteen Rounds of" 



LIEUT. CHARLES NUKERCK. 219 

Cannon from the Breast Work on our arrival — which Number was Returned from our 
Artillery — 

N. B. The Cayuga Branch comesing into the Tioga forms this fork 
Do 25th This Morning the small arms of the whole Army were discharged. — At 5 
oclock the whole were drawn up in one line, with a Field piece on the Right of each 
Brigade to fire a FeuDeJoy. First 13 Rounds of Cannon Secondly a Running fire of 
Musquetry from Right to Left which was repeated twice 5 Oxen Killed on this Joyous 
Occasion— one deliverd to each Brigade and one to the Artillery and Staff— This was 
done in Consequence of Spains declaring War against Great Britain — 

Do 26 This day L. Colo. Dearborn with his Detachment arrived with two Squaws 
Remain'd Incamped waiting Colo Butler Arrival — 
Do 27 Camp Remained at New Town — 

Do 28 Colo Butler with h's Detachment arrived having destroyed a vast quantity of 
Corn Beans Apple trees, &c, on the East side of Cayuga Lake, and burt Three Towns 
among which was the Capital of the Cayuga 't'ribe 

This day sent off all the sore back Horses, and all the sick and Lame among us to the 
Garrison at Tioga — Colonels Cortlandt and Dayton Detach'd with large Detachments to 
destroy Corn. The former taking his Rout up the Tioga Branch, to which place he was 
detachd the day before and destroyed large P'ields of Corn. And the latter taking his 
Rout downwards and distroy'd such as the Army left undestroy'd going up — 

Do 29th Decamped this Morning at 8 oclock pass'd the Cayuga Branch and Incamped 
at Old Shemung 3 Miles below New .Shemung This Day forded the Tioga twice. 

Do — 30 — Decamped this Morning 8 oclock. Arrived at Fort Sullivan about one oclock. 
Saluted from the Fort by 13 Cannon which Number was Returned from our Artillery 
after which we pass'd the Fort and Incamped on our Old Ground in the Fork of the 
Rivers — 

October ist, 2d, 3d. Remaind at Tioga — 3. Demolished Fort Sullivan 
Do 4 Decamped, at 6 oclock and left Tioga foarded that Branch at the Forks, and 
pass'd over Ester's Plains from thence Two Miles below foarded the Susquehannah when 
we enterd on the Sheshecununck Flatts, after which we filed off to the Left and Crossed 
the Mountains, left the River some distance to the Right — pass'd a very Narrow defile 
about ^ of a Mile in Length, this defile is a narrow Indian foot path on the side of a 
very high Mountain, at the Foot of which is the River, 3 Bullox and one pack Horse 
Tumbled down this steep precipice into the River and were killed ,In this Days march 
Timber chiefly oak Incamped at Weshauking Kreek, 15 Miles from Tioga — 

Do. 5 This Morning the whole Army Embarked on Board the boats, except a smalt 

detachment on Horse back going down by Land — pass'd several Rapids — and Incamped 

Two Miles above Vanderlips Desolate Farm where the Signals were given for Landing — 

Do 6 Embarked early in the Morning — pass'd Several Rifts and good Land and in the 

Evening Incamped at Leghewannunck 10 Miles from Wyoming — 

Do 7 Decamped early in the Morning and Embarked — pass'd a small Falls 2 Mile 
from Wyoming the only on2 between this and Tioga— Arrived at Wyoming at 10 oclock 
Saluted by Cannon from the Fort Incamped in front of the Town about Half a Mile 
from the River — 

This Expedition from our First seting off, from Wyoming until we Returned was per^ 
formed in 69 Days 

Distance from East town to the Chennesee Castle — 

Miles. 

From Eastown to Wyoming is 65-65 

To Leghewannunck 10-75 

To Quilitumack 7 82 

To Tunkhannah Creek 1 1 93 

To Messhauping Creek 9-102 

To Vanderlips plantation 5-107 

To Wyalusing 8-1 15 



:220 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

To Whissanking Creek ..I4j^-I2gj^ 

To Tioga, 15K-145 

To Sheraung, 12-157 

To The Fork of Newtown, 8>^-i65j^ 

To French Catherines Town, 18-183 >^ 

To Kandaia 27^^-211 

To Out let of Seneca I^ake, ii^-222j^ 

To Kanandasagea, 3 yi-22b 

To Kanandague, I5K~24I J^ 

To Hanneyaye 13K ^55 

To Adjutoh, 12^ 267^ 

To Gothtsegwarohare T]/i 275 

To Chennesee Castle 5J^ 28oJ^ 

Surveyed by Mr. Lodge — 

[Here is a rough sketch "View of TiogS," showing the position of Fort SuUivan and 
"the encampment of the Army]. 

October 8th & gth Remained at Wyoming — 

Do loth Decamped and left Wyoming about Noon not without much difficult)' — a few 
Waggons going in front of the Army detain'd us and arrived at BuUox House some time 
■in the Evening where we Incamped — this day marched Seven Miles — 

Do II Decamped and left BuUox's House about 7 oclock in the Morning pass'd the 
Bare swamp and Shadows of Death and Incamped on the Edge of the great swamp. — 
This Day march'd 11 Miles 

Do I2th Decamped and Entered the great swamp pass'd the Lehi, Tobehannah and 
Tunkhannah — the Roads very bad and Incamped at Rum Bridge — this day marched 14 
miles — ■ 

Do 13 — Decamped artd marched to Learns where we Refreshd proceeded on to Brink- 
■ers Mills alias SuUivans Stores where we Incamped — This Day March'd 14 Mils — 

Do 14 Decamped in the Morning, and in the Evening Incamped at Hillers Tavern — 
7 Miles distant from last Encampment 

Do. 15 — Decamped this Morning at ^ past 6 oclock and Arrived at Eastown about i 
■oclock — This Day march'd 12 Miles 

Do i6th, 17th, 18th, 19th, Remained Incamped at Eastown along the Delaware. — 
Do 20 Decamped and Cross'd the Delaware and Incamped 4 Miles from Eastown in 
the Woods — 
Do 2ist, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, Remain'd at Do — 

Do 27th. Decamped and left Eastown and Incamped at Oxford — 12 Miles from last 
Camp 

Do 28 Decamped in the Morning and Incamped in the Evening at Log Goal this day 
12 oclock pass'd thro Moravian Town where we Refreshed — 
Do — 2g — Incamped at Sussex Court House — 
Do. 30 — Incamped at Walleus Tavern — 
Do 31st Incamped at Warwick 
November ist Incamped at Sterling Iron Works 
Do 2 Incamped at Ramepough near Suffrans Tavern 

Do 3d, 4th, 5th, & 6th, Remain'd at Do « 

Do 7. Marched and Incamped at Pumpton Plains — • 

Do 8th, gth, loth, nth, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th. i6th, 17th, iSth, igth, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 
■23rd — 24th Remained at Pompton 

25th Decamped in the Morning and Incamped in the Evening at Rockaway Bridge 
Here we Remained Incamped until the 5th December when we decamped and March'd 
ito the Ground destined for our Winter quarters about two miles Nearly West from Morris 
Town and Incamped on the Snow 
Do 6th remained at Do — 



LIEUT. CHARLES NUKERCK. 221 

Do 7 Began to build Hutts and by the Severity of tiie weather was prohibited from- 
finishing the same until Spring when — 

May 31st 1780 March'd from Morris Town for Albany & in the Evening Incamped at 
Pompton Church, the 3rd, 4th & 5th, — Regts March'd the day before 2nd Right 
detained on account of Waggons — 

June ist Decamped and in the Evening Incamped at Ramepough 
June 2d Decamped in the Morning and in the Evening Incamped at Kings Ferry- 
where we found the other Regts of our Brigade Embarking on Board the Sloops 

June 3rd the 2nd Regt Embarked and Came too a little above Peeks Kills that night 
with the next tide up as far as West Point where we found ourselves in the morning by 
Day Light — 

June 4th In the Evening Anchord at New Burgh with the Evening Tide got up as far 
as W'appings Kreek where we lay until the next morning 

June 5th Hoisted Anchor and in the Evening Anchored at Esopus Vley 
June 6th Head Wind the Sloop Remained at the Vley until Evening when a fresh 
Gale of Southerly Wind carried us June 7th in the Evening to Albany Dock. Remaind 
this night on Board Sloop 

June 8th Debarkd and Incamped above the City at the Patrons 
June gth Remained in Camp 

Do loth Marched for Fort Edward and in the Evening Incamped at Half Moon The - 
3rd Regt as-an Escort March'd to Fort Schuyler the 4th to — Canojoharry The 5th to (I 
believe) Schoharry 
June nth Decamped and in the Evening Incamped at Bemesas 
June 12th In the Evening Incamped at Fort Miller 
June 13th Arrived at Fort Edward — 

June 14 6 oclock in the afternoon left Fort Edward and march'd for West Point In. 
the Evening Incamped at Fort Miller 

June 15th In the Evening Incamped at Still Water 

June i6th about 5 oclock arrived in Albany and Embarked on Board Sloops 
June 17 Head Wind Remained at Albany 

June i8th Being Sunday we sot Sail from Albany about 2 oclock p. m. and 
June 19th by sun rise arrived at West Point. Debark'd about noon and Incamped 
above the Red House — Here we Remained until the 21 July when I was sent with two. 
men to Saratoga after Deserters — 

Aug I2th Returned to the Regt which I then found at Tappan in the Jerseys where 
we lay untill 

Aug 23rd When the A'rmy March'd to Tenack v/here we Remained untill 
Sept 4th when we marchd to Stone Arabia near Hackkensack — Here we Remained 
until the 

Sept 20th When we Incamped on our Ground at Tappan. During our Stay at this 
Place the Villanous Conduct of Genl Arnold was discoverd and Major Andree Executed 
Oct 8th our Division marchd for West Point and Incampd that night at Haverstraw 
Oct 9 Incamped at Fort Montgomery, the Bagage from Kings Ferry going by water 
October loth Incamped On West Point Here we Remained until the 15, when we 
Reed. Orders to hold ourselves in Readiness to march for albany 

October the i6th In the Evening the 3rd Regt Embarked and Sot sail 
Oct 17th the ist Regt arrived and Joind the Brigade 
Oct 18 they debark'd & the 4th Regt Embark'd for Fort Schuyler 
Oct 19th Remained In camp 

Do 20 The 1st & 5th Regts March'd to their ground for Hutting In rear of No 3 , 
about lyi Miles from the Point The 2nd Regt marching 
October 21 to the same Place 

Oct 22d Began to Build Hutts. Here we Remained untill some time In Nov. when 
the 1st & 5th Regts Embark'd for Albany and Returned in Six Days Incamped on their- 



222 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

old ground Prosecuting the Building of their Hutts Here we Remained in great Sus- 
pense expecting to march to Albany having our Hutts nearly finished, and 

Deck ^th Embarked for Albany (the r, 2, & 5 Regts) and proceeded on our way as far 
as Kinderhook where the large Bodies of Ice Oblidg'd us to Land and from hence pro- 
' ceeded by Land to Albany where we arrived Deer loth and early Deer nth Marched for 
Schenectady where we arrived In the Evening — 



Note.— The journal thus ends abruptly, the next following leaf of the manuscript being missing. 
A few letters remain written in sanis hand and with same ink as the Journal, supposed to have 
been the Order of March and Order of Battle, found in Vol, II, Stone's Life of Brant and mentioned 
in the introduction. 

On the cover are found many names, mostly belonging to Col. Van Cortlandts Reg. 




Flic Simiie of the signature of Lieut. Charles Nukerck as found in the release of Lot 29 Virgil to James 
Fairlie. Oct. 27th, 1791, from the original in Cayuga County Clerk's Office. — J. S. C 



JOURNAL OF MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 



James Nokris, Captain in the Tliird New Ilampshii-e Eegimcnt, and 
afterwards ^fajor. Original rnanii.saript iu tlie archives of the Buffalo 
Historical Society, N. Y. I^iblished in July, 1879, Vol. I, No. 7, of the 
j)ublications of that society, hy Bigelow Brothers, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The following has been carefully revised and corrected by George 
Gr. Barnnm, Esq., Corresponding Secretary, in accordance with a resolu- 
tion of the Board of Councilors of the Buffalo Historical Society, which, 
Ij}^ ii resolution unanimously adopted, authorized the .use of the "Norris 
Journal" in the present publication, together with any other documeni 
in its archives. 

An imperfect copy of this journal, with several omissions and many 
important errors, said to have been foand among Gren. Sullivan's papers 
•after his death, was j.)rinted in FliWs New Ham-pshire Patriot, at Ports- 
mouth, September 16, 1843. 

JOURNAL. 

(.Title Page) 

Capt. James Norris 

His Book 

Tioga August ye i8 1779 



(Fly leaf) 

A JOURN'AL 
OF THE 

West Expedition 

commanded by 

'1'he Hon.bi.e Major General Suu.ivax 

BEGUN AT 

Easton June 18, 1779. 

■^779 

June 18 Friday Morning June 18 1779. The N Jersey and N Hampshire Brigades 
with Procters Regt of Artillery, under the command of Major General Sullivan, began to 
march from Easton on an Expedition to the Western frontiers against the Savages 



224 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

About 12 o Clock the Troops halted for the day, at Hilliers Tavern 12 Miles from 
Easton — 

19 Marched al 4 o Clock this Morning, & advanced as far as Brinkers Mills 7 Miles, 
where the Army halted to draw provissions & Refresh themselves, we came through a 
narrow pass of the blue mountain, calld the Wind-gap, a passage apparently designed by 
Nature tor a Communication ; and according to the description given by Cornelius Nepos. 
pretty much resembles the Straits of Thermopylae where 300 Greeks under Leonidas 
checked the progress of 800,000 Persians commanded by Xerxes — After having taken rest 
and refreshment, the troops marchd g Miles farther to Learns's Tavern near Pogono 
point and encampd, at this place a rattle snake was killd having 7 Rattles on his tail, 
and a full grown bird in his Stomach, which would seem to confirJIi the Notion of Snakes 
having the power of facinating or charming their prey — The Land thro this days march is 
mountainous, rocky, barren, lV uninhabitable ; but well waterd and the Streams abound- 
ing with Trouts — 

20 Marched at 8 oClock &'enterd an exstensive Forrest, calld the great Swamp into 
which we advanced 5 Miles, & encamped on a small brook ; the Genl gave this the name 
of Chowder Camp — The House we left this morning is the last of the Inhabitants 'till we 
reach Wyoming. 

21 This days march of 21 Miles was as Severe as it was unnecessary, through a 
Wilderness, where there had been only an Indian path, till the Troops cut a road this 
spring for the passage of SuUivans Army — the fatigues of this Day might have been 
prevented by a longer march yesterday : but after crossing two Considerable Streams 
calld the Tobehanah & Tanckhannanck, there is no proper ground for an Encampment 
till we get through the- Swamp After we had crossd the Creek, we come to the Lehi, the 
Western branch of the Delaware, & having passed this we enter a gloomy grove of Cy- 
press, Hemlock, Pine, Spruce &c calld the Shades of t)eath. the growth of Timber in 
this swamp is amazing — 

22 We moved but 5 Miles to a desolate Farm, the property of one Bullock, who had 
been driven of with his Familey by the Savages — here we found large meadows & plenty 
of grass for our horses — 

[ " '23 Our next place of halting is Wyoming, distant 7 Miles, about 4 Miles from this 
Town we saw two Monuments set up by the way side in memory of Capt. Davis & ^Lieut 
Jones of nth. Pensylvania Kegt. with the following Inscriptions. " The place where 
Capt. Davis was murdered by the Savages April 23d 1779 & " The blood of Lt Jones — 
About 12 oClock we entered the Town of Wyoming, which exhibits a melancholy scene 
of desolation, in ruin'd Houses, wasted fields & Fatherless Children & Widows. These 
unhappy people after living in continual alarms, & disputing for many Years their posses- 
sions with the Pennsylvanians, at length were attacked by a merciless band of savages, 
led on by a more savage Tory, the Unnatural monster Butler : their Houses were plun- 
derd and burnt, their cattle and effects conveyd away after they had capitulated ; and 
the poor helpless Women childeren obliged to Sculk in the Mountains and perish or 
travel down to the Inhabitants, hungry, naked & unsupported, in a word Language is to 
weak to paint, & Humanity unable to bear the history of their Sufferings — The Refugees 
who joind the Indians to cut off this settlement, are said to have given proofs of more 
wanton and unnatural Barbarity than even the Savages themselves — The following is a 
deeper Tragedy than has been acted since the Days of Cain. A Young man by the Name 
of Henry Pensil, who had escaped the Fate of most of his Countrymen, & in the Even- 
ing after the batt.'e had taken reluge on a small Island in the River, was discovered by a 
Tory who fiercely accosted him with the Appellation of a Damnd Rebel ; the poor fellow 
being unarmed began to implore his pity, fell down upon his knees and entreated him not 
to stain his hands with his Brothers blood, " John, I am your brother, spare my Life and 
I will serve you : " I know you are my Brother replied the Villian ; but you are a darand 
Rebel, Henry, and we are of opposite sides and Sentiments in the mean time was load- 
ing his gvn with great coolness, which after the most moving appeal to his humanity & 
Justice, with all deliberation he leveled at his breast and shot him ! then Tomahawked, & 



MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 225 

scalpd him ! anotheryoung man who lay concealed in the bushes a little way off, & after- 
wards made his Escape, heard all that passed, and saw the Murderer, who stood up upon: 
a log while he loaded his Gun, and knew him to be the Brother of his unfortunate com- 
panion : He also adds that the Savages came up soon after he he'd finished the bloody 
deed : and cursed his cruelty in the bitterness of their hearts & said they had a great 
mind to put him to death the same way — 

24 This Evening one of the Gentries fired upon a Savage, who had crept up within 2 
or 3 Rods of him in order to take him by Supprise but the fellow made his escape — 

25 & 26 Nothing happened worthy Notice 

27 The 2d & 3d N Hampshire Regts were ordered to move off their ground and pitchi 
upon the plains af Abraham, 3 Miles higher up on the Western bank of the Susquehanna, 
in order to be more convenient to Gilleys and Gourtlandts Regts. who composed part of 
Poors Brigade ; and had been lying some time on Jacobs plains — The place of our Gamp 
near an old Stockade fort, built by the Inhabitants and call'd Forty Fort from 40 Persons, 
to whom the grant of the Wyoming lands was made by the Government of Gonnecticut — 

28 Genl Sullivan reed a Letter from Genl Clinton, dated Schoharra, advising that he 
was furnished with 3 Months Provissions, 1700 effective men with him present, & 300 
moire at another post ready to join him, & was waiting his Commands. — Same Letter adds 
that he had taken & hanged a British Officer, a Spy, who was going from Butlers Army 
to N York — by the Same Express we learn from Genl. Clinton that the Oneida tribe of 
Indians had reed a Letter from Genl. Haldiman, Governor of Quebec, charging themi 
with a breach of faith, & breathing out threatenings against them, if they did not declare 
in favor of Britain — 

30th Cilleys & Gourtlandts Regts were musterd — 

July 1st. Michael Rosebury & Lawrence Miller, inhabitants of Sussex county of N 
Jersey being convicted by court Martial, held at East Town 3d June Genl Maxwell presi- 
dent, for enticeing Soldiers of the American Army to desert cS: sentenced to suffer death, 
were brought on with the Provost & this day led forth to the place of Execution where 
the former was hanged and the latter reprieved — 

2d Rode out this Morning with Genl Poor & Lieut Col Dearborn about 4 Miles from' 
Gamp to view the ground where the battle was fought between the Savages and the peo- 
ple of Wyoming under Col Butler, we saw a Stockade fort with a covert Way to a fount- 
ain which our guide told us was built for a shew by some of the disaffected Inhabitants. 
& given up to the Enemy immediately upon their Approach, we examined the Trees 
where the line of Battle was formd ; but found very few marks of an Obstinate Engage- 
ment : it appears indeed that the Enemy were superior in numbers to the Militia and soon, 
after the Commencement of the Action turned their left flank, this brought on a retreat,, 
in which the Savages massacred upwards of 200 Men — We saw more or less of bones, 
scattered over the ground for near two miles, & several Sculls brought in at different times,, 
that had been Scalped and inhumanly mangled with the Hatchet A Capts Gommissioa 
with 17 Continental Dollars was found in the pocket of the Skeleton of a man, who had 
laid above ground 12 months - Our guide shewed us where 73 Bodies had been buried in 
one hole this place may with propriety be called Golgotha — All the Houses along this 
River have been burnt ; and the Gardens and Fields the most fertile I ever beheld, grown 
over with weeds and Bushes, exhibit a melancholy picture of savage rage and Desolation. 

3d. Anniversary of the battle & Destruction of the Settlement of Wyoming — 

4 Anniversary of American Independence declared by Congress July 4 1776 at Phila- 
delphia : this Day being Sunday the Celebration was defferred till next day, when Brigadr 
Genl Poor gave an Entertainment to the Officers of his Brigade 87 of whom were pres- 
ent — 

After Dinner the following 13 Patriotic Toasts were drank — 

1 July 4th. 1776 The memorable .'Erra of American Independence 

2 United .States 

3 The grand Council of America 

29 



226 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

4 Genl Washington and the Army 

5 Genl Lincoln & the Southern Army 
•6 Genl Sullivan & Western Expedition 
7 King & Queen of France 

■8 May the Counsellors of America be wise and her Soldiers invincible 

9 A Successful & decisive Campaign 

10 Civilization or death to all American Savages 

11 The Immortal memory of those Heroes that have fallen in the defence of Ameri- 
can Liberty 

12 May the new World be the last Asylum for Freedom and the Arts 

13 May the husbandmans ('ottage be blest with peace and his fields with plenty — 
The whole of the entertainment seemd to be conducted with such joy and festivity, as 

^demonstrated an independent elevation of Spirit on this important and interesting Occa- 
sion — 

5th. Advices from Juniatta, the West branch of the Susquehanna, that a party of 
Indians had set upon and Scalpd 9 of the Inhabitants 

6 Pearly this morning one Winslow, a Soldier belonging to the 3d N Hamp Regt. 
went to bathe and was drown'd — About 8 oClock an uncommon black & heavy cloud 
arose in the East with uncommon distinct claps of Thunder like the report of a Cannon 
followed by a severe showr of rain & hail some of the hailstones were as large as hens 
Eggs — 

7. 8. g. No News — 

10 A Detachment of 150 Men from i & zd N Hampshire Regimts was sent towards 
Easton to Escort some Stores and Repair the roads 

11 Our officers reed their commissions from Congress on the new Arrangement — ■ 

12 Three Companies of the German Regt. deserted 

13 We reed a Vi.sit from Col Butler and his Lady & )^ doz Young Ladys from Wyom- 
ing "with whom we pass an agreeable afternoon : Col Butler shewd us a death Mall, or 
war Mallet that the Indians left by a Man that they had knocked on the head : the handle 
resembles that of a hatchet, with a string drawn thro near the end to hold it by — It is 
made of the Root of a Tree with a large ball worked on the head of it, & looks not much 
unlike a four pound Shott in the Bill of an Eagle, with a tuft of feathers on the Crown : 
the end of the handle shows the face of a Wild-Cat — 

15 We learn from the Eastward that the main body of the British Army have retired 
from Kings ferry on Hudsons River, leaving 6 Regts to keep that post — 

16 Rode out with Genls Sullivan Maxwell & Poor & several other Gentlemen to View 
the ground where the two Butlers fought 

17 By advices from Connecticut, the Enemy have made an incursion into that State, and 
burned Fairfield and plundered New Haven — 

18 Nothing remarkable 

19 '■ 

20 

21 We reed a Letter from Major Gibbs of his Excellencys Guard advising that in the 
night of the 15 Inst. B. Genl. Wayne with the Light Infantry had Supprized and taken 
the Fort at Stony point near Kings ferry on Hudson's River, by which important Enter- 
prize upwards of 500 British & new Levies with all their Cannon, War like Stores and 
Baggage fell into our hands — 

22d 

23 Made an excursion to Lachawanunch about 8 Miles on a party of pleasure with 
Lieut Col Dearborn, Capt, Fogg & Revd Mr Evans, staid out all night and returned next 
day a Guard of 20 men from Poors Brigade was sent up to this place to protect some of 
the Inhabitants till they mowed their grass and reaped their grain that grew spontane- 
ously from last years crop ungathered wherever we rode the same sad Scene of Ruin 
and desolation appeared — 

24 Genl Hand arrived at Wyoming from Sunsbury with 70 boats laden with provis- 
sionsfor our Expedition — 



MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 227 

25 Five Soldiers belonging to the German Regt were sentenced by Court Martial to be 
shot for desertion — 

26 The five deserters sentenced to suffer death Yesterday were reprieved 

27 Genl Poors Brigade raarchd from Forty fort to Wyoming in order to be convenient 
to fall in with the line of march — 

28 Nothing remarkable — 

2g Reed Orders to march towards Tioga next day Genl Sullivan reed a Letter from 
Northumberland — 

30 Copy of the Letter 

The Enemy yesterday made themselves masters of Freelands fort on the West branch 
of Susqufehanna upon terms of Capitulation Viz. The men to remain prisoners of War ; 
the whole Garrison to be plundered by the Indians ; the Women to go free — the number 
of the Enemy appearing before the fort about 250, one third British, the residue were 
Savages, togather with a Corps de Reserve of 100 More at some distance ; the whole 
under the command of Capt McDonald, we have now at Northumberland about 150 to 
oppose the Enemy & protect the Women & Chilarep, whom it is impossible to get off — 
We expect to be attacked every hour as we are the most frontier garrison & fear without 
some speedy Assistance, must fall a prey to Savage Tyrants — The Enemy have collected 
all the Cattle & every thing Valuable as they came on — We beg leave to give it as our 
opinion that a party of men thrown across the Country will retake the plunder and every 
thing else 

Wm. Cooke D Q M. G— 

N. B. The number killd in Action were Capt. Hawkins Boon & 40 men, after the 
Capitulation, who were on a Scout and had not heard of the Surrender of the Garrison — 

The Accts. we reed from the Delaware at Minisings on the 29th are more favorable than 
at first Represented — The Tories & Savages made a descent upon that Settlement & hav- 
ing'burned several Houses, Barns &C. were attackd by a Regt. of Militia who repulsed & 
pursued them a considerable distance — Forty men were killd on our side the Colo & 
Major included — The Enemy's loss unknown We hear Genl Clinton with the main Body 
of the British Army is moving up Hudsons river 

The Army Under Genl Sullivan reed orders to march to-morrow Morning 

31 After a great deal of trouble in fitting and loading the boats & in fixing the Pack 
Horses for the march, we moved from Wyoming at I oClock, in the following order 

Genl Hands Brigade a mile in front to act as light Troops Genl Maxwells & Poors, 
then the Pack Horses about 1200 in Number, followed by about 500 head of Cattle One 
Regt for rear Guard — 200 men as a flank Guard on the Right & 60 men on our left by the 
River — 

Col. Procters Regt of Artillery go by Water with about 120 Boats with provissions and 
Stores — a Capt & 60 men march on the opposite side of the River to Scour the Shore & 
prevent Ambuscades being formd— we marchd about 10 Miles and encampd near a Stream 
calld Lachawanunck which falls into the Susquehanna at this place — The land her e is 
level and exceeding fertile, but now desolated and the houses burnt by the Savages ; the 
Inhabitants having shared the fate of their Neighbors at Wyoming — 

We have had a remarkably wet Season for a Fortnight past which still continues — 

August 1st Sunday 

We lay still this morniilg waiting for fair Weather & the Arrival of our boats — After- 
noon 4 oClock we Struck Tents (the Weather being favorable & boats arriving) & marchd 
to Quilutimack 7 Miles the difficulty of the Way along the foot of the Mountain that jut- 
ted down upon the River, gave inconceivable Erabaressments to the Troops as well as to 
the pack horses & Cattle, so that the former did not arrive at the place of Encampment 
before 9 oClock nor the latter with the Rear guard till next Morning — About 3 Miles from 
Quilutimack is a romantic fall of Water down a Precipice in the Cliff of a Rock 70 feet 
high — In this Days march we passd over a large tract of good land — 

2d The ArmJ' lay Still on this ground to rest and recruit the pack horses & collect the 
Keggs of flowr. Ammunition and other baggage that was left behind from the perplexity 



228 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

of the Way and darkness of the Night — ^The morning shewd us that the ground we- 
encampd on had been inhabited and tilled, tho now over run with Grass and Thistles of a. 
mighty growth — a wild enormous mountain lay close on our front & the River in our Rear — 
We drew the Seine at this place and caught a number of fish consisting chiefly of Rock,. 
Pike, I Garr, Chubbs & Suckers — next Morning at 7 oClock — 

3d We proceeded 12 Miles farther, over a much better Country than we expected 
and encampd in an old Field, near the Mouth of a Small river that falls here into the: 
Susquehanna calld Tunkhannuck — Nothing remarkable happened thro this days march 
— the Deer seemd to be plenty on this ground — a large Fawn that lay Sulking in the 
Bushes alarmd with the noise of the Troops attempted to make his escape, but being- 
intirely surrounded was taken without a wound — Affording great amusement to the Sol- 
diers & an agreeable Viand to several of the Officers — 

4 The General beat and we struck Tents at 6 oCIock this Morning and marchd 13. 
Miles by Actual Survey — we passd several places that were once the habitations of re- 
tirement and domestic peace — but now the solitary haunts of Savages. The last stood 
near a small rapid river calld Meshopping ; we encamped 2 or 3 miles beyond this Stream 
on a desolate Farm, the property of one Vandelip who had joind the Savages and goner 
off — This day several large Rattle Snakes were killd — our little Fleet foundgreat difficulty 
& Embarassment from the Shoals & Rapids, so that they did not come up with the Army- 
till 10 the next day — Immediately upon their Arrival the Troops were put in motion — The 
land we passd over this day is fine to admiration & the growth of Walnut the Stateliest I 
ever saw — 

5 Our next place of Encampment is Wyalusing, distant 10 miles the Ground rocky 
and Mountainous, particularly one tremendous ridge, over which our right Flank was. 
Obliged to pass, that seemd to over look the World & threaten Annihilation to our 
prostrate Troops — After leaving this place the Scene opened into a fine, clear, extensive 
piece of Wood land ; here the Genl apprehending an attack the Signal was beaten for the- 
Army to close Column this order of march was observed till we left this forrest and gaind 
the Summit of a verry lofty Mountain ; when another Signal was given for marching in 
files — From the Top of this height we had a grand prospective view of our Little Fleet 
coming up the River at about 3 Miles distance — The green hills as far as the eye could 
reach rising like the seats of an Amphitheatre and the distance of the prospect gave the 
River and the boats the beautiful Resemblance of Miniature painting — After marching 
abt. 2 Miles we descended into the low grounds of Wyalusing where every one was 
amazed at the luxuriant growth of Timber chiefly Sycamore — few of the Trees being less, 
then 6 feet in Diametre and to close this days march the more agreeably after passing 
half a mile of a piny barren, the plains of Wyalusing opened to our sight coverd with 
english grass, the greenest and Richest carpet that Nature ever Spread — There was once 
an Indian Town at this place consisting of about 80 houses, or hutts built in two parallel 
right lines forming a Street of 60 or 70 feet wide ; with a- church or Chapel in the Centre 
the plan of the Town is still to be seen from the old Ruins that Remain on the ground — 
The Natives it seems had actually embraced the Christian Religion which was taught 
them by a Moravian Missionary from Bethlehem for that purpose in the Year 1770 the 
Connecticut Company having purchased the lands on this River, the Indians retired far- 
ther Westward, and left this place in the possession of a few Americans, who have joind 
the Enemy since the commencement of this War — notwithstanding the Settlement has. 
been over run by the Savages and the Town burnt — The Susquehanna at this place- 
makes nearly a right Angle, and forms a point on which the Town stood, and where Genl 
Sullivans Army lay two Days encamped — 

8th. Sunday Morning 7 oClock moved on towards Tioga, and Encamped on a piece of 
low ground by the River, where there has been a Settlement & 4 families dwelt in the 
Year 1775 — this place is calld Standim; Stone Bottom — Capt Spalding who commands the 
Independent company in Genl Hands light Troops, lived at this place — distance 10 
Miles — 
g Marched at 6 this morning & halted to breath near a cold stream calld Wesawking 



MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 229 

— about 3J^ Miles from last encampmen — Then pursued our rout without rest or refresh- 
ment 12 Miles farther the Weather hot and men much fatigued, this brings us to Sheshu- 
Ironuck bottom a large meadow of near 150 Acres lying on the Susquehanna, covered with 
a vast burthen of wild grass — we rgsted here this Evening and next day and Wednesday 
Morning — 

II The Army reed orders to march to Tioga, about two Miles from Sheshekonunck 
plain the troop forded the river where the Stream was rapid and pretty deep, notwithstand- 
ing the men all came safe over, except one who was carried down the Currfent a consider- 
able distance, and saved by Lieut Col Barber Adjt Genl at the hazzard of ' his own Life — 
The Cattle and pack Horses were as fortunate as the Troops — After advancing about 
■one mile through a rich bottom covered with strong and stately Timber which shut out 
the Sun, & shed a cool agreeable twilight ; we unexpectedly were introduced into a Plain 
as large as that of Sheshekonunck, call'd Queen Easter's Plantation — it was on this plain 
near the bank of the Susquehanna that Easter Queen of the Seneca Tribe, dwelt in Re- 
tirement and Sullen majesty, detached from all the Subjects of her Nation — The ruins of 
her Palace are still to be seen ; surrounded with fruit Trees of various kinds — At the East 
•end of the plain, the Tioga I'viver forms a junction with the Susquehanna — At this place 
the Army forded & encamped about half a mile above on the Susquehanna — We now find 
•ourselves happily arrived at Tioga, with our Army & Fleet, our Troops generally in 
health and spirits , and fewer accidents happening on the march than could be expected 
in the same distance, thro a Mountainous, wild, uncultivated Country — It appears by 
the Number of hides lying" on the ground that the Indians have lately had an Encamp- 
. ment at this place By the place of burial seen here, one would be led to think this was 
once an Indian Town, but there are no Vestiges of Hutts or Wiggwoms — Whether 
through principle of Avarice or Curiosity, our Soldiers dug up several of their graves and 
found a good many laughable relicts, as a pipe, Tomahawk & Beads &c — 

I2th The Genl gave orders for a fort and four Block houses to be built at this place 
for the Security of the Fleet and Stores which are to be left here under a pretty strong 
Garrison, after the Army jnoves into the Indian Country — and this movement will take 
place as soon as Genl Clinton, who is coming down the Susquehanna, joins us with his 
Brigade — This afternoon Intelligence came by a small scout sent out yesterday, that the 
Enemy at Chemoung, an Indian Town 15 Miles distant up the Cayuga branch, were 
about moving off upon hearing of our Arrival at Tioga — in consequence of which the 
main body of our Army marched at 8 oClock this Evening in order to be ready by Day 
break for surprising Chemoung ; our march was attended with difficulty & fatigue, having 
a thick Swamp and several dangerous defiles to pass, — We arrived however between 
dawning & Sun rise, but to our no small mortification found the Town abandon'd & two 
or three Indians only to be seen sculking away — According to the accounts of those who 
pretend to be acquainted with Indian Citys, this seems to have been a pretty Capital place 
— It consisted of about 40 Houses built chiefly with split and hewn Timber, covered with 
bark and some other rough materials, without Chimnies, or floors, there were two larger 
houses which from some extraordinary rude Decorations, we took to be public Buildings ; 
there was little Furniture left in the Houses, except Bearskins, some painted feathers, & 
Knicknacks— in what we supposed to be a Chappie was found indeed an Idol, which might 
well enough be Worshipd without a breach of the 2d Commandt. on account of its like- 
ness to anything either in heaven or Earth — About Sun rise the Genl gave orders for the 
Town to be illuminated — & accordingly we had a glorious Bonfire of upwards of 30 
Buildings at once ; a melancholy & desperate .Spectacle to the Savages many of whom 
must have beheld it from a Neighboring hill, near which we found a party of them had 
encamped last night — And from appearances the inhabitants had left the Town but a few 
hours before the Troops arrived — Genl Hand with some light Infantry pursued them 
about a mile, when they gave him a Shot from the Top of a Ridge, & ran according to 
their Custom, as soon as the fire was return'd ; but unfortuneately for us, the Savages 
wounded three Officers, killed Six men and wounded seven more — they were pursued but 
without effect — Our next Object was their fields of Indian Corn — about 40 Acres of which 



230 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

we cut down and distroyed — In doing; this Business, a party of Indians and Tories, fired 
upon three Regimts across the River, killed one and wounded five — having compleated 
the Catastrophe of the Towns & fields, we arrived at Tioga about Sun set the same day, 
verry much fatigued having march'd not less than 34 miles in 24 hours, without rest in 
the Extreamest heat — 
14th. No news to Day 

15th. Nine Hundred chosen men under the Command of Brig : Genl Poor are ordered 
to march Tomorrow morning up the Susquehanna, to meet Genl Clinton, who is on his 
march to join Sullivans Army with his Brigade and is in some Danger of being Atackted 
by the Enemy before he can form a Junction with our IVfain Army ; This afternoon a 
Small Party of Indian's fired on some of our Men who were without the Guards after some 
Horse's and Cattle,' Killd and Sculped one man and Wounded another, a Party was sent 
out in pursuit of them but Could not come up with them — 

i6th General Poor March'd with his Detachment at 10 o'Clock A M. proceeded in two 
CoUam's up the Suscuhannah River Over very rough Ground we Incampt Near the Ruins 
of an old town Call'd Macktowanuck the Land near the River is very Good — 

17th We marchd Early this Morning Proceed 12 Miles to Owagea an Indian Town 
which was Deserted last Spring, after Planting, About the town is many Fruit Trees and 
many Plants, and Herbs, that are common in our part of the Country ; Hear is a Learge 
body of clear Intivale Covered with Grass, Our March to day Very Survear and Fatigue- 
jng Esspecelly for the Left Collom (to which I belong) as we had to pass Several Steap 
Hills, and Morasses — 

i8th We March'd Early this Morning proceeded 14 Miles to Choconant the Remains 
of a Learge Indian Town which has been likewise Abandoned this Summer, here we 
found Plenty of Cucombar's, Squashes, Turnips &c. We found About twenty Houses, 
Which we burnt our Days March has been More Survear than Yesterday, as we had bad 
Hills and Swamps, one swamp of about two Miles so Covered with Large Pines, Stand- 
ing and lying which appeard as tho' Several Haricanes had been busy among since which 
a Tremendius Groath of Bushes About twenty feet high has sprung up so very thick as to 
Render the passing through them Inpracticable by any troops but such as Nothing but 
Death can stop at sunset we were Very agreeably alarm'd by the Report of a Cannon 
up the River Which was supposed to be Genei al Clintons Evening Gun — 

19th Our Troops were put in Motion very early this Morning after Marching about 
one Mile Genl Poor Received an Exspress from General Clinton Informing him that the Lat- 
ter exspected to be hear by 10 o'Clock A M. this day in Consiquence of which we Re- 
turn'd to our Old Incampment where General Clinton, Joind us at 10 o'Clock with two- 
Thousand Men — Including Officers, Boatsman &. c. he has two Hundred and Eight 
Beautoes with Provissions Ammunition &c after Mutual Congratulations and Comple- 
ments the whole Proceeded down the River to Owagea and Incampt this Evening, the 
town of Owegea was made a burnfire of to Grace our Meating our General Course from 
Tiago to Choconant is about N. East — 

20th We have very heavy Rain to day and no tents but we are obliged to ride it out — 
2ist We March'd early Proceeded within lo miles of Tiago— 

22d We March at 6 of the Clock and at 11 arrived in Camp where we were Saluted 
With thirteen Cannon and a tune of Colonel Procters Band of Musick — 

23 We are preparing to March with all Possible Exsperdition about five oClock this 
afternoon a Very shocking acsident hapend in our Camp, a soldier Very accidently 
Dischargd a Muskett Chargd with a ball and Several Buck shott, three of Which unforti- 
nately struck Captain Kimbell of Colonel Cilleys Regiment who was standing at some 
Distance in a tent with several other officers in such a Manner that he Exspired within 10 
or 15 M units — is Universally Lemented as he was assteamed by all who knew him^— one of 
the Shott wounded a soldier, in the leg who was some Distance from the tent that Captain 
Kimble was in 

24th The Remains of the Unfortinate Captain Kimble was Inter'd at 11 oClock with 
the Honours of War — Attended by General Poor and almost all the officers of the Brigade 
with Colonel Procter's Band of Musick — the Army is Very busy in Prepairing to March — 



MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 231 

25th We find Great Difficulty in Gitting Ready to March for want of a Sufficiently 
Number of Horses to Carry our Provritions Ammunition c&c. However we are to Move 
to Morrow without fail with Twenty Seven Days Flower and live Beef Our whole force 
that will March from hear is about five Thousand Men officers Included, with nine Pieces 
of Artilery,— and three of the Anyda Warriers Arrived hear this afternoon who are a 
going on with ous as Guides — two Runner's Arrived from Colonel Broadhead at fourt Pitt 
—Informing that Colonel Broadhead is on his way with about 'Eight Hundred Men 
against the Western Indians — 

26th Our Army March at 12 oClock in the order laid down in the Plan and Order 
of March & Battle a Garrison of about three Hundred Men .left at this Place under 
the Command of Colonel Shreve the Army ProceedJd about 4 Miles and Incampt— Mr.. 
Lodge a Gentleman who Survey'd Marchd from Easton with us is going on with us in, 
Order to false an Actual Survev of the Country who measured the Road as We go on — 

27th The Army Marched at Eight oClock, our March was Very much Impeaded by 
tlie Artilery and Ammunition Waggons which we have to Clear a Road for through thick 
Woods & Difficult Defiles the Army are obligd to Halt Seven Hours to Day at one Defile 
for the Artilery & Baggage — at 10 oClock we arrived at our Incamping Ground a learge 
body of Clear Intervale where we found Seventy or Eighty Y\cres of fine Corn our March 
has not been more than 6 Miles to Day — 

28th As we had the Corn to destroy before we March it was two o'clock P. M. before 
we moved off the Ground by Reason of a High Mountain that shutt Down to the River 
so as to Render Passing with the Artilery Impractable we Wear obligd to fourd the 
River twice before we could git to Shumung with the Artilery Pack Horses and one 
Brigade the Water was so deep as Rendered fourding Very Difficult & Dangerous — A. 
Considerable quantity of lower ammunition and other Baggage was lost in the River at 10. 
in the evening the Rear of the Army arrived at Shemung where we Incampt, our March> 
to day has not been more than four Miles, a small Scout, of ours arrived to day which 
Inform'd that they Discover'd a large Incampment about 6 Miles from Chemung a small 
Party of Indians fired on a small Party of our men to day that ware setting fire to some 
Houses over the River, but did no Damage — 

2gth The army March'd at Nine o'Clock A. M. proceeded 5 Miles where our light 
Troops Discovered a line of Brestwork about eighty Rods in their frunt, which upon Re- 
coniting, was found to exstend half a mile in length on very Advantageous Ground, with 
a large Brook in frunt, the River on their Right, a High Mountain on their left, and a 
large settlement in their Rear, called Newtown ; their works ware very Artfully Mask'd 
with Green Bushes, so that I think the Discovering; them was Accadental as it Fortinate 
to us, Schurmishing on both sides Commins'd soon after we Discover'd their works which 
Continued until our Disposition was made which was as follows (viz) — The Artilery to 
form in frunt of their works, Coverd by General hand Brigade, General Poor's and Rifle- 
men to turn the Enemys left, and fall in their Rear surported by General Clintons Brigade 
General Maxwells Brigade to form a Corps Deserve ; the left flanking Division and lite 
Infantry to Persue the Enemy when they left their Works at 3 o'Clock P. M. General 
Poor's began his march by Columns from the right of regt by files we Passd a very 
thick Swamp so Coverd with bushes for near a mile that we found great difficulty in keep- 
ing in order but by Genl Poor's Great Prudauce and Good Conduct We Proceeded in 
Much better order then I Ex'.pected we could Possibly have done — after Passing this 
Swamp we Inclind to the left, crossed the Creek that runs frunt of the Enemys work : on 
both sides of this was a large Number of New Houses, but no land Cleard ; soon after 
we passd this Creek we began to assen'd the Mountain that coverd the Enemys left. 
Immediately after we began to assend the Mountain we ware surluted by a brisk fire from 
a body of the Indians who were posted on this Mountain for the Purpose of Preventing 
any troops Turning the left of their Works, at the same Instant that they began to fire on 
us, they rais'd the Indian Yell, or war hoop the Riflemen kept up a Scattering fire while 
we form'd the line of Battle which was dun Exceeding quick — we then advanced Rapped 
with fix'd Bayonetts with out fireing a Gun till we had gained the Summett of the Hill, 



232 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

which was half a mile, altho' they kept a stady fire on us all the while ; we then gave 
them a full Voley which obliged them to take to their heels, Colonel Reeds Regiment 
whis was on the left of the Brigade, was more servearly Attacted then any other part of 
the Brigade, with Prevented his advancing as fast as the Rest, as we assended the 
Mountain Lieut Cass of our Regiment Tommahawked one of the Indians with the 
Indians own Tommahawk that was slightly wounded, our Regiment being next to Col- 
onel Reed's on the left and the Colonel finding he was still very warmly Engag'd nearly 
on the same Ground he was first attacted ordered the Regiment to face to the Right about 
and moved |to his assistance, we soon Discoverd a body of Indians, Turning his Right, 
which he Turned about by a full fire from the Regiment, This was a Very seasonable, 
Relief to Colonel Reed who was the very moment we fired on them that were turning his 
right, found himself so Surrounded that he was Reduced to the Necessity of Retreating 
or Making a Desperate push with the Bayonett : the latter of which he had put in Exe- 
cution the moment we gave him Relief ; The Enemy now all left the field of Action, 
with precepitation and in Great Confusion Persued by our Light Infantry above 3 Miles 
They left a Number of their Packs, Blanketts &. c. on the Ground - half an hour before 
the Action became serious with General Poor's Brigade, the Artilery began to play upon 
their works— which soon made their works, too warm for them, we found of the Enemy 
on the field of Action 11 Indians Warriers dead and one Sqaw, took one whiteman & one 
Negro Prisoners ;*from whom we larnt that Butler Commanded hear, that Brant had all 
the Indians that Could be Mustered in the five Nations that there was about 200 Whites, 
a few of which were British Regular's Troops, it seem's that their whole force was about 
1500. — The Prisoners Inform us that their loss in killd and wounded was Very Great - 
the most of which they According to Custome carried off — our loss in General Poor's Bri- 
gade, killd and Wounded is (vizt) 





Killd 




Wounded 


Majr 





I 


Majr Titcumb 


Capt 





I 


Capt Clays 


Lieut 





I 


Died the same iiight 
Lieut MacCauUy 


Ensn 










Serjt 


I 







Privates 


2 


29 





3 32 , 

our loss in Killd and Wounded in the whole Army except Genl Poor's Brigade was Killd 
none wounded 4 Privates at Sunsett the Army Incampt on the Ground lately Occupied by 
the Enemy — 

30th The Army Remaind on the Ground to day & Destroyd a vast Quantity of Corn 
and about 40 Houses — The Army by a Request of General Sullivan Agreed to live on 
half a Pound of Beef and half a Pound of flower Pr Day, for the future as long as it 
might found Necessary our Provisions being short — This night the sick and Wounded 
together with the Ammunition Waggons, and four of our Heavyest Pieces of Artilery, 
are sent back to Ti^go by water, which will Enable the Army to proceed with much 
•Greater ease and Rapidity our Course from Shemung to hear is about N. West — 

31st We marchd at 10 o'Clock, The Right Collomn Marchd on the hill some Distance 
from the River The left Collomn and Artilery Marchd by the River The land we March'd 
■over very fine found and Destroyd Several fields of Corn and Houses, Proceeded five 
miles to where the Alliganer and Kaiyugea Branches of the River unite — on the Point 
between these two Strearaes was a Very Prity town Calld Kannawalohalla, which from 
appearances was Deserted this morning — some Boats were seen by our advanced Party, 
going up the AUagana branch, a Number of feather beds were burnt in the Houses, our 
Soldiers found Several Large Chests Buried which were fiUd with a Great Variety of 
household furniture and many other articles : after halting hear an hour we Proceeded 



MAJOR JAMES NORRIS. 233 

between the two Rivers on a fine Plain about 5 Miles and Incampt a Detachment was sent 
up the Alagana Branch in Pursuit of the Enemy. 

Sept 1st The Detachment that was sent up the River in Pursuite of the Enemy 
Returnd this Morning, they Could not Overtake the Enemy, bu t found and Destroy'd 
Several large field of Corn —The Army Marchd at 10 o'Cloclc proceeded about 4 miles 
■on a Plain then Came to what is Calld the Beir Swamp Which exstends to French Kato- 
reen g Miles, the Groth is Pine, Sprue and Hamlock— Exceeding thick, a Small River 
runs through it which we had to Cross about twenty times on each side of this Swamp is 
a Ridge of Tremendious hills — which the Colomn were obliged to march on having a rode 
to open for the Artilery we proceeded very slowly at Dark when we had got within about 
3 miles of the town we found ourselves in a Most horrid thick Mirery Swamp which Ren- 
-dered our Proceeding so Difficult that it was 10 o'Clock in the evening before we arrived 
-at the town where we found fires burning and every other appearance of the Enemys hav- 
ing left the town this afternoon, This town Consists of about 30 Houses's and their is 
a Number of fruit trees in this town. the streams we Crossed so often to Day runs 
through this town and into the Seneca Lake, the South end of which is but 3 miles from 
this town. 

2d The Army laying Still to day to Recrute and Destroy the town Corn &c a Very old 
Squaw was found in the Bushes to day who was not able to go off with the rest, who 
Informs us that Butler with the Torys went from this Place with all the Boats the day 
before yesterday, the Indian Warriers Moved off their familyes and Effects, yesterday 
Morning, and then Returned and stay'd till sun sett, she says the Squaws and young 
Indians were very loth to leve the town, but were for giving Themselves up, but the war- 
riers would not agree to it, Several Horses and Cattle were found at this Place, a Party of 
light troops were sent this morning .to Indevour to over take some of the Indians, who 
left this place last evening, but Returnd without being able to Effect it — 

3d The army March'd, at 8 o'Clock after proceeding 3 Miles over Rough Ground 
Came oppersit the end of the Lake and then found good niarching the land very fine pro- 
■ceeded 9 miles and Incampt at 4 o'Clock P. M. near the side of the Lake This lake is 
about 40 Miles in Length and from 2 to 5 miles wide and Runs Nearly North, and South — 

4th The Army march'd at 10 o'Clock proceeded 4 miles to a Small Village where we found 
■several fine fields of Corn after Destroying the Village and Corn Marchd 8 miles further 
■ and Incampt, the land we pass'd over to Day is Exceeding good — . — i 

5th The Army Marchd at lo o'Clock, proceeded 5 miles to and Indian town, Call'd 1 
Candaia or Appletown wheir is an old orchard of 60 trees and many other fruits. The 
town Consists of 20 Houses, Very Beautifully situated near the lake, in the town are three 
Sepulchres which are very Indian fine, where I suppose that some of their Chiefs are 
Deposited, at this town we found a man by the Name of Luke Sweatland who was taken 
by the Savages at Wyoming last Summer and was adopted into an Indian family in this 
town Where has lived or Rather stayd 12 months, he appeard quite overjoyd at Meeting 
some of his Acquaintance from Wyoming who are in our Army, he says that the Savages 
were very much stratend for food, from April till the corn was fitt to Rost, that his being 
kept so short on't for Provisions Prevented his attemping to Desert altho' he had frequent 
■opportunityes by being sent 20 miles to the salt Spring to make salt, which spring he says 
afforded Salt for all the Savages in this part of the Country, he says that the Indians were 
very much allarm'd, and Dejected at being beat at Newtown they told him they had a. 
Great many wounded which they sent of by Water, we Destroyd Great quantities of Corn 
here, an Exspress arrived this afternoon from Tiago by which we had Account that Abnery' 
Dearborn was Dead he was wounded at Newtown — 

6th The Horses and Cattle were so scatterd this morning that the Army Gould not 
march untill 3 o'Clock P. M. proceeded 3 miles and Incampt oppersit to where we Incampt 
on the other side of the Lake we Discover'd a Settlement where We could see some 
Indians driving Horses — 

50 



234 JOURNALS OF OFFICERS. 

7th We took up our March at 7 oCIock, proceeded 8 Miles and Came to the end of 
the Lake, where -we Exspected the enemy would give us another Battle, as they might, 
have a very great advantage over us as we forded the outlett of the Lake, when wfc 
arrived in sight of the ford we halted, and Se/eral Scouts were sent out to Reconitree, 
the Adjasent wood when we found the Course was Clear, the army passd the ford pro- 
ceeded 3 Miles by the end of the Lake, and found a small Settlement which we Destroyd. 
— the Village and proceeded 2 Miles from the Lake, and Arrived at a large town Calld 
Kannadasaga which is Considered as the Capital of the Senecas and is Calld the Senecas. 
Castle. It Consists oE about 40 Houses very Irreguallerly Situate in the Center of which 
is the Ruins of a Stockade fort and Blockhouse, here is a Considerable Number of apple- 
trees and other fruit trees and a few Acres of land Covered with English Grass. Their 
Cornfields which are very large are at some Distance from the town, we found in this- 
town a White Child about three years old which we suppose was a Captive in the Houses, 
was left a Number of things some Corn and many of their Curiosities — 

8th The army lay still to day the Riflemen were sent to Destroy a town about 8 miles, 
from hence on the west side of the lake calld Gags.i Jnghgwa we found a Number of Stacks, 
of hay not far from this town which we set fire 10— a scout of ours burnt a town to day 
'about 10 miles from this N. East on the Road to the Kauyuga Settlement Calld Shaiyus or 
large falls — 

Qth By Reason of a Rain last night the army did not march till 12 o'Clock, all our 
sick inverlids were sent back this morning to Tiago under an asscort of 50 men we pro- 
ceeded 3 miles through old fields Covered with Grass, then Entered a thick swamp. Called 
the ten mile swamp we proceeded four miles in this swamp, with Great Difficulty Crossd a 
Considerable stream of Water and Incampt — 

loth The army Marched at 8 o'Clock proceeded through the swamp and pas'd a large 
body of Clear land March'd one mile and came to a small l,ake calld Cannandaquah, we- 
fourded the Outlet of this lake, proceeded one mile and came to a Very Pretty Town 
Called Canandaquah, Consisting of about 30 Houses, Much better built Then any that I 
have seen before, Near this town Discover'd Large fields of Corn, near which we Incampt 
— Several Small partys were Orderd out to Destroy the Corn this afternoon — 

nth The Army Marched at six o'Clock 14 miles to an Indian Town call Anyayea Sit- 
uate on a body of Clear Intervale Land Near a Sm